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List of Articles

RECORD 1
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 spike protein favors ACE2 from Bovidae and Cricetidae
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luan J.;  Jin X.;  Lu Y.;  Zhang L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the recent COVID-19 public health crisis. Bat is the widely believed original host of SARS-CoV-2. However, its intermediate host before transmitting to humans is not clear. Some studies proposed pangolin, snake, or turtle as the intermediate hosts. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which determines the potential host range for SARS-CoV-2. On the basis of structural information of the complex of human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), we analyzed the affinity to S protein of the 20 key residues in ACE2 from mammal, bird, turtle, and snake. Several ACE2 proteins from Primates, Bovidae, Cricetidae, and Cetacea maintained the majority of key residues in ACE2 for associating with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. The simulated structures indicated that ACE2 proteins from Bovidae and Cricetidae were able to associate with SARS-CoV-2 RBD. We found that nearly half of the key residues in turtle, snake, and bird were changed. The simulated structures showed several key contacts with SARS-CoV-2 RBD in turtle and snake ACE2 were abolished. This study demonstrated that neither snake nor turtle was the intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2, which further reinforced the concept that the reptiles are resistant against infection of coronavirus. This study suggested that Bovidae and Cricetidae should be included in the screening of intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25817

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Diagnostic utility of clinical laboratory data determinations for patients with the severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao Y.;  Li T.;  Han M.;  Li X.;  Wu D.;  Xu Y.;  Zhu Y.;  Liu Y.;  Wang X.;  Wang L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The role of clinical laboratory data in the differential diagnosis of the severe forms of COVID-19 has not been definitely established. The aim of this study was to look for the warning index in severe COVID-19 patients. We investigated 43 adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were classified into mild group (28 patients) and severe group (15 patients). A comparison of the hematological parameters between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in interleukin-6 (IL-6), d-dimer (d-D), glucose, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (P <.05). The optimal threshold and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) of IL-6 were 24.3 and 0.795 µg/L, respectively, while those of d-D were 0.28 and 0.750 µg/L, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of IL-6 combined with d-D was 0.840. The specificity of predicting the severity of COVID-19 during IL-6 and d-D tandem testing was up to 93.3%, while the sensitivity of IL-6 and d-D by parallel test in the severe COVID-19 was 96.4%. IL-6 and d-D were closely related to the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in the adult patients, and their combined detection had the highest specificity and sensitivity for early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients, which has important clinical value.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25770

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Is Pakistan prepared for the COVID-19 epidemic? A questionnaire-based survey
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Khan M.;  Maqsood K.;  Hussain T.;  Noor-ul-Huda ;  Zeeshan M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is a pandemic that began in China in December 2019. World health organization (WHO) has expressed fears that Pakistan might emerge as the next epicenter of this pandemic. We hypothesize that at present the Pakistani masses are not prepared to face any threat of a looming epidemic. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the basic knowledge of educational and health care workers (HCWs) regarding COVID-19, its control, and prevention. Knowledge about origin, symptoms, and spread of viral infection was assessed. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-designed questionnaire was distributed among 302 HCWs including physicians (10.9%), nurses (1.32%), lab staff (1.65%), and academic individuals including faculty and students (86.42%) of different organizations. Results were analyzed using the χ2 test. Obtained results validate our null hypothesis that Pakistani masses are not well aware of the COVID-19 and strategies for the prevention and control of infection. The study concluded that individuals belonging to the front-line workers and high literacy groups are not prepared for the alarming situation in the country. Effectual implementation of infection control programs should be practiced, and it depends on awareness, training, and cooperation of individuals.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25814

RECORD 4
TITLE
  COVID-19 and telemedicine: Immediate action required for maintaining healthcare providers well-being
AUTHOR NAMES
  Moazzami B.;  Razavi-Khorasani N.;  Dooghaie Moghadam A.;  Farokhi E.;  Rezaei N.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 126 Article Number: 104345. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The well-being of the health care workforce is the cornerstone of every well-functioning health system. As a result of the pandemic, medical healthcare providers are under an enormous amount of workload pressure along with increased total health expenditures. The overwhelming burden of COVID-19 illness could lead to caregiver burnout. Direct-to-consumer telemedicine can enable patients to connect with their healthcare provider at a distance. This virtual platform could be used by smartphones or webcam-enabled computers and allows physicians to effectively screen patients with early signs of COVID-19 before they reach to hospital.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104345

RECORD 5
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and risk assessment of newborns born to mothers with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang P.;  Wang X.;  Liu P.;  Wei C.;  He B.;  Zheng J.;  Zhao D.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 127 Article Number: 104356. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and other international areas. Objective: Here, we report the clinical characteristics of the newborns delivered by SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women. Methods: We prospectively collected and analyzed the clinical features, laboratory data and outcomes of 7 newborns delivered by SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University during January 20 to January 29, 2020. Results: 4 of the 7 newborns were late preterm with gestational age between 36 weeks and 37 weeks, and the other 3 were full-term infants. The average birth weight was 2096 ± 660 g. All newborns were born without asphyxia. 2 premature infants performed mild grunting after birth, but relieved rapidly with non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) ventilation. 3 cases had chest X-ray, 1 was normal and 2 who were supported by nCPAP presented mild neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Samples of pharyngeal swab in 6 cases, amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood in 4 cases were tested by qRT-PCR, and there was no positive result of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in all cases. Conclusions: The current data show that the infection of SARS-CoV-2 in late pregnant women does not cause adverse outcomes in their newborns, however, it is necessary to separate newborns from mothers immediately to avoid the potential threats.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104356

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Challenges of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao Q.;  He Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 127 Article Number: 104358. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104358

RECORD 7
TITLE
  Lung transplantation as therapeutic option in acute respiratory distress syndrome for COVID-19-related pulmonary fibrosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.-Y.;  Qiao K.;  Liu F.;  Wu B.;  Xu X.;  Jiao G.-Q.;  Lu R.-G.;  Li H.-X.;  Zhao J.;  Huang J.;  Yang Y.;  Lu X.-J.;  Li J.-S.;  Jiang S.-Y.;  Wang D.-P.;  Hu C.-X.;  Wang G.-L.;  Huang D.-X.;  Jiao G.-H.;  Wei D.;  Ye S.-G.;  Huang J.-A.;  Zhou L.;  Zhang X.-Q.;  He J.-X.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Critical patients with the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), even those whose nucleic acid test results had turned negative and those receiving maximal medical support, have been noted to progress to irreversible fatal respiratory failure. Lung transplantation (LT) as the sole therapy for end-stage pulmonary fibrosis related to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been considered as the ultimate rescue therapy for these patients. METHODS: From February 10 to March 10, 2020, three male patients were urgently assessed and listed for transplantation. After conducting a full ethical review and after obtaining assent from the family of the patients, we performed three LT procedures for COVID-19 patients with illness durations of >1 month and extremely high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores. RESULTS: Two of the three recipients survived post-LT and started participating in a rehabilitation program. Pearls of the LT team collaboration and perioperative logistics were summarized and continually improved. The pathological results of the explanted lungs were concordant with the critical clinical manifestation, and provided insight towards better understanding of the disease. Government health affair systems, virology detection tools, and modern communication technology all play key roles towards the survival of the patients and their rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Lung transplantation can be performed in end-stage patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19-related pulmonary fibrosis. If confirmed positive-turned-negative virology status without organ dysfunction, LT provided the final option for these patients to avoid certain death, with proper protection of transplant surgeons and medical staffs. By ensuring instant seamless care for both patients and medical teams, the goal of reducing the mortality rate and salvaging the lives of patients with COVID-19 can be attained.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000839

RECORD 8
TITLE
  An Analysis of Spatiotemporal Pattern for COIVD-19 in China based on Space-Time Cube
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mo C.;  Tan D.;  Mai T.;  Bei C.;  Qin J.;  Pang W.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  This study seeks to examine and analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of COVID-19 outbreaks and identify the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and changing trends of cases. Hence, local outlier analysis and emerging spatiotemporal hot spot analysis were performed to analyze the spatiotemporal clustering pattern and cold\hot spot trends of COVID-19 cases based on space-time cube during the period from January 23, 2020 to February 24, 2020. The main findings are as follows. 1) The outbreak had spread rapidly throughout the country within a short time and the current totality incidence rate has decreased. 2) The spatiotemporal distribution of cases was uneven. In terms of the spatiotemporal clustering pattern, Wuhan and Shiyan city were the center as both cities had high-high clustering pattern with a surrounding unstable multiple type pattern in partial areas of Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hunan provinces, and Chongqing city. Those regions are continuously in the hot spot on the spatiotemporal tendency. 3) The spatiotemporal analysis technology based on the space-time cube can analyze comprehensively the spatiotemporal pattern of epidemiological data and produce a visual output of the consequences, which can reflect intuitively the distribution and trend of data in space-time. Therefore, the Chinese government should strengthen the prevention and control efforts in a targeted manner to cope with a highly changeable situation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25834

RECORD 9
TITLE
  A comparative-descriptive analysis of clinical characteristics in 2019-Coronavirus-infected children and adults
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han Y.-N.;  Feng Z.-W.;  Sun L.-N.;  Ren X.-X.;  Wang H.;  Xue Y.-M.;  Wang Y.;  Fang Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Acute respiratory disease (ARD) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has rapidly spread throughout China. Children and adults show a different clinical course. The purpose of the current study is to comparatively analyze the clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV infection in children and adults and to explore the possible causes for the discrepancies present. The medical records of 25 adults and 7 children confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV ARD were reviewed retrospectively. All children were family clusters. The total adult patients were differentiated into: the local residents of Wuhan, a history of travel to Wuhan and direct contact with people from Wuhan. The numbers were 14 (56%), 10 (40%) & 1 (4%), respectively. The median incubation period of children and adults was 5 days (range 3-12 days) and 4 days (range 2-12 days), respectively. Diarrhoea and/or vomiting (57.1%) were more common in children, whereas for adults it was myalgia or fatigue (52%). On admission, the percentage of children having pneumonia (5, 71.4%) was roughly the same as adults (20, 80%). 20% of adults had leucopoenia, but leukocytosis was more frequently in children (28.6%, P=0.014). A higher number of children had elevated creatine kinase isoenzyme (57.1% vs. 4%, P=0.004). Antiviral therapy was given to all adult patients but to none of the children. In summary, knowledge of these differences between children and adults will not only be helpful for the clinical diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but also for a future discussion on age-specific coronavirus infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25835

RECORD 10
TITLE
  Structural Variations in Human ACE2 may Influence its Binding with SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hussain M.;  Jabeen N.;  Raza F.;  Shabbir S.;  Baig A.A.;  Amanullah A.;  Aziz B.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is unarguably the most fearsome compared to the earlier outbreaks caused by other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Human ACE2 is now established as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Where variations in the viral spike protein in turn lead to the cross species transmission of the virus, genetic variations in the host receptor ACE2, may also contribute to the susceptibility and/or resistance against the viral infection. This study aims to explore the binding of the proteins encoded by different human ACE2 allelic variants with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Briefly, coding variants of ACE2 corresponding to the reported binding sites for its attachment with coronavirus spike protein were selected and molecular models of these variants were constructed by homology modelling. The models were then superimposed over the native ACE2 and ACE2-spike protein complex, to observe structural changes in the ACE2 variants and their intermolecular interactions with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein respectively. Despite strong overall structural similarities, spatial orientation of the key interacting residues varies in the ACE2 variants compared to the wild type molecule. Most ACE2 variants showed similar binding affinity for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as observed in the complex structure of wild type ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. However, ACE2 alleles, rs73635825 (S19P) and rs143936283 (E329G) showed noticeable variations in their intermolecular interactions with the viral spike protein. In summary, our data provide structural basis of potential resistance against SARS-CoV-2 infection driven by ACE2 allelic variants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25832

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19: a single center experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luo P.;  Liu Y.;  Qiu L.;  Liu X.;  Liu D.;  Li J.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab (TCZ), a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-6 (IL-6), emerged as an alternative treatment for COVID-19 patients with a risk of cytokine storms recently. In the present study, we aimed to discuss the treatment response of TCZ therapy in COVID-19 infected patients. METHODS: The demographic, treatment, laboratory parameters of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 before and after TCZ therapy, and clinical outcome in the 15 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively assessed. RESULTS: Totally 15 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. 2 of them were moderately ill, 6 were seriously ill and 7 were critically ill. The TCZ was used in combination with methylprednisolone (MP) in 8 patients. 5 patients received the TCZ administration twice or more. Although TCZ treatment ameliorated the increased CRP in all patients rapidly, for the 4 critically ill patients who received only single dose of TCZ, 3 of them (No. 1, 2, and 3) still dead and the CRP level in the rest 1 patient (No. 7) failed to return to normal range with a clinical outcome of disease aggravation. Serum IL-6 level tended to further spiked firstly and then decreased after TCZ therapy in 10 patients. A persistent and dramatic increase of IL-6 was observed in these 4 patients who failed treatment. CONCLUSION: TCZ appears to be an effective treatment option in COVID-19 patients with a risk of cytokine storms. And for these critically ill patients with elevated IL-6, repeated dose of the TCZ is recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25801

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Analyzing Situational Awareness through Public Opinion to Predict Adoption of Social Distancing Amid Pandemic COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qazi A.;  Qazi J.;  Naseer K.;  Zeeshan M.;  Hardaker G.;  Maitama J.Z.;  Haruna K.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 pandemic has affected over 100 countries in a matter of weeks. People’s response towards social distancing in the emerging pandemic is uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the influence of information (formal and informal) sources on situational awareness of the public for adopting health-protective behaviors such as social distancing. For this purpose, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted. The hypothesis proposed suggests that adoption of social distancing practices is an outcome of situational awareness which is achieved by the information sources. Results suggest that information sources formal (p=0.001) and informal (p=0.007) were found to be significantly related to perceived understanding. Findings also indicate that social distancing is significantly influenced by situational awareness p=0.000. It can, therefore, be concluded that increase situational awareness in times of public health crisis using formal information sources can significantly increase the adoption of protective health behavior and in turn contain the spread of infectious diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25840

RECORD 13
TITLE
  Comment on “Organ-protective Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 and its Effect on the Prognosis of COVID-19”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cure E.;  Cumhur Cure M.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  We read with great interest the article by Cheng H et al. The authors mentioned that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is protective against novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We would like to explain how cytosolic pH increases the COVID-19 infection by affecting the ACE2. In addition, we would like to mention that amiloride, which increases the cytosolic pH, can be used in the COVID-19 treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25848

RECORD 14
TITLE
  COVID-19 and Lessons to be Learned from Prior Coronavirus Outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deming M.E.;  Chen W.H.
SOURCE
  Annals of the American Thoracic Society (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202002-149PS

RECORD 15
TITLE
  Mask is the possible key for self-isolation in COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou Z.-G.;  Yue D.-S.;  Mu C.-L.;  Zhang L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Ma’s research shows N95 masks, medical masks, even homemade masks could block at least 90% of the virus in aerosols1 . This study puts the debate on whether the public wear masks back on the table. Recently Science interviewed Dr. Gao, director-general of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25846

RECORD 16
TITLE
  Patterns of heart Injury in COVID – 19 and relation to outcome
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mishra A.K.;  Sahu K.K.;  Lal A.;  Sargent J.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  We read with much interest the article “Analysis of heart injury laboratory parameters in 273 COVID-19 patients in one hospital in Wuhan, China” by Han et al as published in March 2020. In this retrospective, single center study authors have discussed the role of acute cardiovascular injury marker including CK-MB, Myoglobulin, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and NT- proBNP on the outcome of 273 patients with COVID-19 disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25847

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Reply to Comments on ‘Co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV in a patient in Wuhan city, China’
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu F.;  Cao Y.;  Xu S.;  Zhou M.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 8 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronovirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been ranging in China throughout the world now. The World Health Organiztion declared the COVID-19 crisis a global pandemic. The previous our case of co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV has raised the interests of the HIV research community1 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25838

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Role of Nonstructural Proteins in the Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  da Silva S.J.R.;  da Silva C.T.A.;  Mendes R.P.G.;  Pena L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 9 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  We read with great interest the study authored by Angeletti et al. regarding the role of nonstructural proteins nsp2 and nsp3 in the pathogenesis of COVID-191 . COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and is caused by a novel viral variant belonging to the viral variant belonging to the Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-rCoV) species of subgenus Sarbecovirus, genus Betacoronavirus, family Coronaviridae and named SARS-CoV-22 . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25858

RECORD 19
TITLE
  False-negative of RT-PCR and prolonged nucleic acid conversion in COVID-19: Rather than recurrence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao A.T.;  Tong Y.X.;  Zhang S.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 9 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic cause by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens the world. We read with interest the recent report by Li et al. that included 610 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). They reported a high false-negative rate of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for SARS-CoV-2 detection. In addition, recent report regarding SARS-CoV-2 “turn positive” in recovered cases with COVID-19 were published. Here, we studied the characteristics of nucleic acid conversion for SARS-CoV-2 from 70 COVID-19 patients. We found that 15 (21.4%) patients experienced a “turn positive” of nucleic acid detection by RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 after two consecutive negative results, which may be related to the false negative of RT-PCR test and prolonged nucleic acid conversion This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25855

RECORD 20
TITLE
  Global approaches for global challenges: The possible support of rehabilitation in the management of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Coraci D.;  Fusco A.;  Frizziero A.;  Giovannini S.;  Biscotti L.;  Padua L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25829

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Response to: Sore throat in COVID-19: comment on “Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A single arm meta-analysis”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun P.;  Ren J.;  Li K.;  Qie S.;  Liu Z.;  Xi J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25818

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Sore throat in COVID-19: Comment on “Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A single arm meta-analysis”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lovato A.;  Rossettini G.;  de Filippis C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25815

RECORD 23
TITLE
  An alteration of the dopamine synthetic pathway is possibly involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nataf S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25826

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Potential utilities of mask-wearing and instant hand hygiene for fighting SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ma Q.-X.;  Shan H.;  Zhang H.-L.;  Li G.-M.;  Yang R.-M.;  Chen J.-M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The surge of patients in the pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 may overwhelm the medical systems of many countries. Mask-wearing and handwashing can slow the spread of the virus, but currently, masks are in shortage in many countries, and timely handwashing is often impossible. In this study, the efficacy of three types of masks and instant hand wiping was evaluated using the avian influenza virus to mock the coronavirus. Virus quantification was performed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Previous studies on mask-wearing were reviewed. The results showed that instant hand wiping using a wet towel soaked in water containing 1.00% soap powder, 0.05% active chlorine, or 0.25% active chlorine from sodium hypochlorite removed 98.36%, 96.62%, and 99.98% of the virus from hands, respectively. N95 masks, medical masks, and homemade masks made of four-layer kitchen paper and one-layer cloth could block 99.98%, 97.14%, and 95.15% of the virus in aerosols. Medical mask-wearing which was supported by many studies was opposed by other studies possibly due to erroneous judgment. With these data, we propose the approach of mask-wearing plus instant hand hygiene (MIH) to slow the exponential spread of the virus. This MIH approach has been supported by the experiences of seven countries in fighting against COVID-19. Collectively, a simple approach to slow the exponential spread of SARS-CoV-2 was proposed with the support of experiments, literature review, and control experiences.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25805

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 225 patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary Hospital near Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li R.;  Tian J.;  Yang F.;  Lv L.;  Yu J.;  Sun G.;  Ma Y.;  Yang X.;  Ding J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 127 Article Number: 104363. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104363

RECORD 26
TITLE
  Whole genome and phylogenetic analysis of two SARSCoV-2 strains isolated in Italy in January and February 2020: Additional clues on multiple introductions and further circulation in Europe
AUTHOR NAMES
  Stefanelli P.;  Faggioni G.;  Lo Presti A.;  Fiore S.;  Marchi A.;  Benedetti E.;  Fabiani C.;  Anselmo A.;  Ciammaruconi A.;  Fortunato A.;  de Santis R.;  Fillo S.;  Capobianchi M.R.;  Gismondo M.R.;  Ciervo A.;  Rezza G.;  Castrucci M.R.;  Lista F.;  Di Martino A.;  Facchini M.;  Mancini F.;  Puzelli S.;  Di Mario G.;  Calzoletti L.;  Fontana S.;  Venturi G.;  Fortuna C.;  Marsili G.;  Amendola A.;  Barbanti F.;  Scaturro M.;  Fortini D.;  Di Luca M.;  Toma L.;  Severini F.;  Pezzotti P.;  Bella A.;  Riccardo F.
SOURCE
  Eurosurveillance (2020) 25:13. Date of Publication: 2 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Whole genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from two patients, a Chinese tourist visiting Rome and an Italian, were compared with sequences from Europe and elsewhere. In a phylogenetic tree, the Italian patient’s sequence clustered with sequences from Germany while the tourist’s sequence clustered with other European sequences. Some additional European sequences in the tree segregated outside the two clusters containing the patients’ sequences. This suggests multiple SARS-CoV-2 introductions in Europe or virus evolution during circulation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.13.2000305

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 10 children with coronavirus disease 2019 in Changsha, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tan Y.-P.;  Tan B.-Y.;  Pan J.;  Wu J.;  Zeng S.-Z.;  Wei H.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 127 Article Number: 104353. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus, first reported in Wuhan, China, is spreading around the world. Information on the characteristics of children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. Methods: In this retrospective study, we recruited 10 children infected with SARS-COV-2 from January 27 to March 10, 2020, in Changsha, China. We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and high-resolution CT findings for these children. Qualitative descriptive analysis was used to describe the key results. Results: Ten children were included. Three were male and seven were female. Three were from Wuhan, Hubei Province, and seven were from Changsha. All had a history of close contact with adults with COVID-19 before the onset of disease. Clinical manifestations included fever in four cases, respiratory symptoms in three cases, febrile convulsions in one case, vomiting in one case, abdominal pain in one case, and asymptomatic infection in two cases. All the children tested positive for nucleic acid in throat swabs at admission. Stool swabs of three cases were positive for nucleic acid after several days of fever. In nine children, blood routine results were normal, whereas in one case the white blood cell count was elevated. In four cases, CT findings of the lungs showed light ground-glass opacities, one case showed changes similar to bronchopneumonia, and the remaining cases were normal. All were treated with symptomatic support without complications. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that intrafamily transmission may be the main form of transmission of COVID-19 in children, and persistent intestinal excretion of virus is another characteristic among children. The results of stool swab tests should be considered for discharge and release from isolation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104353

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Review of Emerging Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Barlow A.;  Landolf K.M.;  Barlow B.;  Yeung S.Y.A.;  Heavner J.J.;  Claassen C.W.;  Heavner M.S.
SOURCE
  Pharmacotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 7 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacological management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immune modulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2398

RECORD 29
TITLE
  COVID-19 Outbreak: An Overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ciotti M.;  Angeletti S.;  Minieri M.;  Giovannetti M.;  Benvenuto D.;  Pascarella S.;  Sagnelli C.;  Bianchi M.;  Bernardini S.;  Ciccozzi M.
SOURCE
  Chemotherapy (2020) (1-9). Date of Publication: 7 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In late December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan, Hubei Province. SUMMARY: A few days later, the genome of a novel coronavirus was released (http://viro-logical.org/t/novel-2019-coronavirus-genome/319; Wuhan-Hu-1, GenBank accession No. MN908947) and made publicly available to the scientific community. This novel coronavirus was provisionally named 2019-nCoV, now SARS-CoV-2 according to the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Betacoronavirus genus, subgenus Sarbecovirus. Since its discovery, the virus has spread globally, causing thousands of deaths and having an enormous impact on our health systems and economies. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the epidemiology, phylogenesis, homology modeling, and molecular diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2. Key Messages: Phylogenetic analysis is essential to understand viral evolution, whereas homology modeling is important for vaccine strategies and therapies. Highly sensitive and specific diagnostic assays are key to case identification, contact tracing, identification of the animal source, and implementation of control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507423

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kim Y.-I.;  Kim S.-G.;  Kim S.-M.;  Kim E.-H.;  Park S.-J.;  Yu K.-M.;  Chang J.-H.;  Kim E.J.;  Lee S.;  Casel M.A.B.;  Um J.;  Song M.-S.;  Jeong H.W.;  Lai V.D.;  Kim Y.;  Chin B.S.;  Park J.-S.;  Chung K.-H.;  Foo S.-S.;  Poo H.;  Mo I.-P.;  Lee O.-J.;  Webby R.J.;  Jung J.U.;  Choi Y.K.
SOURCE
  Cell host & microbe (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and rapidly spread worldwide. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 dissemination, understanding the in vivo characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 is a high priority. We report a ferret model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission that recapitulates aspects of human disease. SARS-CoV-2-infected ferrets exhibit elevated body temperatures and virus replication. Although fatalities were not observed, SARS-CoV-2-infected ferrets shed virus in nasal washes, saliva, urine, and feces up to 8 days post-infection. At 2 days post-contact, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all naive direct contact ferrets. Furthermore, a few naive indirect contact ferrets were positive for viral RNA, suggesting airborne transmission. Viral antigens were detected in nasal turbinate, trachea, lungs, and intestine with acute bronchiolitis present in infected lungs. Thus, ferrets represent an infection and transmission animal model of COVID-19 that may facilitate development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics and vaccines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023

RECORD 31
TITLE
  COVID-19 and Urology: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
AUTHOR NAMES
  Puliatti S.;  Eissa A.;  Eissa R.;  Amato M.;  Mazzone E.;  Dell’Oglio P.;  Sighinolfi M.C.;  Zoeir A.;  Micali S.;  Bianchi G.;  Patel V.;  Wiklund P.;  Coelho R.F.;  Bernhard J.-C.;  Dasgupta P.;  Mottrie A.;  Rocco B.
SOURCE
  BJU international (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Covid-19 pandemic is the newest and biggest global health threat worldwide. Medical and surgical priorities were changed dramatically at the time of this pandemic. Postponement for all outpatient and elective activities to save facilities and resources for urgent cases and Covid-19 patients was adopted by most of hospitals in the affected countries. Over the coming weeks healthcare workers including urologists will be facing increasingly difficult challenges and consequently they should adopt sufficient protection strategies to guard against infection when dealing with COVID-19 patients. In this review we discussed the impact of Covid-19 on global health, urinary tract and uro-oncologic surgeries . Additionally, we reviewed some of the available recommendations reported on oncological surgeries practice during this pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15071

RECORD 32
TITLE
  The role of CT in case ascertainment and management of COVID-19 pneumonia in the UK: insights from high-incidence regions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chua F.;  Armstrong-James D.;  Desai S.R.;  Barnett J.;  Kouranos V.;  Kon O.M.;  José R.;  Vancheeswaran R.;  Loebinger M.R.;  Wong J.;  Cutino-Moguel M.T.;  Morgan C.;  Ledot S.;  Lams B.;  Yip W.H.;  Li L.;  Lee Y.C.;  Draper A.;  Kho S.S.;  Renzoni E.;  Ward K.;  Periselneris J.;  Grubnic S.;  Lipman M.;  Wells A.U.;  Devaraj A.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30132-6

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sabino-Silva R.;  Jardim A.C.G.;  Siqueira W.L.
SOURCE
  Clinical oral investigations (2020) 24:4 (1619-1621). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03248-x

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Can angiotensin receptor-blocking drugs perhaps be harmful in the COVID-19 pandemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Esler M.;  Esler D.
SOURCE
  Journal of hypertension (2020) 38:5 (781-782). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002450

RECORD 35
TITLE
  Preparedness and Lessons Learned from the Novel Coronavirus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gudi S.K.;  Tiwari K.K.
SOURCE
  The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine (2020) 11:2 (108-112). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  In a short span, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has captured global consciousness by significantly affecting the day-to-day life of humans and emerged as a public health emergency. Undoubtedly, it indicates that lessons learnt from the past epidemics of coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), had not enough and thus left us ill-prepared to deal with the challenges that COVID-19 pandemic is currently posing. Currently, as a global pandemic, COVID-19 poses major challenges and thus forcing the entire world to lockdown. However, the disease has prepared humankind in facing such outbreaks at present as well as in the future. Besides, it has also taught numerous lessons that are worth considering and implementing to make the world a better reality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijoem.2020.1977

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV) infection by a highly potent pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor targeting its spike protein that harbors a high capacity to mediate membrane fusion
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xia S.;  Liu M.;  Wang C.;  Xu W.;  Lan Q.;  Feng S.;  Qi F.;  Bao L.;  Du L.;  Liu S.;  Qin C.;  Sun F.;  Shi Z.;  Zhu Y.;  Jiang S.;  Lu L.
SOURCE
  Cell research (2020) 30:4 (343-355). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan, China has posed a serious threat to global public health. To develop specific anti-coronavirus therapeutics and prophylactics, the molecular mechanism that underlies viral infection must first be defined. Therefore, we herein established a SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein-mediated cell-cell fusion assay and found that SARS-CoV-2 showed a superior plasma membrane fusion capacity compared to that of SARS-CoV. We solved the X-ray crystal structure of six-helical bundle (6-HB) core of the HR1 and HR2 domains in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein S2 subunit, revealing that several mutated amino acid residues in the HR1 domain may be associated with enhanced interactions with the HR2 domain. We previously developed a pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor, EK1, which targeted the HR1 domain and could inhibit infection by divergent human coronaviruses tested, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Here we generated a series of lipopeptides derived from EK1 and found that EK1C4 was the most potent fusion inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 S protein-mediated membrane fusion and pseudovirus infection with IC50s of 1.3 and 15.8 nM, about 241- and 149-fold more potent than the original EK1 peptide, respectively. EK1C4 was also highly effective against membrane fusion and infection of other human coronavirus pseudoviruses tested, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, as well as SARSr-CoVs, and potently inhibited the replication of 5 live human coronaviruses examined, including SARS-CoV-2. Intranasal application of EK1C4 before or after challenge with HCoV-OC43 protected mice from infection, suggesting that EK1C4 could be used for prevention and treatment of infection by the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging SARSr-CoVs.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0305-x

RECORD 37
TITLE
  Covid-19: the new pathology caused by a coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ramos C.
SOURCE
  Salud publica de Mexico (2020) 62:2 (225-227). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/11276

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Thalidomide against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19): A medicine with a thousand faces
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dastan F.;  Tabarsi P.;  Marjani M.;  Moniri A.;  Hashemian S.M.;  Tavakoli-Ardakani M.;  Saffaei A.
SOURCE
  Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2020) 19:1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2020.113369.14259

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tai W.;  He L.;  Zhang X.;  Pu J.;  Voronin D.;  Jiang S.;  Zhou Y.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Cellular and Molecular Immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4

RECORD 40
TITLE
  Organ-protective effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its effect on the prognosis of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng H.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  This article reviews the correlation between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and severe risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the possible mechanisms. ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R regulatory axis and the ACE2-Ang 1-7-MasR counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in humans. ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. ACE2 antagonizes the activation of the classical RAS system and protects against organ damage, protecting against hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Similar to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also uses the ACE2 receptor to invade human alveolar epithelial cells. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical high-mortality disease, and ACE2 has a protective effect on this type of acute lung injury. Current research shows that the poor prognosis of patients with COVID-19 is related to factors such as sex (male), age (>60 years), underlying diseases (hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), secondary ARDS, and other relevant factors. Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on chronic underlying diseases and ARDS, the development of spike protein-based vaccine and drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25785

RECORD 41
TITLE
  Stability issues of RT-PCR testing of SARS-CoV-2 for hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Yao L.;  Li J.;  Chen L.;  Song Y.;  Cai Z.;  Yang C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In this study, we collected a total of 610 hospitalized patients from Wuhan between February 2, 2020, and February 17, 2020. We reported a potentially high false negative rate of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the 610 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the 2019 outbreak. We also found that the RT-PCR results from several tests at different points were variable from the same patients during the course of diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Our results indicate that in addition to the emphasis on RT-PCR testing, clinical indicators such as computed tomography images should also be used not only for diagnosis and treatment but also for isolation, recovery/discharge, and transferring for hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the current epidemic. These results suggested the urgent needs for the standard of procedures of sampling from different anatomic sites, sample transportation, optimization of RT-PCR, serology diagnosis/screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and distinct diagnosis from other respiratory diseases such as fluenza infections as well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25786

RECORD 42
TITLE
  A twin challenge to handle: COVID-19 with pregnancy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sahu K.K.;  Mishra A.K.;  Lal A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25784

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Wang Y.;  Chen Y.;  Qin Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  By 27 February 2020, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused 82 623 confirmed cases and 2858 deaths globally, more than severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (8273 cases, 775 deaths) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (1139 cases, 431 deaths) caused in 2003 and 2013, respectively. COVID-19 has spread to 46 countries internationally. Total fatality rate of COVID-19 is estimated at 3.46% by far based on published data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). Average incubation period of COVID-19 is around 6.4 days, ranges from 0 to 24 days. The basic reproductive number (R0) of COVID-19 ranges from 2 to 3.5 at the early phase regardless of different prediction models, which is higher than SARS and MERS. A study from China CDC showed majority of patients (80.9%) were considered asymptomatic or mild pneumonia but released large amounts of viruses at the early phase of infection, which posed enormous challenges for containing the spread of COVID-19. Nosocomial transmission was another severe problem. A total of 3019 health workers were infected by 12 February 2020, which accounted for 3.83% of total number of infections, and extremely burdened the health system, especially in Wuhan. Limited epidemiological and clinical data suggest that the disease spectrum of COVID-19 may differ from SARS or MERS. We summarize latest literatures on genetic, epidemiological, and clinical features of COVID-19 in comparison to SARS and MERS and emphasize special measures on diagnosis and potential interventions. This review will improve our understanding of the unique features of COVID-19 and enhance our control measures in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25748

RECORD 44
TITLE
  Phylogenetic analysis of the first four SARS-CoV-2 cases in Chile
AUTHOR NAMES
  Castillo A.E.;  Parra B.;  Tapia P.;  Acevedo A.;  Lagos J.;  Andrade W.;  Arata L.;  Leal G.;  Barra G.;  Tambley C.;  Tognarelli J.;  Bustos P.;  Ulloa S.;  Fasce R.;  Fernández J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current pandemic caused by the new coronavirus is a worldwide public health concern. To aboard this emergency, and like never before, scientific groups around the world have been working in a fast and coordinated way to get the maximum of information about this virus when it has been almost 3 months since the first cases were detected in Wuhan province in China. The complete genome sequences of around 450 isolates are available, and studies about similarities and differences among them and with the close related viruses that caused similar epidemics in this century. In this work, we studied the complete genome of the first four cases of the new coronavirus disease in Chile, from patients who traveled to Europe and Southeast Asia. Our findings reveal at least two different viral variants entries to Chilean territory, coming from Europe and Asia. We also sub-classified the isolates into variants according to punctual mutations in the genome. Our work contributes to global information about transmission dynamics and the importance to take control measures to stop the spread of the infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25797

RECORD 45
TITLE
  Immune responses and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 during an outbreak in Iran: Comparison with SARS and MERS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rokni M.;  Ghasemi V.;  Tavakoli Z.
SOURCE
  Reviews in Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19, an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, an important pathogen for humans. There is an urgent need to better understand this new virus and to develop ways to control its spread. In Iran, the first case of the COVID-19 was reported after spread from China and other countries. Fever, cough, and fatigue were the most common symptoms of this virus. In worldwide, the incubation period of COVID-19 was 3 to 7 days and approximately 80% of infections are mild or asymptomatic, 15% are severe, requiring oxygen, and 5% are critical infections, requiring ventilation. To mount an antiviral response, the innate immune system recognizes molecular structures that are produced by the invasion of the virus. COVID-19 infection induces IgG antibodies against N protein that can be detected by serum as early as day 4 after the onset of disease and with most patients seroconverting by day 14. Laboratory evidence of clinical patients showed that a specific T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2 is important for the recognition and killing of infected cells, particularly in the lungs of infected individuals. At present, there is no specific antiviral therapy for COVID-19 and the main treatments are supportive. In this review, we investigated the innate and acquired immune responses in patients who recovered from COVID-19, which could inform the design of prophylactic vaccines and immunotherapy for the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2107

RECORD 46
TITLE
  Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and lymphocyte-to-C-reactive protein ratio in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lagunas-Rangel F.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25819

RECORD 47
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Moros M.J.S.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  Van Der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Castell M.S.;  Pozol F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Eurosurveillance (2020) 25:9 Article Number: 2000178. Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 48
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) community testing team in Scotland: A 14-day review, 6 to 20 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mark K.;  Steel K.;  Stevenson J.;  Evans C.;  McCormick D.;  Willocks L.;  McCallum A.;  Jones L.;  Johannessen I.;  Templeton K.;  Koch O.;  Mackintosh C.
SOURCE
  Eurosurveillance (2020) 25:12 Article Number: 2000217. Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In response to the outbreak of COVID-19, we set up a team to carry out sampling in the community. This enabled individuals to remain in self-isolation in their own homes and to prevent healthcare settings and services from being overwhelmed by admissions for sampling of suspected cases. There is evidence that this is a cost effective, safe and necessary service to complement COVID-19 testing in hospitals.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.12.2000217

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: A bibliometric analysis and review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lou J.;  Tian S.-J.;  Niu S.-M.;  Kang X.-Q.;  Lian H.-X.;  Zhang L.-X.;  Zhang J.-J.
SOURCE
  European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences (2020) 24:6 (3411-3421). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: On December 8, 2019, many cases of pneumonia with unknown etiology were first reported in Wuhan, China, subsequently identified as a novel coronavirus infection aroused worldwide concern. As the outbreak is ongoing, more and more researchers focused interest on the COVID-19. Therefore, we retrospectively anazlyzed the publications about COVID-19 to summarize the research hotspots and make a review, to provide reference for researchers in the world. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a search in PubMed using the keywords “COVID-19” from inception to March 1, 2020. Identified and analyzed the data included title, corresponding author, language, publication time, publication type, research focus. RESULTS: 183 publications published from 2020 January 14 to 2020 February 29 were included in the study. The first corresponding authors of the publications were from 20 different countries. Among them, 78 (42.6%) from the hospital, 64 (35%) from the university and 39 (21.3%) from the research institution. All the publications were published in 80 different journals. Journal of Medical Virology published most of them (n=25). 60 (32.8%) were original research, 29 (15.8%) were review, 20 (10.9%) were short communications. 68 (37.2%) epidemiology, 49 (26.8%) virology and 26 (14.2%) clinical features. CONCLUSIONS: According to our review, China has provided a large number of research data for various research fields, during the outbreak of COVID-19. Most of the findings play an important role in preventing and controlling the epidemic around the world. With research on the COVID-19 still booming, new vaccine and effective medicine for COVID-19 will be expected to come out in the near future with the joint efforts of researchers worldwide.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202003_20712

RECORD 50
TITLE
  COVID-19: A promising cure for the global panic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Vellingiri B.;  Jayaramayya K.;  Iyer M.;  Narayanasamy A.;  Govindasamy V.;  Giridharan B.;  Ganesan S.;  Venugopal A.;  Venkatesan D.;  Ganesan H.;  Rajagopalan K.;  Rahman P.K.S.M.;  Cho S.-G.;  Kumar N.S.;  Subramaniam M.D.
SOURCE
  Science of the Total Environment (2020) 725 Article Number: 138277. Date of Publication: 10 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. The outbreak of COVID-19 is wreaking havoc worldwide due to inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation. The COVID-19 pandemic has entered a dangerous new phase. When compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due to increased globalization and adaptation of the virus in every environment. Slowing the spread of the COVID-19 cases will significantly reduce the strain on the healthcare system of the country by limiting the number of people who are severely sick by COVID-19 and need hospital care. Hence, the recent outburst of COVID-19 highlights an urgent need for therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2. Here, we have discussed the structure of virus; varying symptoms among COVID-19, SARS, MERS and common flu; the probable mechanism behind the infection and its immune response. Further, the current treatment options, drugs available, ongoing trials and recent diagnostics for COVID-19 have been discussed. We suggest traditional Indian medicinal plants as possible novel therapeutic approaches, exclusively targeting SARS-CoV-2 and its pathways.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138277

RECORD 51
TITLE
  A field indoor air measurement of SARS-CoV-2 in the patient rooms of the largest hospital in Iran
AUTHOR NAMES
  Faridi S.;  Niazi S.;  Sadeghi K.;  Naddafi K.;  Yavarian J.;  Shamsipour M.;  Jandaghi N.Z.S.;  Sadeghniiat K.;  Nabizadeh R.;  Yunesian M.;  Momeniha F.;  Mokamel A.;  Hassanvand M.S.;  MokhtariAzad T.
SOURCE
  Science of the Total Environment (2020) 725 Article Number: 138401. Date of Publication: 10 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan city, China, in late 2019 and has rapidly spread throughout the world. The major route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is in contention, with the airborne route a likely transmission pathway for carrying the virus within indoor environments. Until now, there has been no evidence for detection of airborne severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and this may have implication for the potential spread of the COVID-19. We investigated the air of patient rooms with confirmed COVID-19 in the largest hospital in Iran, on March 17, 2020. To collect the SARS-CoV-2 particles, ten air samples were collected into the sterile standard midget impingers containing 20 mL DMEM with 100 μg/mL streptomycin, 100 U/mL penicillin and 1% antifoam reagent for 1 h. Besides, indoor particle number concentrations, CO2, relative humidity and temperature were recorded throughout the sampling duration. Viral RNA was extracted from samples taken from the impingers and Reverse-Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to confirm the positivity of collected samples based on the virus genome sequence. Fortunately, in this study all air samples which were collected 2 to 5 m from the patients’ beds with confirmed COVID-19 were negative. Despite we indicated that all air samples were negative, however, we suggest further in vivo experiments should be conducted using actual patient cough, sneeze and breath aerosols in order to show the possibility of generation of the airborne size carrier aerosols and the viability fraction of the embedded virus in those carrier aerosols.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138401

RECORD 52
TITLE
  Expert consensus on the management strategy of patients with hereditary ataxia during prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Specialized Committee Of Neurogenetics Neurophysician Branch Of Chinese Medical Doctor Association ;  Jiang H.;  Tang B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics (2020) 37:4 (359-366). Date of Publication: 10 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a series of highly infectious cases of unexplained pneumonia have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which have been confirmed as ‘2019 corona virus disease’ caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 virus can invade many human systems including the lungs. Patients with central nervous system involvement may show a series of neurological symptoms, which is easy to be misdiagnosed and neglected, thereby increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hereditary ataxia is a large group of neurodegenerative diseases with great clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high mortality and disability. In view of the seriousness of the COVID-19 epidemic, a series of prevention and control measures adopted by the government have restricted the follow-up, diagnosis and treatment of patients by the hospitals, which has a great impact on their mental and physical health. In order to standardize the management of patients during the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic, the Specialized Committee of Neurogenetics of the Neurophysician Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has formulated this consensus, with an aim to help patients to overcome the difficulties and pass the epidemic prevention period safely.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2020.04.001

RECORD 53
TITLE
  Covid-19: Why is the UK government ignoring WHO’s advice?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pollock A.M.;  Roderick P.;  Cheng K.K.;  Pankhania B.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: 368. Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1284

RECORD 54
TITLE
  Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension
AUTHOR NAMES
  Meng J.;  Xiao G.;  Zhang J.;  He X.;  Ou M.;  Bi J.;  Yang R.;  Di W.;  Wang Z.;  Li Z.;  Gao H.;  Liu L.;  Zhang G.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (757-760). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  The dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been observed in coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19) patients, but whether RAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are associated with clinical outcomes remains unknown. COVID-19 patients with hypertension were enrolled to evaluate the effect of RAS inhibitors. We observed that patients receiving ACEI or ARB therapy had a lower rate of severe diseases and a trend toward a lower level of IL-6 in peripheral blood. In addition, ACEI or ARB therapy increased CD3 and CD8 T cell counts in peripheral blood and decreased the peak viral load compared to other antihypertensive drugs. This evidence supports the benefit of using ACEIs or ARBs to potentially contribute to the improvement of clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1746200

RECORD 55
AUTHOR NAMES
  Molina J.M.;  Delaugerre C.;  Goff J.L.;  Mela-Lima B.;  Ponscarme D.;  Goldwirt L.;  de Castro N.
SOURCE
  Medecine et maladies infectieuses (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medmal.2020.03.006

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Imaging and Clinical Features of Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cao Y.;  Liu X.;  Xiong L.;  Cai K.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Currently, the epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has begun to spread worldwide. We aim to explore reliable evidences for the diagnosis and treatment of the COVID-19 by analyzing all the published studies by Chinese scholars on the clinical and imaging features in novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We searched five medical databases including two Chinese and three English databases for all published articles on COVID-19 since the outbreak. A random-effects model was designed, and the imaging and clinical data from all studies were collected for meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 31 articles and 46959 patients were included, including 10 English articles, 21 Chinese articles. The results of meta-analysis showed that the most common clinical manifestations were fever (87.3%, 0.838-0.909), cough (58.1%, 0.502-0.660), dyspnea (38.3%, 0.246-0.520), muscle soreness or fatigue (35.5%, 0.253-0.456), chest distress (31.2%, -0.024-0.648). The main imaging finding were bilateral pneumonia (75.7%, 0.639-0.871), and ground glass opacification (69.9%, 0.602-0.796). Among the patients, the incidence of required intensive care unit (ICU) was (29.3%, 0.190-0.395), the incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was (28.8%, 0.147-0.429), the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was (8.5%, -0.008-0.179), and and the case fatality rate of patients with COVID-19 was (6.8%, 0.044-0.093). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a new clinical infectious disease, which mainly causes bilateral pneumonia, and lung function will deteriorate rapidly. Nearly a third of patients need to be admitted to the ICU, and patients are likely to cause respiratory failure or even death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25822

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Gargle lavage as a safe and sensitive alternative to swab samples to diagnose COVID-19: a case report in Japan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Saito M.;  Adachi E.;  Yamayoshi S.;  Koga M.;  Iwatsuki-Horimoto K.;  Kawaoka Y.;  Yotsuyanagi H.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 2 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa377

RECORD 58
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou M.;  Zhang X.;  Qu J.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global health. It caused a total of 80 868 confirmed cases and 3101 deaths in Chinese mainland until March 8, 2020. This novel virus spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. As disease progressed, a series of complications tend to develop, especially in critically ill patients. Pathological findings showed representative features of acute respiratory distress syndrome and involvement of multiple organs. Apart from supportive care, no specific treatment has been established for COVID-19. The efficacy of some promising antivirals, convalescent plasma transfusion, and tocilizumab needs to be investigated by ongoing clinical trials.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0767-8

RECORD 59
TITLE
  A report of clinical diagnosis and treatment of nine cases of coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Q.;  Quan B.;  Li X.;  Gao G.;  Zheng W.;  Zhang J.;  Zhang Z.;  Liu C.;  Li L.;  Wang C.;  Zhang G.;  Li J.;  Dai Y.;  Yang J.;  Han W.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has become an important public health issue in the world. More than 118 000 cases were confirmed around the world. The main clinical manifestations were respiratory symptoms and occasional gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there is no unified standard for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. In the retrospective analysis, we report nine cases of COVID-19, describe the history of contact, clinical manifestations, the course of diagnosis and clinical treatment before, during and after treatment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25755

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Serological and molecular findings during SARS-CoV-2 infection: The first case study in Finland, January to February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haveri A.;  Smura T.;  Kuivanen S.;  Österlund P.;  Hepojoki J.;  Ikonen N.;  Pitkäpaasi M.;  Blomqvist S.;  Rönkkö E.;  Kantele A.;  Strandin T.;  Kallio-Kokko H.;  Mannonen L.;  Lappalainen M.;  Broas M.;  Jiang M.;  Siira L.;  Salminen M.;  Puumalainen T.;  Sane J.;  Melin M.;  Vapalahti O.;  Savolainen-Kopra C.
SOURCE
  Eurosurveillance (2020) 25:11 Article Number: 2000266. Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Finland was confirmed on 29 January 2020. No secondary cases were detected. We describe the clinical picture and laboratory findings 3-23 days since the first symptoms. The SARS-CoV-2/Finland/1/2020 virus strain was isolated, the genome showing a single nucleotide substitution to the reference strain from Wuhan. Neutralising antibody response appeared within 9 days along with specific IgM and IgG response, targeting particularly nucleocapsid and spike proteins.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.11.2000266

RECORD 61
TITLE
  A new threat from an old enemy: Re-emergence of coronavirus (Review)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Docea A.O.;  Tsatsakis A.;  Albulescu D.;  Cristea O.;  Zlatian O.;  Vinceti M.;  Moschos S.A.;  Tsoukalas D.;  Goumenou M.;  Drakoulis N.;  Dumanov1 J.M.;  Tutelyan V.A.;  Onischenko G.G.;  Aschner M.;  Spandidos D.A.;  Calina D.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Molecular Medicine (2020) 45:6 (1631-1643). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The new outbreak of coronavirus from December 2019 has brought attention to an old viral enemy and has raised concerns as to the ability of current protection measures and the healthcare system to handle such a threat. It has been known since the 1960s that coronaviruses can cause respiratory infections in humans; however, their epidemic potential was understood only during the past two decades.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4555

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Neutralizing Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and Other Human Coronaviruses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiang S.;  Hillyer C.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Trends in Immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 (also known as 2019-nCoV) is threatening global public health, social stability, and economic development. To meet this challenge, this article discusses advances in the research and development of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) for the prevention and treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and other human CoVs.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.03.007

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Respiratory failure alone does not suggest central nervous system invasion by SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Turtle L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Many viruses can occasionally gain entry into the human central nervous system (CNS), even if most of the disease they cause does not involve the CNS. In a recent review, Li and colleagues (J Med Virol doi: 10.1002/jmv.25728) propose that SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the human CNS, based upon the observation that a number of patients need mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory failure. However, respiratory failure caused by pneumonia is clinically distinct from that caused by brain failure. The published clinical features of COVID-19 do not suggest that involvement of the CNS is common. The possibility of CNS entry by SARS-CoV-2 remains plausible, but unproven. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25828

RECORD 64
TITLE
  Differences between COVID-19 and suspected then confirmed SARS-CoV-2-negative pneumonia: a retrospective study from a single center
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen X.;  Yang Y.;  Huang M.;  Liu L.;  Zhang X.;  Xu J.;  Geng S.;  Han B.;  Xiao J.;  Wan Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019. Tens thousands of people have been infected with the disease. Our aim was to distinguish severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive patients from SARS-CoV-2-negative patients. We retrospectively compared the data of COVID-19 patients with those of suspected and confirmed SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (control patients). There were 78 COVID-19 patients and 26 control patients, whose median ages were significantly different (P=0.001). The percentage of COVID-19 patients admitting exposure to Wuhan was obviously higher than that of control patients (X2 =29.130, P<0.001). Fever and cough appeared more frequently in COVID-19 patients than in the control patients. The routine blood work-up parameters of COVID-19 patients did not change much and their mean counts were in normal range. There were 38.5% of control patients had higher procalcitonin (PCT) levels than 0.5ng/ml, which was significantly higher than that percentage of COVID-19 patients (X2 =22.636, P <0.05), and COVID-19 patients were also more likely to have decreased or normal urea and creatinine levels than control patients (X2 =24.930, 8.480, P <0.05).Younger age, exposure to Wuhan, fever, cough, and slight changes in routine blood work-up parameters, urea and creatinine were important features discriminating COVID-19 from control patients. Slightly increased, but far less than 0.5ng/ml, PCT levels also differentiated COVID-19 patients from control patients This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25810

RECORD 65
TITLE
  A pandemic in times of global tourism: superspreading and exportation of COVID-19 cases from a ski area in Austria
AUTHOR NAMES
  Correa-Martínez C.L.;  Kampmeier S.;  Kümpers P.;  Schwierzeck V.;  Hennies M.;  Hafezi W.;  Kühn J.;  Pavenstädt H.;  Ludwig S.;  Mellmann A.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  On January 7, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a novel coronavirus to be the cause of unclear pneumonia cases in China.….
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00588-20

RECORD 66
TITLE
  Clinical and virological data of the first cases of COVID-19 in Europe: a case series
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lescure F.-X.;  Bouadma L.;  Nguyen D.;  Parisey M.;  Wicky P.-H.;  Behillil S.;  Gaymard A.;  Bouscambert-Duchamp M.;  Donati F.;  Le Hingrat Q.;  Enouf V.;  Houhou-Fidouh N.;  Valette M.;  Mailles A.;  Lucet J.-C.;  Mentre F.;  Duval X.;  Descamps D.;  Malvy D.;  Timsit J.-F.;  Lina B.;  van-der-Werf S.;  Yazdanpanah Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: On Dec 31, 2019, China reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in people at Wuhan, Hubei Province. The responsible pathogen is a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the relevant features of the first cases in Europe of confirmed infection, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with the first patient diagnosed with the disease on Jan 24, 2020. METHODS: In this case series, we followed five patients admitted to Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital (Paris, France) and Pellegrin University Hospital (Bordeaux, France) and diagnosed with COVID-19 by semi-quantitative RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. We assessed patterns of clinical disease and viral load from different samples (nasopharyngeal and blood, urine, and stool samples), which were obtained once daily for 3 days from hospital admission, and once every 2 or 3 days until patient discharge. All samples were refrigerated and shipped to laboratories in the National Reference Center for Respiratory Viruses (The Institut Pasteur, Paris, and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France), where RNA extraction, real-time RT-PCR, and virus isolation and titration procedures were done. FINDINGS: The patients were three men (aged 31 years, 48 years, and 80 years) and two women (aged 30 years and 46 years), all of Chinese origin, who had travelled to France from China around mid-January, 2020. Three different clinical evolutions are described: (1) two paucisymptomatic women diagnosed within a day of exhibiting symptoms, with high nasopharyngeal titres of SARS-CoV-2 within the first 24 h of the illness onset (5·2 and 7·4 log10 copies per 1000 cells, respectively) and viral RNA detection in stools; (2) a two-step disease progression in two young men, with a secondary worsening around 10 days after disease onset despite a decreasing viral load in nasopharyngeal samples; and (3) an 80-year-old man with a rapid evolution towards multiple organ failure and a persistent high viral load in lower and upper respiratory tract with systemic virus dissemination and virus detection in plasma. The 80-year-old patient died on day 14 of illness (Feb 14, 2020); all other patients had recovered and been discharged by Feb 19, 2020. INTERPRETATION: We illustrated three different clinical and biological types of evolution in five patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with detailed and comprehensive viral sampling strategy. We believe that these findings will contribute to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease and will contribute to advances in the implementation of more efficient infection control strategies. FUNDING: REACTing (Research & Action Emerging Infectious Diseases).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30200-0

RECORD 67
TITLE
  The effectiveness of the quarantine of Wuhan city against the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): well-mixed SEIR model analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hou C.;  Chen J.;  Zhou Y.;  Hua L.;  Yuan J.;  He S.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang S.;  Jia Q.;  Zhao C.;  Zhang J.;  Xu G.;  Jia E.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus pneumonia, first identified in Wuhan City and referred to as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, has been quickly spreading to other cities and countries. To control the epidemic, the Chinese government mandated a quarantine of the Wuhan city on January 23, 2020. To explore the effectiveness of the quarantine of the Wuhan city against this epidemic, transmission dynamics of COVID-19 have been estimated. METHODS: A well-mixed “susceptible exposed infectious recovered” (SEIR) compartmental model was employed to describe the dynamics of the COVID-19 epidemic based on epidemiological characteristics of individuals, clinical progression of COVID-19, and quarantine intervention measures of the authority. RESULTS: Considering infected individuals as contagious during the latency period, the well-mixed SEIR model fitting results based on the assumed contact rate of latent individuals are within 6-18, which represented the possible impact of quarantine and isolation interventions on disease infections, whereas other parameter were suppose as unchanged under the current intervention. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that, by reducing the contact rate of latent individuals, interventions such as quarantine and isolation can effectively reduce the potential peak number of COVID-19 infections and delay the time of peak infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25827

RECORD 68
TITLE
  CD-sACE2 Inclusion Compounds: An Effective Treatment for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun P.;  Lu X.;  Xu C.;  Wang Y.;  Sun W.;  Xi J.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 31 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  ACE2 is a metalloproteinase and a homolog of carboxypeptidase ACE. It hydrolyzes a variety of angiotensin peptides and is the main active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).[3] ACE2, which is made of 805 amino acids, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with a single extracellular catalytic domain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25804

RECORD 69
TITLE
  COVID-19 epidemic: disease characteristics in children
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiatong S.;  Lanqin L.;  Wenjun L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 31 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In mid-December 2019, a disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which began in Wuhan, China, has spread throughout the country and many countries around the world. The number of children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has also increased significantly. Although information regarding the epidemiology of COVID-19 in children has accumulated, relevant comprehensive reports are lacking. The present article reviews the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25807

RECORD 70
TITLE
  SARS-COV-2 and infectivity
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tresoldi I.;  Sangiuolo C.F.;  Manzari V.;  Modesti A.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  SARS-COV2 represents the causal agent of a potentially fatal disease (COVID-19) that is actually of great global public health concern. SARS-COV2 has diffused throughout the world surprisingly fast demonstrating a far greater infectivity than previously known human coronaviruses and it is also responsible for an unusual high variety of symptoms in affected patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25831

RECORD 71
TITLE
  The Impact of COVID-19 on Italy: A Lesson for the Future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Santacroce L.;  Bottalico L.;  Charitos I.A.
SOURCE
  The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijoem.2020.1984

RECORD 72
TITLE
  Fecal Transmission in COVID-19: A Potential Shedding Rout
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nouri-Vaskeh M.;  Alizadeh L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  We read with interest recent article by Zhang et al 1 on the diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by fecal specimen test. Following the recent outbreak of pneumonia with unknown pathogen in Hubei province in China, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated from human airway epithelial cells and the disease was named COVID-19.2 It is a public health emergency of international concern and rapidly spearing all over the world.3 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25816

RECORD 73
TITLE
  Analysis of heart injury laboratory parameters in 273 COVID-19 patients in one hospital in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han H.;  Xie L.;  Liu R.;  Yang J.;  Liu F.;  Wu K.;  Chen L.;  Hou W.;  Feng Y.;  Zhu C.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 31 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic spreads rapidly worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused mildly to seriously and fatally respiratory, enteric, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. In this study, we detected and analyzed the main laboratory indicators related to heart injury, CK-MB, MYO, ultra-TnI and NT-proBNP, in 273 COVID-19 patients and investigated the correlation between heart injury and severity of the disease. It was found that higher concentration in venous blood of CK-MB, MYO, ultra-TnI and NT-proBNP were associated with the severity and case-fatality rate of COVID-19. Careful monitoring of the myocardiac enzyme profiles is of great importance in reducing the complications and mortality in COVID-19 patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25809

RECORD 74
TITLE
  Performance of VivaDiagTM COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test is inadequate for diagnosis of COVID-19 in acute patients referring to emergency room department
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cassaniti I.;  Novazzi F.;  Giardina F.;  Salivaro F.;  Sachs M.;  Perlini S.;  Bruno R.;  Mojoli F.;  Baldanti F.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  From late December 2019 COVID-19 (Coronavirus infectious disease 19) epidemics spread from Wuhan, China, to all over the world, including Italy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25800

RECORD 75
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak and molecular genetic characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jeong Y.S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Bacteriology and Virology (2020) 50:1 (1-8). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks that emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, have led to a formidable number of confirmed cases that resulted in >5,700 deaths globally, including 143 countries in all 6 continents. The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern with a very high level of global risk assessment. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of COVID-19, has >79% nucleotide sequence homology to SARS-CoV; therefore, both belong to the genus betacoronavirus and subgenus sarbecovirus. The S1 domains of the two appeared to share the cellular receptor ACE2, but revealed a much higher S1-ACE2 binding affinity. As seen in many other human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 also shows respiratory infection, but the basic reproductive number (R0) in transmission and the clinical latency are quite dissimilar from those of SARS-or MERS-CoVs. Many scientists infer that the time point of cross-barrier transfer from bats to mediate animals or to humans should be a rather recent event based on the full-length genome analyses obtained from the very first patients. Copy-choice polymerization, which often leads to a significant genome recombination rate in most coronaviruses, predicts the continued emergence of novel coronaviruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4167/jbv.2020.50.1.001

RECORD 76
TITLE
  The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han W.;  Quan B.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang J.;  Lu Y.;  Feng G.;  Wu Q.;  Fang F.;  Cheng L.;  Jiao N.;  Li X.;  Chen Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020) 92:5 (461-463). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25711

RECORD 77
TITLE
  Immunoinformatics-aided identification of T cell and B cell epitopes in the surface glycoprotein of 2019-nCoV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Baruah V.;  Bose S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020) 92:5 (495-500). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak has caused a large number of deaths with thousands of confirmed cases worldwide, especially in East Asia. This study took an immunoinformatics approach to identify significant cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and B cell epitopes in the 2019-nCoV surface glycoprotein. Also, interactions between identified CTL epitopes and their corresponding major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I supertype representatives prevalent in China were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We identified five CTL epitopes, three sequential B cell epitopes and five discontinuous B cell epitopes in the viral surface glycoprotein. Also, during simulations, the CTL epitopes were observed to be binding MHC class I peptide-binding grooves via multiple contacts, with continuous hydrogen bonds and salt bridge anchors, indicating their potential in generating immune responses. Some of these identified epitopes can be potential candidates for the development of 2019-nCoV vaccines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25698

RECORD 78
TITLE
  Transcriptomic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiong Y.;  Liu Y.;  Cao L.;  Wang D.;  Guo M.;  Jiang A.;  Guo D.;  Hu W.;  Yang J.;  Tang Z.;  Wu H.;  Lin Y.;  Zhang M.;  Zhang Q.;  Shi M.;  Liu Y.;  Zhou Y.;  Lan K.;  Chen Y.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (761-770). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Circulating in China and 158 other countries and areas, the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has caused devastating mortality and posed a great threat to public health. However, efforts to identify effectively supportive therapeutic drugs and treatments has been hampered by our limited understanding of host immune response for this fatal disease. To characterize the transcriptional signatures of host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19) infection, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of the RNAs isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results reveal distinct host inflammatory cytokine profiles to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients, and highlight the association between COVID-19 pathogenesis and excessive cytokine release such as CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL3/MIP-1A, and CCL4/MIP1B. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 induced activation of apoptosis and P53 signalling pathway in lymphocytes may be the cause of patients’ lymphopenia. The transcriptome dataset of COVID-19 patients would be a valuable resource for clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication and understanding the molecular mechansims of host response.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1747363

RECORD 79
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus patients’ clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li L.-Q.;  Huang T.;  Wang Y.-Q.;  Wang Z.-P.;  Liang Y.;  Huang T.-B.;  Zhang H.-Y.;  Sun W.;  Wang Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical data, discharge rate, and fatality rate of COVID-19 patients for clinical help. The clinical data of COVID-19 patients from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrieved from four databases. We statistically analyzed the clinical symptoms and laboratory results of COVID-19 patients and explained the discharge rate and fatality rate with a single-arm meta-analysis. The available data of 1994 patients in 10 literatures were included in our study. The main clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients were fever (88.5%), cough (68.6%), myalgia or fatigue (35.8%), expectoration (28.2%), and dyspnea (21.9%). Minor symptoms include headache or dizziness (12.1%), diarrhea (4.8%), nausea and vomiting (3.9%). The results of the laboratory showed that the lymphocytopenia (64.5%), increase of C-reactive protein (44.3%), increase of lactic dehydrogenase (28.3%), and leukocytopenia (29.4%) were more common. The results of single-arm meta-analysis showed that the male took a larger percentage in the gender distribution of COVID-19 patients 60% (95% CI [0.54, 0.65]), the discharge rate of COVID-19 patients was 42% (95% CI [0.29, 0.55]), and the fatality rate was 7% (95% CI [0.04,0.10]).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25757

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) strain isolated in Nepal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sah R.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Jha R.;  Chu D.K.W.;  Gu H.;  Peiris M.;  Bastola A.;  Lal B.K.;  Ojha H.C.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Costello A.;  Morita K.;  Pandey B.D.;  Poon L.L.M.
SOURCE
  Microbiology Resource Announcements (2020) 9:11 Article Number: e00169-20. Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00169-20

RECORD 81
TITLE
  Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin Y.;  Yang H.;  Ji W.;  Wu W.;  Chen S.;  Zhang W.;  Duan G.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:4 Article Number: 372. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

RECORD 82
TITLE
  Challenges of SARS-CoV-2 and lessons learnt from SARS in Guangdong Province, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.;  Lin G.;  Zeng J.;  Lin J.;  Tian J.;  Li G.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 126 Article Number: 104341. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  With lessons learnt from the SARS outbreak in 2003, Guangdong Province is taking the lead in bringing COVID-19 under control by multiple strict regulations in combination with effective healthcare provision.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104341

RECORD 83
TITLE
  Imaging changes in severe COVID-19 pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  Intensive care medicine (2020) 46:4 (583-585). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05976-w

RECORD 84
TITLE
  Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu B.;  Gutierrez B.;  Mekaru S.;  Sewalk K.;  Goodwin L.;  Loskill A.;  Cohn E.L.;  Hswen Y.;  Hill S.C.;  Cobo M.M.;  Zarebski A.E.;  Li S.;  Wu C.-H.;  Hulland E.;  Morgan J.D.;  Wang L.;  O’Brien K.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Brownstein J.S.;  Pybus O.G.;  Pigott D.M.;  Kraemer M.U.G.
SOURCE
  Scientific data (2020) 7:1 (106). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Cases of a novel coronavirus were first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019 and have since spread across the world. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. To aid the analysis and tracking of the COVID-19 epidemic we collected and curated individual-level data from national, provincial, and municipal health reports, as well as additional information from online reports. All data are geo-coded and, where available, include symptoms, key dates (date of onset, admission, and confirmation), and travel history. The generation of detailed, real-time, and robust data for emerging disease outbreaks is important and can help to generate robust evidence that will support and inform public health decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0448-0

RECORD 85
TITLE
  Management of a colon cancer patient infected with corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Z.;  Hong Y.;  Wu X.;  Hong D.;  Zhang Y.;  Dong X.;  Rao Y.;  Lu X.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of surgical treatment for cancer patients complicated with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The management and clinical outcome of a sigmoid cancer patient with COVID-19 were analyzed. RESULTS: The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice. CONCLUSIONS: The case indicates that it may feasible to undergo radical tumor surgery for cancer patients with COVID-19 after the virus nucleic acid testing turns negative and more studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

RECORD 86
TITLE
  Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in clinical specimens and clinical characteristics of 10 patients with COVID-19 in Macau
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lo I.L.;  Lio C.F.;  Cheong H.H.;  Lei C.I.;  Cheong T.H.;  Zhong X.;  Tian Y.;  Sin N.N.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1698-1707). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  As a city famous for tourism, the public healthcare system of Macau SAR has been under great pressure during the outbreak of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we report clinical and microbiological features of ten COVID-19 patients enrolled in the Centro Hospitalar Conde de São Januário (CHCSJ) between January 21 to February 16, 2020. Clinical samples from all patients including nasopharyngeal swab (NPS)/sputum, urine, and feces were collected for serial virus RNA testing by standard qRT-PCR assay. In total, seven were imported cases and three were local cases. The median duration from Macau arrival to admission in imported cases was 3 days. Four patients required oxygen therapy but none of them needed machinal ventilation. No fatal cases were noted. The most common symptoms were fever (80%) and diarrhea (80%). In the “Severe” group, there was significantly more elderly patients (p=0.045), higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (p=0.002), and elevated C-Reactive protein levels compared to the “Mild to Moderate” group (p<0.001). There were positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA signals in all patients’ NPS and stool specimens but negative in all urine specimens. Based on our data on SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in stool and the possibility of a lag in viral detection in NPS specimens, the assessment of both fecal and respiratory specimen is recommended to enhance diagnostic sensitivity, and also to aid discharge decision before the role of viral RNA shedding in stool is clarified.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45357

RECORD 87
TITLE
  Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Z.-W.;  Yuan S.;  Yuen K.-S.;  Fung S.-Y.;  Chan C.-P.;  Jin D.-Y.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1686-1697). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Mutation and adaptation have driven the co-evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) and their hosts, including human beings, for thousands of years. Before 2003, two human CoVs (HCoVs) were known to cause mild illness, such as common cold. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have flipped the coin to reveal how devastating and life-threatening an HCoV infection could be. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in central China at the end of 2019 has thrusted CoVs into the spotlight again and surprised us with its high transmissibility but reduced pathogenicity compared to its sister SARS-CoV. HCoV infection is a zoonosis and understanding the zoonotic origins of HCoVs would serve us well. Most HCoVs originated from bats where they are non-pathogenic. The intermediate reservoir hosts of some HCoVs are also known. Identifying the animal hosts has direct implications in the prevention of human diseases. Investigating CoV-host interactions in animals might also derive important insight on CoV pathogenesis in humans. In this review, we present an overview of the existing knowledge about the seven HCoVs, with a focus on the history of their discovery as well as their zoonotic origins and interspecies transmission. Importantly, we compare and contrast the different HCoVs from a perspective of virus evolution and genome recombination. The current CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is discussed in this context. In addition, the requirements for successful host switches and the implications of virus evolution on disease severity are also highlighted.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45472

RECORD 88
TITLE
  COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yi Y.;  Lagniton P.N.P.;  Ye S.;  Li E.;  Xu R.-H.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1753-1766). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of people in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 might also be transmitted from the bats and causes similar symptoms through a similar mechanism. However, COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youth and more men than women. In response to the rapidly increasing number of publications on the emerging disease, this article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the swiftly developing research subject. We will cover the basics about the epidemiology, etiology, virology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of the disease. Although many questions still require answers, we hope that this review helps in the understanding and eradication of the threatening disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45134

RECORD 89
TITLE
  The global battle against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng C.-X.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1676-1677). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45587

RECORD 90
TITLE
  Targeting the Endocytic Pathway and Autophagy Process as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang N.;  Shen H.-M.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1724-1731). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of enveloped, single-stranded positive genomic RNA viruses and some of them are known to cause severe respiratory diseases in human, including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the ongoing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). One key element in viral infection is the process of viral entry into the host cells. In the last two decades, there is increasing understanding on the importance of the endocytic pathway and the autophagy process in viral entry and replication. As a result, the endocytic pathway including endosome and lysosome has become important targets for development of therapeutic strategies in combating diseases caused by CoVs. In this mini-review, we will focus on the importance of the endocytic pathway as well as the autophagy process in viral infection of several pathogenic CoVs inclusive of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the new CoV named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and discuss the development of therapeutic agents by targeting these processes. Such knowledge will provide important clues for control of the ongoing epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45498

RECORD 91
TITLE
  Insight into 2019 novel coronavirus – an updated intrim review and lessons from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xie M.;  Chen Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a zoonotic beta-coronavirus entitled 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), has become a global threat. Awareness of the biological features of 2019-nCoV should be updated in time and needs to be comprehensively summarized to help optimize control measures and make therapeutic decisions. METHODS: Based on recently published literatures, official documents and selected up-to-date preprint studies, we reviewed the virology and origin, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathology and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection, in comparison with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. RESULTS: The genome of 2019-nCoV partially resembled SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and indicating a bat origin. The COVID-19 generally had a high reproductive number, a long incubation period, a short serial interval and a low case fatality rate (much higher in patients with comorbidities) than SARS and MERS. Clinical presentation and pathology of COVID-19 greatly resembled SARS and MERS, with less upper respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and more exudative lesions in post-mortems. Potential treatments included remdesivir, chloroquine, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma and vaccine immunization (when possible). CONCLUSION: The initial experience from the current pandemic and lessons from the previous two pandemics can help improve future preparedness plans and combat disease progression.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.071

RECORD 92
TITLE
  Isolation and full-length genome characterization of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 cases in Northern Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Licastro D.;  Rajasekharan S.;  Dal Monego S.;  Segat L.;  D’Agaro P.;  Marcello A.
SOURCE
  Journal of virology (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, the novel coronavirus Severe Acquired Respiratory Syndrome SARS-CoV-2 emerged in the city of Wuhan in the Hubei province, People’s Republic of China, as the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has hence spread worldwide causing a global pandemic (1-3).….
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00543-20

RECORD 93
TITLE
  Epidemiological analysis of COVID-19 and practical experience from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Q.;  Wang B.;  Mao J.;  Fu J.;  Shang S.;  Shu Q.;  Zhang T.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The rapid spread of the epidemic has aroused widespread concern in the international community. SARS-COV-2 originated from Wuhan’s Huanan wholesale seafood market, with bats as the likely original hosts and pangolins as potential intermediate hosts. The current source of the disease is mainly patients infected with SARS-COV-2. Patients in the incubation period may also become sources of infection. The virus is mainly transmitted via respiratory droplets and contact, and the population is generally susceptible. The epidemic has progressed through the local outbreak stage and community transmission stage due to exposure at Wuhan’s Huanan wholesale seafood market and is now in the stage of large-scale transmission due to the spread of the epidemic. The basic productive number (R0) at the beginning of the epidemic was 2.2, with an average incubation period of 5.2 days. The proportion of critically ill patients was 23.4%, the mortality rate was lower than those of SARS and MERS, and 96.5% of deaths occurred in Hubei Province, where the outbreak occurred first. Among them, elderly men with underlying diseases had a higher mortality rate. Chinese medical staff have summarized a set of effective strategies and methods in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease that are worthy of reference for their international counterparts. With powerful government intervention and the efforts of Chinese medical staff, China’s outbreak has gradually improved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25813

RECORD 94
TITLE
  Coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2: A Brief Overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ludwig S.;  Zarbock A.
SOURCE
  Anesthesia and analgesia (2020). Date of Publication: 31 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019 several cases of pneumonia of unknown origin were reported from China, which in early January 2020 were announced to be caused by a novel coronavirus. The virus was later denominated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and defined as the causal agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite massive attempts to contain the disease in China, the virus has spread globally, and COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020. Here we provide a short background on coronaviruses and describe in more detail the novel SARS-CoV-2 and attempts to identify effective therapies against COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004845

RECORD 95
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: an Emerging Coronavirus that Causes a Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zheng J.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1678-1685). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, currently designated as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported recently. However, as SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus, we know little about it. In this review, we summarize the key events occurred during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the basic characteristics of the pathogen, the signs and symptoms of the infected patients as well as the possible transmission pathways of the virus. Furthermore, we also review the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2. We highlight bats as the potential natural reservoir and pangolins as the possible intermediate host of the virus, but their roles are waiting for further investigation. Finally, the advances in the development of chemotherapeutic options are also briefly summarized.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45053

RECORD 96
TITLE
  The Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Feces of COVID-19 Patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Y.;  Chen L.;  Deng Q.;  Zhang G.;  Wu K.;  Ni L.;  Yang Y.;  Liu B.;  Wang W.;  Wei C.;  Yang J.;  Ye G.;  Cheng Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread globally. However, the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 shedding in excreta of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Electronical medical records, including demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, of enrolled patients were extracted and analyzed. Pharyngeal swab, stool and urine specimens were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. Viral shedding at multiple time points in specimens was recorded, and analyzed its correlation with clinical manifestations and the severity of illness. RESULTS: A total of 42 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled, 8 (19.05%) of whom had gastrointestinal symptoms. 28 (66.67%) patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in stool specimens, which was not associated with the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of illness. Among them, 18 (64.29%) patients remained positive for viral RNA in feces after pharyngeal swabs turned negative. The duration of viral shedding from feces after negative conversion in pharyngeal swabs was 7 (6-10) days, regardless of COVID-19 severity. The demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings did no differ between patients tested positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces. Viral RNA was not detectable in urine specimens from 10 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in feces of COVID-19 patients, and suggested the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via the fecal-oral route. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25825

RECORD 97
TITLE
  Detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Du Z.;  Zhu F.;  Guo F.;  Yang B.;  Wang T.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Detection of IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 is a fast and simple screening method. As an effective supplement to RNA testing, antibody detection is of epidemiological significance and an important means to understand the occurrence, development, prognosis, and outcome of COVID-19. However, more medical research is needed on the expression level of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the prognosis of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25820

RECORD 98
TITLE
  Response to Commentary on: “The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 may play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Bai W.-Z.;  Hashikawa T.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  In a recent review, we have suggested a neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its possible role in the causation of acute respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients (J Med Viol doi: 10.1002/jmv.25728), based upon the clinical and experimental data available on the past SARS-CoV-1 and the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this article, we provide new evidences recently reported regarding the neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and respond to several comments on our previously published article. In addition, we also discuss the peculiar manifestations of respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients and the possible involvement of nervous system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25824

RECORD 99
TITLE
  Clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients in northeast Chongqing
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wan S.;  Xiang Y.;  Fang W.;  Zheng Y.;  Li B.;  Hu Y.;  Lang C.;  Huang D.;  Sun Q.;  Xiong Y.;  Huang X.;  Lv J.;  Luo Y.;  Shen L.;  Yang H.;  Huang G.;  Yang R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (SARS-CoV-2) that began in December 2019 presents a significant and urgent threat to global health. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of this new infectious disease. Epidemiological, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of 135 patients in northeast Chongqing were collected and analyzed in this study. A total of 135 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 36-55), and there was no significant gender difference (53.3% men). The majority of patients had contact with people from the Wuhan area. Forty-three (31.9%) patients had underlying disease, primarily hypertension (13 [9.6%]), diabetes (12 [8.9%]), cardiovascular disease (7 [5.2%]), and malignancy (4 [3.0%]). Common symptoms included fever (120 [88.9%]), cough (102 [76.5%]), and fatigue (44 [32.5%]). Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all the patients. All patients received antiviral therapy (135 [100%]) (Kaletra and interferon were both used), antibacterial therapy (59 [43.7%]), and corticosteroids (36 [26.7%]). In addition, many patients received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (124 [91.8%]). It is suggested that patients should receive Kaletra early and should be treated by a combination of Western and Chinese medicines. Compared to the mild cases, the severe ones had lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma levels of Pt, APTT, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, PCT, ALB, C-reactive protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates the clinic features and therapies of 135 COVID-19 patients. Kaletra and TCM played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Further studies are required to explore the role of Kaletra and TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25783

RECORD 100
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acute Severe Pneumonia Patient with COVID-19: Case Report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng Z.;  Yuxing H.U.;  Yang P.;  Zheng P.;  Peng W.;  Ren B.;  Zeng X.;  Tian X.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 outbreak globally and continues to grow This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25802

RECORD 101
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 8 (Reporting period from 19:00 AEDT 14 March to 23:59 AEDT 22 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the eighth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 23:59 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 22 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.28

RECORD 102
TITLE
  Liver injury during highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu L.;  Liu J.;  Lu M.;  Yang D.;  Zheng X.
SOURCE
  Liver International (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to global public health. The WHO has declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection an international public health emergency. Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, liver injury has also been reported to occur during the course of the disease in severe cases. Similarly, previous studies have shown that liver damage was common in the patients infected by the other two highly pathogenic coronavirus – severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and associated with the severity of diseases. In this review, the characteristics and mechanism of liver injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection were summarized, which may provide help for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14435

RECORD 103
TITLE
  The clinical characteristics of pneumonia patients coinfected with 2019 novel coronavirus and influenza virus in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ding Q.;  Lu P.;  Fan Y.;  Xia Y.;  Liu M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then the novel coronavirus pneumonia disease has been spreading quickly and many countries and territories have been affected, with major outbreaks in China, South Korea, Italy, and Iran. Influenza virus has been known as a common pathogen in winter and it can cause pneumonia. It was found clinically that very few patients were diagnosed with both COVID-19 and influenza virus. A total of 5 of the 115 patients confirmed with COVID-19 were also diagnosed with influenza virus infection, with three cases being influenza A and two cases being influenza B. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics of those patients who got infected with COVID-19 as well as influenza virus. Common symptoms at onset of illness included fever (five [100%] patients), cough (five [100%] patients), shortness of breath (five [100%] patients), nasal tampon (three [60%] patients), pharyngalgia (three [60%] patients), myalgia (two [40%] patients), fatigue (two [40%] patients), headache (two [40%] patients), and expectoration (two [40%] patients). The laboratory results showed that compared to the normal values, the patients’ lymphocytes were reduced (four [80%] patients), and liver functions alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (two [40%] patients and two [40%] patients) and C-reactive protein (four [80%] patients) were increased when admitted to hospital. They stayed in the hospital for 14, 30, 17, 12, and 19 days (28.4 ± 7.02), respectively. The main complications for the patients were acute respiratory distress syndrome (one [20%] patients), acute liver injury (three [60%] patients), and diarrhea (two [40%] patients). All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics. Three patients were treated with glucocorticoids including two treated with oral glucocorticoids. One of the five patients had transient hemostatic medication for hemoptysis. Fortunately, all patients did not need intensive care unit and were discharged from the hospital without death. In conclusion, those patients with both COVID-19 and influenza virus infection did not appear to show a more severe condition because based on the laboratory findings, imaging studies, and patient prognosis, they showed similar clinical characteristics as those patients with COVID-19 infection only. However, it is worth noting that the symptoms of nasal tampon and pharyngalgia may be more prone to appear for those coinfection patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25781

RECORD 104
TITLE
  Will COVID-19 be a litmus test for post-Ebola sub-Saharan Africa?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Agyeman A.A.;  Laar A.;  Ofori-Asenso R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25780

RECORD 105
TITLE
  Sound Science before Quick Judgement Regarding RAS Blockade in COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sparks M.A.;  South A.;  Welling P.;  Luther J.M.;  Cohen J.;  Byrd J.B.;  Burrell L.M.;  Batlle D.;  Tomlinson L.;  Bhalla V.;  Rheault M.N.;  Soler M.J.;  Swaminathan S.;  Hiremath S.
SOURCE
  Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03530320

RECORD 106
TITLE
  Follow-up testing of viral nucleic acid in discharged patients with moderate type of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Hu Y.;  Zhang X.;  Yu Y.;  Li B.;  Wu J.;  Wu Y.;  Xia X.;  Xu J.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. METHODS: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantine in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the three weeks of quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented; and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. RESULTS: There were no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that there is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.

RECORD 107
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of 54 medical staff with COVID-19: A retrospective study in a single center in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chu J.;  Yang N.;  Wei Y.;  Yue H.;  Zhang F.;  Zhao J.;  He L.;  Sheng G.;  Chen P.;  Li G.;  Wu S.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang S.;  Wang C.;  Miao X.;  Li J.;  Liu W.;  Zhang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 infection occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to worldwide, which has attracted many people’s concerns about the patients. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnels is still lacking. METHODS: 54 cases of SARS-Cov-2 infected medical staff from Tongji Hospital between January 7th to February 11th of 2020 were analyzed in this retrospective study. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were compared between different groups by statistical method. RESULTS: From January 7 to February 11, 2020, 54 medical staff of Tongji Hospital were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Most of them were from other clinical departments (72.2%) rather than emergency department (3.7%) or medical technology departments (18.5%). Among the 54 COVID-19 patients, the distribution of age had a significant difference between non-severe type and severe/critical cases (median age: 47 years vs. 38 years, p=0.0015). However, there was no statistical difference in terms of gender distribution and the first symptoms between theses two groups. Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs. 0%, P=0.028) and right lung (61% vs. 18.2%, P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings with medical staff infection data, we suggest training for all hospital staff to prevent infection and preparation of sufficient protection and disinfection materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25793

RECORD 108
TITLE
  Detectable SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA in Feces of Three Children during Recovery Period of COVID-19 Pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang T.;  Cui X.;  Zhao X.;  Wang J.;  Zheng J.;  Zheng G.;  Guo W.;  Cai C.;  He S.;  Xu Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After its first occurrence in Wuhan of China from December 2019, COVID-19 rapidly spread around the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) statement on March 13, 2020, there had been over 132,500 confirmed cases globally. Nevertheless, the case reports of children are rare, which result in the lack of evidence for preventing and controlling of children’s infection. Here, we report 3 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected children diagnosed from February 3 to February 17, 2020 in Tianjin, China. All of these three cases experienced mild illness and recovered soon after treatment, with the nucleic acid of throat swab turning negative within 14, 11, 7 days after diagnosis respectively. However, after been discharged, all the three cases were tested SARS-CoV-2 positive in the stool samples within 10 days, in spite of their remained negative nucleic acid in throat swab specimens. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for children cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25795

RECORD 109
TITLE
  A doubt of multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy: A preliminary overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giovanetti M.;  Angeletti S.;  Benvenuto D.;  Ciccozzi M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of the novel betacoronavirus, recently renamed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious concerns due to the virus’s rapid dissemination worldwide. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Italy from surveillance studies. The shortage of complete genomic sequences available impairs our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 introduction and establishment in the country. To better understand its dynamics in Italy, we analyzed complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolates, obtained directly from clinical samples. Our phylogenetic reconstructions suggest possible multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2. Continued genomic surveillance strategies are needed to improve monitoring and understanding of the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, which might help to attenuate public health impact of infectious diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25773

RECORD 110
TITLE
  COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mehta P.;  McAuley D.F.;  Brown M.;  Sanchez E.;  Tattersall R.S.;  Manson J.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1033-1034). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0

RECORD 111
TITLE
  Maternal health care management during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Y.;  Li Z.;  Zhang Y.-Y.;  Zhao W.-H.;  Yu Z.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel type of highly contagious pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the strong efforts taken to control the epidemic, hundreds of thousands of people were infected worldwide by Mar. 11th , and was characterized as a pandemic by World Health Organization. Pregnant women are more susceptible to the virus due to immune and anatomic alteration, though hospital visits may increase the chance of infection, the lack of medical care during pregnancy may do more harm. Hence, a well-managed system that allows pregnant women to access maternal health care with minimum exposure risk is desired during the outbreak. Here, we present the managing processes of three pregnant women that had a fever during hospitalization at gynecology or obstetrics department, then further summarize and demonstrate our maternal health care management strategies including antenatal care planning, patient triage based on risk level, admission control, and measures counteracting emergencies and newly discovered high risk cases at in-patient department. In the meantime, we will explain the alterations we have done throughout different stages of the epidemic, and also review relative articles in both Chinese and English to compare our strategies with those of other areas. Although tens of COVID-19 cases were confirmed in our hospital, no nosocomial infection has occurred and none of the pregnant woman registered in our hospital was reported to be infected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25787

RECORD 112
TITLE
  Controversial treatments: an updated understanding of the Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang C.;  Huang S.;  Zheng F.;  Dai Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. In the absence of specific treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to learn from the experience and lessons in China. To reduce the case-fatality rate among COVID-19 patients, we should not ignore the complications, such as RNAaemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction. To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system (ALS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on available evidence. As a result, we suggest that antiviral therapy and organ function support are vital to reduce mortality for mild patients and critical patients, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25788

RECORD 113
TITLE
  What the cruise-ship outbreaks reveal about COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mallapaty S.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00885-w

RECORD 114
TITLE
  Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ai J.-W.;  Zhang Y.;  Zhang H.-C.;  Xu T.;  Zhang W.-H.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (597-600). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Unexplained pneumonia (UP) caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) emerged in China in late December 2019 and has infected more than 9000 cases by 31 January 2020. Shanghai reported the first imported case of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in 20 January 2020. A combinative approach of real-time RT–PCR, CRISPR-based assay and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) were used to diagnose this unexplained pneumonia patient. Real-time RT–PCR and CRISPR-based assay both reported positive. This sample belonged to Betacoronavirus and shared a more than 99% nucleotide (nt) identity with the Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We further compared pros and cons of common molecular diagnostics in UP. In this study, we illustrated the importance of combining molecular diagnostics to rule out common pathogens and performed mNGS to obtain unbiased potential pathogen result for the diagnosis of UP.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1738905

RECORD 115
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 116
TITLE
  Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gautret P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Parola P.;  Hoang V.T.;  Meddeb L.;  Mailhe M.;  Doudier B.;  Courjon J.;  Giordanengo V.;  Vieira V.E.;  Dupont H.T.;  Honoré S.;  Colson P.;  Chabrière E.;  La Scola B.;  Rolain J.-M.;  Brouqui P.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105949). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. PATIENTS AND METHODS: French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. RESULTS: Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported of untreated patients in the literature. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. CONCLUSION: Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949

RECORD 117
TITLE
  Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang L.;  Liu Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020) 92:5 (479-490). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-CoV) infection has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control the spread of disease. Here, we have conducted an online search for all treatment options related to coronavirus infections as well as some RNA-virus infection and we have found that general treatments, coronavirus-specific treatments, and antiviral treatments should be useful in fighting COVID-19. We suggest that the nutritional status of each infected patient should be evaluated before the administration of general treatments and the current children’s RNA-virus vaccines including influenza vaccine should be immunized for uninfected people and health care workers. In addition, convalescent plasma should be given to COVID-19 patients if it is available. In conclusion, we suggest that all the potential interventions be implemented to control the emerging COVID-19 if the infection is uncontrollable.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25707

RECORD 118
TITLE
  Under the epidemic situation of COVID-19, should special attention to pregnant women be given?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiao J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25771

RECORD 119
TITLE
  Initial clinical features of suspected coronavirus disease 2019 in two emergency departments outside of Hubei, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu W.;  Xie K.;  Lu H.;  Xu L.;  Zhou S.;  Fang S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  With an increasing number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases outside of Hubei, emergency departments (EDs) and fever clinics are facing challenges posed by the large number of admissions of patients suspected to have COVID-19. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study the initial clinical features of patients, to better differentiate between infected and uninfected patients outside Hubei. A total of 116 patients suspected of having COVID-19 who presented to two emergency departments in Anhui for the first time between 24 January 2020 and 20 February 2020 were enrolled in the study. The initial clinical data of these patients, such as epidemiological features, symptoms, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were collected using a standard case report form on admission. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19; the remaining 84 patients were referred to as negative cases. The median age of the diagnosed patients was 46 years, but only 35 years for negative cases. History of exposure to Wuhan or COVID-19 patients in the previous 2 weeks was observed in 63% of the diagnosed and 44% of negative cases. Median time from illness onset to ED admission was 5 days for all patients, diagnosed patients, and negative cases, respectively. Fever was observed in 27 (84%) and 57 (68%) diagnosed and negative cases, respectively. Nineteen (59%) diagnosed and 24 (29%) negative cases had lymphopenia on admission in ED. A chest CT scan on admission revealed the presence of pneumonia in the majority of the diagnosed patients (30 out of 32, 94%) and in 56 (67%) negative cases. Bilateral involvement and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were present in 91% and 47% of the diagnosed patients. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19; the remaining 84 patients were referred to as negative cases. The median age of the diagnosed patients was 46 years, but only 35 years for negative cases. History of exposure to Wuhan or COVID-19 patients in the previous 2 weeks was observed in 63% of the diagnosed and 44% of negative cases. Median time from illness onset to ED admission was 5 days for all patients, diagnosed patients, and negative cases, respectively. Fever was observed in 27 (84%) and 57 (68%) diagnosed and negative cases, respectively. Nineteen (59%) diagnosed and 24 (29%) negative cases had lymphopenia on admission in ED. A chest CT scan on admission revealed the presence of pneumonia in the majority of the diagnosed patients (30 out of 32, 94%) and in 56 (67%) negative cases. Bilateral involvement and GGO were present in 91% and 47% of the diagnosed patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25763

RECORD 120
TITLE
  Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qu R.;  Ling Y.;  Zhang Y.-H.-Z.;  Wei L.-Y.;  Chen X.;  Li X.-M.;  Liu X.-Y.;  Liu H.-M.;  Guo Z.;  Ren H.;  Wang Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Abstract: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. In severe novel coronavirus pneumonia cases, the number of platelets, their dynamic changes during the treatment, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were a concern. We sought to describe the platelet feature of these cases. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in Huizhou municipal central hospital from January 2020 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, blood routine results, other laboratory results, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of severe patients and nonsevere patients were compared. Univariate analysis showed that: age, platelet peaks, and PLR at peak platelet were the influencing factors in severe patients, multivariate analysis showed that the PLR value at peak platelet during treatment was an independent influencing factor in severe patients. The average hospitalization day of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was longer than those without platelet peaks (P <.05). The average age of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was older than those without platelet peaks (P <.05). The patients with significantly elevated platelets during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. And the higher PLR of patients during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Huizhou Municipal Central Hospital, presumed that the number of platelets and their dynamic changes during the treatment may have a suggestion on the severity and prognosis of the disease. The patient with markedly elevated platelets and longer average hospitalization days may be related to the cytokine storm. The PLR of patients means the degree of cytokine storm, which might provide a new indicator in the monitoring in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25767

RECORD 121
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen H.;  Guo J.;  Wang C.;  Luo F.;  Yu X.;  Zhang W.;  Li J.;  Zhao D.;  Xu D.;  Gong Q.;  Liao J.;  Yang H.;  Hou W.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (809-815). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. Methods: Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. Findings: All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10 cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8–9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9–10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. Interpretation: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. Funding: Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3

RECORD 122
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hoffmann M.;  Kleine-Weber H.;  Schroeder S.;  Krüger N.;  Herrler T.;  Erichsen S.;  Schiergens T.S.;  Herrler G.;  Wu N.-H.;  Nitsche A.;  Müller M.A.;  Drosten C.;  Pöhlmann S.
SOURCE
  Cell (2020) 181:2 (271-280.e8). Date of Publication: 16 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emerging SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens public health. Hoffmann and coworkers show that SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the host cell factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and can be blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. These findings might help to establish options for prevention and treatment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052

RECORD 123
TITLE
  Emerging Viruses without Borders: The Wuhan Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu S.-L.;  Saif L.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:2. Date of Publication: 22 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recently emerged coronavirus in Wuhan, China has claimed at least two lives as of January 17 and infected hundreds if not thousands of individuals. The situation has drawn international attention, including from the virology community. We applaud the rapid release to the public of the genome sequence of the new virus by Chinese virologists, but we also believe that increased transparency on disease reporting and data sharing with international colleagues are crucial for curbing the spread of this newly emerging virus to other parts of the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020130

RECORD 124
TITLE
  Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang M.;  Cao R.;  Zhang L.;  Yang X.;  Liu J.;  Xu M.;  Shi Z.;  Hu Z.;  Zhong W.;  Xiao G.
SOURCE
  Cell research (2020) 30:3 (269-271). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

RECORD 125
TITLE
  Countermeasures and treatment for aortic acute syndrome with 2019 coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Si Y.;  Sun X.F.;  Zhong M.;  Yue J.N.;  Fu W.G.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58:3 (178-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 coronavirus disease(COVID-19) has cost a great loss to the health and economic property of Chines people. Under such a special circumstance, how to deal with such patients with acute aortic syndrome has become a serious challenge. Rapid diagnosis of concomitant COVID-19, safe and effective transportation, implementation of the interventional procedure, protection of vascular surgical team and postoperative management and follow-up of such patients have become urgent problems for us. Combined with the latest novel government documents, the literature and the experiences from Wuhan, we answered the above questions briefly and plainly. We also hope to inspire the national vascular surgeons to manage critical emergencies in vascular surgery and even routine vascular diseases with COVID-19, as a final point to limit the severe epidemic situation, and minimize the damage of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0529-5815.2020.03.004

RECORD 126
TITLE
  The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergency and the role of timely and effective national health surveillance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lana R.M.;  Coelho F.C.;  Gomes M.F.D.C.;  Cruz O.G.;  Bastos L.S.;  Villela D.A.M.;  Codeço C.T.
SOURCE
  Cadernos de saude publica (2020) 36:3 (e00019620). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311×00019620

RECORD 127
TITLE
  COVID-19: don’t forget deaf people
AUTHOR NAMES
  Castro H.C.;  Lins Ramos A.S.;  Amorim G.;  Ratcliffe N.A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7799 (343). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00782-2

RECORD 128
TITLE
  Rapid Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review of Current Understanding of Critical Illness from COVID-19 Infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Goh K.J.;  Choong M.C.;  Cheong E.H.;  Kalimuddin S.;  Duu Wen S.;  Phua G.C.;  Chan K.S.;  Haja Mohideen S.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-9). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak that started in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019 has now extended across the globe with >100,000 cases and 3,000 deaths reported in 93 countries as of 7 March 2020. We report a case of COVID-19 infection in a 64-year-old man who developed rapidly worsening respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that required intubation. As the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 ranges widely from mild illness to ARDS with a high risk of mortality, there is a need for more research to identify early markers of disease severity. Current evidence suggests that patients with advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities or dyspnoea should be closely monitored, especially at 1-2 weeks after symptom onset. It remains to be seen if laboratory findings such as lymphopenia or elevated lactate dehydrogenase may serve as early surrogates for critical illness or markers of disease recovery. Management of ARDS in COVID-19 remains supportive while we await results of drug trials. More studies are needed to understand the incidence and outcomes of ARDS and critical illness from COVID-19, which will be important for critical care management and resource planning.

RECORD 129
TITLE
  The index case of SARS-CoV-2 in Scotland: a case report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hill D.K.J.;  Russell D.C.D.;  Clifford D.S.;  Templeton D.K.;  Mackintosh D.C.L.;  Koch D.O.;  Sutherland D.R.K.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since its identification in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has infected 125,048 persons globally with cases identified in 118 countries across all continents1. We report on the Scottish index case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the virus causing COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.022

RECORD 130
TITLE
  Updated approaches against SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li H.;  Zhou Y.;  Zhang M.;  Wang H.;  Zhao Q.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lies behind the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies. However, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug or vaccine has been officially approved due to the absence of adequate evidence. Scientists are racing towards the development of treatment for COVID-19. Recent studies have revealed many attractive threptic options, even if some of them remain to be further confirmed in rigorous preclinical models and clinical trials. In this minireview, we aim to summarize the updated potential approaches against SARS-CoV-2. We emphasize that further efforts are warranted to develop the safest and most effective approach.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00483-20

RECORD 131
TITLE
  Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Runfeng L.;  Yunlong H.;  Jicheng H.;  Weiqi P.;  Qinhai M.;  Yongxia S.;  Chufang L.;  Jin Z.;  Zhenhua J.;  Haiming J.;  Kui Z.;  Shuxiang H.;  Jun D.;  Xiaobo L.;  Xiaotao H.;  Lin W.;  Nanshan Z.;  Zifeng Y.
SOURCE
  Pharmacological research (2020) (104761). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  PURPOSE: Lianhuaqingwen (LH) as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been used to treat influenza and exerted broad-spectrum antiviral effects on a series of influenza viruses and immune regulatory effects [1]. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the antiviral activity of LH against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and its potential effect in regulating host immune response. METHODS: The antiviral activity of LH against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in Vero E6 cells using CPE and plaque reduction assay. The effect of LH on virion morphology was visualized under transmission electron microscope. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. RESULTS: LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Furthermore, LH treatment resulted in abnormal particle morphology of virion in cells. CONCLUSIONS: LH significantly inhibits the SARS-COV-2 replication, affects virus morphology and exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. These findings indicate that LH protects against the virus attack, making its use a novel strategy for controlling the COVID-19 disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104761

RECORD 132
TITLE
  Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Adhikari S.P.;  Meng S.;  Wu Y.-J.;  Mao Y.-P.;  Ye R.-X.;  Wang Q.-Z.;  Sun C.;  Sylvia S.;  Rozelle S.;  Raat H.;  Zhou H.
SOURCE
  Infectious Diseases of Poverty (2020) 9:1 Article Number: 29. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O’Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors’ affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. Results: Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus’ origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Conclusions: There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x

RECORD 133
TITLE
  Guidance for building a dedicated health facility to contain the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Agarwal A.;  Nagi N.;  Chatterjee P.;  Sarkar S.;  Mourya D.;  Sahay R.R.;  Bhatia R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Preparedness for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its spread in India calls for setting up of adequately equipped and dedicated health facilities to manage sick patients while protecting healthcare workers and the environment. In the wake of other emerging dangerous pathogens in recent times, such as Ebola, Nipah and Zika, it is important that such facilities are kept ready during the inter-epidemic period for training of health professionals and for managing cases of multi-drug resistant and difficult-to-treat pathogens. While endemic potential of such critically ill patients is not yet known, the health system should have surge capacity for such critical care units and preferably each tertiary government hospital should have at least one such facility. This article describes elements of design of such unit (e.g., space, infection control, waste disposal, safety of healthcare workers, partners to be involved in design and plan) which can be adapted to the context of either a new construction or makeshift construction on top of an existing structure. In view of a potential epidemic of COVID-19, specific requirements to handle it are also given.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_518_20

RECORD 134
TITLE
  Lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy amongst symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India: Protocol for restricted public health emergency use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bhatnagar T.;  Murhekar M.V.;  Soneja M.;  Gupta N.;  Giri S.;  Wig N.;  Gangakhedkar R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of February 29, 2020, more than 85,000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from China and 53 other countries with 2,924 deaths. On January 30, 2020, the first laboratory-confirmed case of COVID was reported from Kerala, India. In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups – age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons. Patients will be monitored to document clinical (hospital length of stay and mortality at 14, 28 and 90 days), laboratory (presence of viral RNA in serial throat swab samples) and safety (adverse events and serious adverse events) outcomes. Treatment outcomes amongst initial cases would be useful in providing guidance about the clinical management of patients with COVID-19. If found useful in managing initial SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, further evaluation using a randomized control trial design is warranted to guide future therapeutic use of this combination.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_20

RECORD 135
TITLE
  The establishment of reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 and variation analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang C.;  Liu Z.;  Chen Z.;  Huang X.;  Xu M.;  He T.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Starting around December 2019, an epidemic of pneumonia, which was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, broke out in Wuhan, China, and is spreading throughout the world. A new coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses was soon found to be the cause. At present, the sensitivity of clinical nucleic acid detection is limited, and it is still unclear whether it is related to genetic variation. In this study, we retrieved 95 full-length genomic sequences of SARAS-CoV-2 strains from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and GISAID databases, established the reference sequence by conducting multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses, and analyzed sequence variations along the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The homology among all viral strains was generally high, among them, 99.99% (99.91%-100%) at the nucleotide level and 99.99% (99.79%-100%) at the amino acid level. Although overall variation in open-reading frame (ORF) regions is low, 13 variation sites in 1a, 1b, S, 3a, M, 8, and N regions were identified, among which positions nt28144 in ORF 8 and nt8782 in ORF 1a showed mutation rate of 30.53% (29/95) and 29.47% (28/95), respectively. These findings suggested that there may be selective mutations in SARS-COV-2, and it is necessary to avoid certain regions when designing primers and probes. Establishment of the reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 could benefit not only biological study of this virus but also diagnosis, clinical monitoring and intervention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25762

RECORD 136
TITLE
  COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun J.;  He W.-T.;  Wang L.;  Lai A.;  Ji X.;  Zhai X.;  Li G.;  Suchard M.A.;  Tian J.;  Zhou J.;  Veit M.;  Su S.
SOURCE
  Trends in Molecular Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan turned into a public health emergency of international concern. With no antiviral drugs nor vaccines, and the presence of carriers without obvious symptoms, traditional public health intervention measures are significantly less effective. Here, we report the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. We propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008

RECORD 137
TITLE
  Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is currently an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China. Although there are still several unanswered questions about this infection, we evaluate the potential for international dissemination of this disease via commercial air travel should the outbreak continue.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa008

RECORD 138
TITLE
  Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa011

RECORD 139
TITLE
  Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu X.;  Chen P.;  Wang J.;  Feng J.;  Zhou H.;  Li X.;  Zhong W.;  Hao P.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (457-460). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

RECORD 140
TITLE
  Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilson M.E.;  Chen L.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

RECORD 141
TITLE
  The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Gayle A.A.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Rocklöv J.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa021

RECORD 142
TITLE
  Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (18-19). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w

RECORD 143
TITLE
  Open peer-review platform for COVID-19 preprints
AUTHOR NAMES
  Johansson M.A.;  Saderi D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (29). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00613-4

RECORD 144
TITLE
  Keep up with the latest coronavirus research
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Q.;  Allot A.;  Lu Z.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (193). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00694-1

RECORD 145
TITLE
  The race to unravel the biggest coronavirus outbreak in the United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maxmen A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (181-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00676-3

RECORD 146
TITLE
  Alert for non-respiratory symptoms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in epidemic period: A case report of familial cluster with three asymptomatic COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lu S.;  Lin J.;  Zhang Z.;  Xiao L.;  Jiang Z.;  Chen J.;  Hu C.;  Luo S.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  At present, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rampaging around the world. However, asymptomatic carriers intensified the difficulty of prevention and management. Here we reported the screening, clinical feathers, and treatment process of a family cluster involving three COVID-19 patients. The discovery of the first asymptomatic carrier in this family cluster depends on the repeated and comprehensive epidemiological investigation by disease control experts. In addition, the combination of multiple detection methods can help clinicians find asymptomatic carriers as early as possible. In conclusion, the prevention and control experience of this family cluster showed that comprehensive rigorous epidemiological investigation and combination of multiple detection methods were of great value for the detection of hidden asymptomatic carriers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25776

RECORD 147
TITLE
  Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease provides a basis for design of improved α-ketoamide inhibitors
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang L.;  Lin D.;  Sun X.;  Curth U.;  Drosten C.;  Sauerhering L.;  Becker S.;  Rox K.;  Hilgenfeld R.
SOURCE
  Science (New York, N.Y.) (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a global health emergency. An attractive drug target among coronaviruses is the main protease (Mpro, 3CLpro), due to its essential role in processing the polyproteins that are translated from the viral RNA. We report the X-ray structures of the unliganded SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and its complex with an α-ketoamide inhibitor. This was derived from a previously designed inhibitor but with the P3-P2 amide bond incorporated into a pyridone ring to enhance the half-life of the compound in plasma. Based on the structure, we developed the lead compound into a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor reveals a pronounced lung tropism and suitability for administration by the inhalative route.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb3405

RECORD 148
TITLE
  The potential chemical structure of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lung J.;  Lin Y.-S.;  Yang Y.-H.;  Chou Y.-L.;  Shu L.-H.;  Cheng Y.-C.;  Liu H.T.;  Wu C.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan and it has rapidly spread to almost all parts of the world. For coronaviruses, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important protease that catalyzes the replication of RNA from RNA template and is an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, we screened these chemical structures from traditional Chinese medicinal compounds proven to show antiviral activity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the similar chemical structures through a molecular docking study to target RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We found that theaflavin has a lower idock score in the catalytic pocket of RdRp in SARS-CoV-2 (−9.11 kcal/mol), SARS-CoV (−8.03 kcal/mol), and MERS-CoV (−8.26 kcal/mol) from idock. To confirm the result, we discovered that theaflavin has lower binding energy of −8.8 kcal/mol when it docks in the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp by using the Blind Docking server. Regarding contact modes, hydrophobic interactions contribute significantly in binding and additional hydrogen bonds were found between theaflavin and RdRp. Moreover, one π-cation interaction was formed between theaflavin and Arg553 from the Blind Docking server. Our results suggest that theaflavin could be a potential SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitor for further study.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25761

RECORD 149
TITLE
  Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kapata N.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Ntoumi F.;  Raji T.;  Chanda-Kapata P.;  Mwaba P.;  Mukonka V.;  Bates M.;  Tembo J.;  Corman V.;  Mfinanga S.;  Asogun D.;  Elton L.;  Arruda L.B.;  Thomason M.J.;  Mboera L.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Haider N.;  Simons D.;  Hollmann L.;  Lule S.A.;  Veas F.;  Abdel Hamid M.M.;  Dar O.;  Edwards S.;  Vairo F.;  McHugh T.D.;  Drosten C.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (233-236). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.049

RECORD 150
TITLE
  China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking
AUTHOR NAMES
  Callaway E.;  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 577:7792 (605-607). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00166-6

RECORD 151
TITLE
  High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu H.;  Zhong L.;  Deng J.;  Peng J.;  Dan H.;  Zeng X.;  Li T.;  Chen Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of oral science (2020) 12:1 (8). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  It has been reported that ACE2 is the main host cell receptor of 2019-nCoV and plays a crucial role in the entry of virus into the cell to cause the final infection. To investigate the potential route of 2019-nCov infection on the mucosa of oral cavity, bulk RNA-seq profiles from two public databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Functional Annotation of The Mammalian Genome Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (FANTOM5 CAGE) dataset were collected. RNA-seq profiling data of 13 organ types with para-carcinoma normal tissues from TCGA and 14 organ types with normal tissues from FANTOM5 CAGE were analyzed in order to explore and validate the expression of ACE2 on the mucosa of oral cavity. Further, single-cell transcriptomes from an independent data generated in-house were used to identify and confirm the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion in oral cavity. The results demonstrated that the ACE2 expressed on the mucosa of oral cavity. Interestingly, this receptor was highly enriched in epithelial cells of tongue. Preliminarily, those findings have explained the basic mechanism that the oral cavity is a potentially high risk for 2019-nCoV infectious susceptibility and provided a piece of evidence for the future prevention strategy in dental clinical practice as well as daily life.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x

RECORD 152
TITLE
  Viral Load Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in First Two Patients in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kim J.Y.;  Ko J.H.;  Kim Y.;  Kim Y.J.;  Kim J.M.;  Chung Y.S.;  Kim H.M.;  Han M.G.;  Kim S.Y.;  Chin B.S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:7 (e86). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of February 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak started in China in December 2019 has been spreading in many countries in the world. With the numbers of confirmed cases are increasing, information on the epidemiologic investigation and clinical manifestation have been accumulated. However, data on viral load kinetics in confirmed cases are lacking. Here, we present the viral load kinetics of the first two confirmed patients with mild to moderate illnesses in Korea in whom distinct viral load kinetics are shown. This report suggests that viral load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 may be different from that of previously reported other coronavirus infections such as SARS-CoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e86

RECORD 153
TITLE
  Facing the pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus infections: the pediatric perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang F.;  Luo X.P.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:2 (81-85). Date of Publication: 2 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.02.001

RECORD 154
TITLE
  First case of severe childhood novel coronavirus pneumonia in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen F.;  Liu Z.S.;  Zhang F.R.;  Xiong R.H.;  Chen Y.;  Cheng X.F.;  Wang W.Y.;  Ren J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (179-182). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.003

RECORD 155
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and neonate: What neonatologist need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lu Q.;  Shi Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cause china epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, the infection has been transmitted to other countries. About three neonates and more than 230 children cases are reported. The disease condition of the main children was mild. There is currently no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted transplacentally from mother to the newborn. The treatment strategy for children with Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is based on adult experience. Thus far, no deaths have been reported in the pediatric age group. This review describes the current understanding of COVID-19 infection in newborns and children.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25740

RECORD 156
TITLE
  A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus—A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao T.-T.;  Qian J.-D.;  Zhu W.-Y.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the past few decades, coronaviruses have risen as a global threat to public health. Currently, the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from Wuhan caused a worldwide panic. There are no specific antiviral therapies for COVID-19. However, there are agents that were used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. We could learn from SARS and MERS. Lopinavir (LPV) is an effective agent that inhibits the protease activity of coronavirus. In this review, we discuss the literature on the efficacy of LPV in vitro and in vivo, especially in patients with SARS and MERS, so that we might clarify the potential for the use of LPV in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25729

RECORD 157
TITLE
  The transmission and diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19): A Chinese perspective
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han Y.;  Yang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, China, has attracted the world’s attention over the last month. The Chinese government has taken emergency measures to control the outbreak and has undertaken initial steps in the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19). However, SARS-CoV-2 possesses powerful pathogenicity as well as transmissibility and still holds many mysteries that are yet to be solved, such as whether the virus can be transmitted by asymptomatic patients or by mothers to their infants. Our research presents selected available cases of COVID-19 in China to better understand the transmission and diagnosis regarding this infectious disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25749

RECORD 158
TITLE
  Fecal specimen diagnosis 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.;  Wang S.;  Xue Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia (COVID-19) from Wuhan, China, it has spread globally. We extracted the data on 14 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinhua Municipal Central hospital through 27 January 2020. We found that compared to pharyngeal swab specimens, nucleic acid detection of COVID-19 in fecal specimens was equally accurate. And we found that patients with a positive stool test did not experience gastrointestinal symptoms and had nothing to do with the severity of the lung infection. These results may help to understand the clinical diagnosis and the changes in clinical parameters of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25742

RECORD 159
TITLE
  Potentially repurposing adamantanes for COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cimolai N.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25752

RECORD 160
TITLE
  Transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak and effectiveness of government interventions: A data-driven analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang Y.;  Nie Y.;  Penny M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Using the parameterized susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model, we simulated the spread dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and impact of different control measures, conducted the sensitivity analysis to identify the key factor, plotted the trend curve of effective reproductive number (R), and performed data fitting after the simulation. By simulation and data fitting, the model showed the peak existing confirmed cases of 59 769 arriving on 15 February 2020, with the coefficient of determination close to 1 and the fitting bias 3.02%, suggesting high precision of the data-fitting results. More rigorous government control policies were associated with a slower increase in the infected population. Isolation and protective procedures would be less effective as more cases accrue, so the optimization of the treatment plan and the development of specific drugs would be of more importance. There was an upward trend of R in the beginning, followed by a downward trend, a temporary rebound, and another continuous decline. The feature of high infectiousness for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) led to an upward trend, and government measures contributed to the temporary rebound and declines. The declines of R could be exploited as strong evidence for the effectiveness of the interventions. Evidence from the four-phase stringent measures showed that it was significant to ensure early detection, early isolation, early treatment, adequate medical supplies, patients’ being admitted to designated hospitals, and comprehensive therapeutic strategy. Collaborative efforts are required to combat the novel coronavirus, focusing on both persistent strict domestic interventions and vigilance against exogenous imported cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25750

RECORD 161
TITLE
  Is novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) transmitted through conjunctiva?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peng Y.;  Zhou Y.-H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25753

RECORD 162
TITLE
  Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Z.;  Xiao X.;  Wei X.;  Li J.;  Yang J.;  Tan H.;  Zhu J.;  Zhang Q.;  Wu J.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  From the beginning of 2002 and 2012, severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) crossed the species barriers to infect humans, causing thousands of infections and hundreds of deaths, respectively. Currently, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has become the cause of the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was discovered. Until 18 February 2020, there were 72 533 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 10 644 severe cases) and 1872 deaths in China. SARS-CoV-2 is spreading among the public and causing substantial burden due to its human-to-human transmission. However, the intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear. Finding the possible intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is imperative to prevent further spread of the epidemic. In this study, we used systematic comparison and analysis to predict the interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of coronavirus spike protein and the host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The interaction between the key amino acids of S protein RBD and ACE2 indicated that, other than pangolins and snakes, as previously suggested, turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii, Chelonia mydas, and Pelodiscus sinensis) may act as the potential intermediate hosts transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to humans.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25726

RECORD 163
TITLE
  Analyzing the epidemiological outbreak of COVID-19: A visual exploratory data analysis approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dey S.K.;  Rahman M.M.;  Siddiqi U.R.;  Howlader A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is an obvious concern globally regarding the fact about the emerging coronavirus 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as a worldwide public health threat. As the outbreak of COVID-19 causes by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) progresses within China and beyond, rapidly available epidemiological data are needed to guide strategies for situational awareness and intervention. The recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the importance of analyzing the epidemiological data of this novel virus and predicting their risks of infecting people all around the globe. In this study, we present an effort to compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on COVID-19 based on the several open datasets on 2019-nCoV provided by the Johns Hopkins University, World Health Organization, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Commission, and DXY. An exploratory data analysis with visualizations has been made to understand the number of different cases reported (confirmed, death, and recovered) in different provinces of China and outside of China. Overall, at the outset of an outbreak like this, it is highly important to readily provide information to begin the evaluation necessary to understand the risks and begin containment activities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25743

RECORD 164
TITLE
  Histopathologic Changes and SARS-CoV-2 Immunostaining in the Lung of a Patient With COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang H.;  Zhou P.;  Wei Y.;  Yue H.;  Wang Y.;  Hu M.;  Zhang S.;  Cao T.;  Yang C.;  Li M.;  Guo G.;  Chen X.;  Chen Y.;  Lei M.;  Liu H.;  Zhao J.;  Peng P.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Du R.
SOURCE
  Annals of internal medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-0533

RECORD 165
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Meng L.;  Hua F.;  Bian Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of dental research (2020) (22034520914246). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China, has become a major public health challenge for not only China but also countries around the world. The World Health Organization announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus have constituted a public health emergency of international concern. As of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 has been recognized in 34 countries, with a total of 80,239 laboratory-confirmed cases and 2,700 deaths. Infection control measures are necessary to prevent the virus from further spreading and to help control the epidemic situation. Due to the characteristics of dental settings, the risk of cross infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners. For dental practices and hospitals in areas that are (potentially) affected with COVID-19, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed. This article, based on our experience and relevant guidelines and research, introduces essential knowledge about COVID-19 and nosocomial infection in dental settings and provides recommended management protocols for dental practitioners and students in (potentially) affected areas.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034520914246

RECORD 166
TITLE
  A comparative study on the clinical features of COVID-19 pneumonia to other pneumonias
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao D.;  Yao F.;  Wang L.;  Zheng L.;  Gao Y.;  Ye J.;  Guo F.;  Zhao H.;  Gao R.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has raised world concern since it emerged in Wuhan Hubei China in December, 2019. The infection may result into severe pneumonia with clusters illness onsets. Its impacts on public health make it paramount to clarify the clinical features with other pneumonias. METHODS: Nineteen 2019-nCoV pneumonia (NCOVID-19) and fifteen other pneumonia patients (NON-NCOVID-19) in out of Hubei places were involved in this study. Both NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19 patients were confirmed to be infected in throat swabs or/and sputa with or without 2019-nCoV by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed the demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features from those patients, and compared the difference between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. RESULTS: All patients had a history of exposure to confirmed case of 2019-nCoV or travel to Hubei before illness. The median duration, respectively, was 8 (IQR:6~11) and 5 (IQR:4~11) days from exposure to onset in NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The clinical symptoms were similar between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. Fifteen (78.95%) NCOVID-19 but 4 (26.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement while 17 (89.47%) NCOVID-19 but 1 (6.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity of chest CT images. Compared to NON-NCOVID-19, NCOVID-19 present remarkably more abnormal laboratory tests including AST, ALT, γ-GT, LDH and α-HBDH. CONCLUSION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused similar onsets to other pneumonias. CT scan may be a reliable test for screening NCOVID-19 cases. Liver function damage is more frequent in NCOVID-19 than NON-NCOVID-19 patients. LDH and α-HBDH may be considerable markers for evaluation of NCOVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa247

RECORD 167
TITLE
  The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Siddique R.;  Shereen M.A.;  Ali A.;  Liu J.;  Bai Q.;  Bashir N.;  Xue M.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not clear yet, however, its resemblance with SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infected people. In this Review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00187-20

RECORD 168
TITLE
  Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.;  Wang Z.;  Dong Y.;  Chang R.;  Xu C.;  Yu X.;  Zhang S.;  Tsamlag L.;  Shang M.;  Huang J.;  Wang Y.;  Xu G.;  Shen T.;  Zhang X.;  Cai Y.
SOURCE
  Cell Discovery (2020) 6:1 Article Number: 10. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated R0 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. An infectious disease dynamics SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Removed) model was applied to estimate the epidemic trend in Wuhan, China under two assumptions of Rt. In the first assumption, Rt was assumed to maintain over 1. The estimated number of infections would continue to increase throughout February without any indication of dropping with Rt = 1.9, 2.6, or 3.1. The number of infections would reach 11,044, 70,258, and 227,989, respectively, by 29 February 2020. In the second assumption, Rt was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (Rt = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (Rt = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. Several phases were divided by the dates when various levels of prevention and control measures were taken in effect in Wuhan. The estimated number of infections would reach the peak in late February, which is 58,077–84,520 or 55,869–81,393. Whether or not the peak of the number of infections would occur in February 2020 may be an important index for evaluating the sufficiency of the current measures taken in China. Regardless of the occurrence of the peak, the currently strict measures in Wuhan should be continuously implemented and necessary strict public health measures should be applied in other locations in China with high number of COVID-19 cases, in order to reduce Rt to an ideal level and control the infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0148-0

RECORD 169
TITLE
  From SARS and MERS CoVs to SARS-CoV-2: Moving toward more biased codon usage in viral structural and nonstructural genes
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kandeel M.;  Ibrahim A.;  Fayez M.;  Al-Nazawi M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging disease with fatal outcomes. In this study, a fundamental knowledge gap question is to be resolved by evaluating the differences in biological and pathogenic aspects of SARS-CoV-2 and the changes in SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with the two prior major COV epidemics, SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses. Methods: The genome composition, nucleotide analysis, codon usage indices, relative synonymous codons usage, and effective number of codons (ENc) were analyzed in the four structural genes; Spike (S), Envelope (E), membrane (M), and Nucleocapsid (N) genes, and two of the most important nonstructural genes comprising RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, Beta-CoV from pangolins, bat SARS, MERS, and SARS CoVs. Results: SARS-CoV-2 prefers pyrimidine rich codons to purines. Most high-frequency codons were ending with A or T, while the low frequency and rare codons were ending with G or C. SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins showed 5 to 20 lower ENc values, compared with SARS, bat SARS, and MERS CoVs. This implies higher codon bias and higher gene expression efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. SARS-CoV-2 encoded the highest number of over-biased and negatively biased codons. Pangolin Beta-CoV showed little differences with SARS-CoV-2 ENc values, compared with SARS, bat SARS, and MERS CoV. Conclusion: Extreme bias and lower ENc values of SARS-CoV-2, especially in Spike, Envelope, and Mpro genes, are suggestive for higher gene expression efficiency, compared with SARS, bat SARS, and MERS CoVs.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25754

RECORD 170
TITLE
  Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu R.;  Han H.;  Liu F.;  Lv Z.;  Wu K.;  Liu Y.;  Feng Y.;  Zhu C.
SOURCE
  Clinica Chimica Acta (2020) 505 (172-175). Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: There’s an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection since December 2019, first in China, and currently with more than 80 thousand confirmed infection globally in 29 countries till March 2, 2020. Identification, isolation and caring for patients early are essential to limit human-to-human transmission including reducing secondary infections among close contacts and health care workers, preventing transmission amplification events. The RT-PCR detection of viral nucleic acid test (NAT) was one of the most quickly established laboratory diagnosis method in a novel viral pandemic, just as in this COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: 4880 cases that had respiratory infection symptoms or close contact with COVID-19 patients in hospital in Wuhan, China, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by use of quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) on samples from the respiratory tract. Positive rates were calculated in groups divided by genders or ages. Results: The positive rate was about 38% for the total 4880 specimens. Male and older population had a significant higher positive rates. However, 57% was positive among the specimens from the Fever Clinics. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age, not gender, was the risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in fever clinics. Conclusions: Therefore, we concluded that viral NAT played an important role in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.009

RECORD 171
TITLE
  The SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Pipeline: an Overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen W.-H.;  Strych U.;  Hotez P.J.;  Bottazzi M.E.
SOURCE
  Current Tropical Medicine Reports (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose of Review: The goal of this review is to provide a timely overview on efforts to develop a vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Recent Findings: Previous research efforts to develop a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine in the years following the 2003 pandemic have opened the door for investigators to design vaccine concepts and approaches for the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit a high degree of genetic similarity and bind to the same host cell ACE2 receptor. Based on previous experience with SARS-CoV vaccines, it is expected that all COVID-19 vaccines will require careful safety evaluations for immunopotentiation that could lead to increased infectivity or eosinophilic infiltration. Besides this, a COVID-19 vaccine target product profile must address vaccinating at-risk human populations including frontline healthcare workers, individuals over the age of 60, and those with underlying and debilitating chronic conditions. Among the vaccine technologies under evaluation are whole virus vaccines, recombinant protein subunit vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. Summary: Each current vaccine strategy has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is paramount that multiple strategies be advanced quickly and then evaluated for safety and efficacy. Ultimately, the safety studies to minimize undesired immunopotentiation will become the most significant bottleneck in terms of time.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40475-020-00201-6

RECORD 172
TITLE
  Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 – United States, January-February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Burke R.M.;  Midgley C.M.;  Dratch A.;  Fenstersheib M.;  Haupt T.;  Holshue M.;  Ghinai I.;  Jarashow M.C.;  Lo J.;  McPherson T.D.;  Rudman S.;  Scott S.;  Hall A.J.;  Fry A.M.;  Rolfes M.A.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:9 (245-246). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contact† with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6909e1

RECORD 173
TITLE
  Combination of RT-qPCR testing and clinical features for diagnosis of COVID-19 facilitates management of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Kang H.;  Liu X.;  Tong Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25721

RECORD 174
TITLE
  The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may be at least partially responsible for the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.-C.;  Bai W.-Z.;  Hashikawa T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), another highly pathogenic coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019-nCoV) emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spreads around the world. This virus shares highly homological sequence with SARS-CoV, and causes acute, highly lethal pneumonia coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with clinical symptoms similar to those reported for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The most characteristic symptom of patients with COVID-19 is respiratory distress, and most of the patients admitted to the intensive care could not breathe spontaneously. Additionally, some patients with COVID-19 also showed neurologic signs, such as headache, nausea, and vomiting. Increasing evidence shows that coronaviruses are not always confined to the respiratory tract and that they may also invade the central nervous system inducing neurological diseases. The infection of SARS-CoV has been reported in the brains from both patients and experimental animals, where the brainstem was heavily infected. Furthermore, some coronaviruses have been demonstrated able to spread via a synapse-connected route to the medullary cardiorespiratory center from the mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors in the lung and lower respiratory airways. In light of the high similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2, it is quite likely that the potential invasion of SARS-CoV2 is partially responsible for the acute respiratory failure of patients with COVID-19. Awareness of this will have important guiding significance for the prevention and treatment of the SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25728

RECORD 175
TITLE
  Evolutionary history, potential intermediate animal host, and cross-species analyses of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Zai J.;  Zhao Q.;  Nie Q.;  Li Y.;  Foley B.T.;  Chaillon A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  To investigate the evolutionary history of the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China, a total of 70 genomes of virus strains from China and elsewhere with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 3 February 2020 were analyzed. To explore the potential intermediate animal host of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we reanalyzed virome data sets from pangolins and representative SARS-related coronaviruses isolates from bats, with particular attention paid to the spike glycoprotein gene. We performed phylogenetic, split network, transmission network, likelihood-mapping, and comparative analyses of the genomes. Based on Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis using the tip-dating method, we estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor and evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2, which ranged from 22 to 24 November 2019 and 1.19 to 1.31 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, respectively. Our results also revealed that the BetaCoV/bat/Yunnan/RaTG13/2013 virus was more similar to the SARS-CoV-2 virus than the coronavirus obtained from the two pangolin samples (SRR10168377 and SRR10168378). We also identified a unique peptide (PRRA) insertion in the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which may be involved in the proteolytic cleavage of the spike protein by cellular proteases, and thus could impact host range and transmissibility. Interestingly, the coronavirus carried by pangolins did not have the RRAR motif. Therefore, we concluded that the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is responsible for the recent outbreak of COVID-19, did not come directly from pangolins.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25731

RECORD 176
TITLE
  Rapid random access detection of the novel SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously 2019-nCoV) using an open access protocol for the Panther Fusion
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cordes A.K.;  Heim A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 125 Article Number: 104305. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104305

RECORD 177
TITLE
  Understanding of COVID-19 based on current evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun P.;  Lu X.;  Xu C.;  Sun W.;  Pan B.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a series of unexplained pneumonia cases have been reported in Wuhan, China. On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) temporarily named this new virus as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). On 11 February 2020, the WHO officially named the disease caused by the 2019-nCoV as coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The COVID-19 epidemic is spreading all over the world, especially in China. Based on the published evidence, we systematically discuss the characteristics of COVID-19 in the hope of providing a reference for future studies and help for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25722

RECORD 178
TITLE
  Facing the COVID-19 outbreak: What should we know and what could we do?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang Y.;  Shang W.;  Rao X.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25720

RECORD 179
TITLE
  Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak – United States, February 24, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jernigan D.B.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:8 (216-219). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and has spread throughout China and to 31 other countries and territories, including the United States (1). As of February 23, 2020, there were 76,936 reported cases in mainland China and 1,875 cases in locations outside mainland China (1). There have been 2,462 associated deaths worldwide; no deaths have been reported in the United States. Fourteen cases have been diagnosed in the United States, and an additional 39 cases have occurred among repatriated persons from high-risk settings, for a current total of 53 cases within the United States. This report summarizes the aggressive measures (2,3) that CDC, state and local health departments, multiple other federal agencies, and other partners are implementing to slow and try to contain transmission of COVID-19 in the United States. These measures require the identification of cases and contacts of persons with COVID-19 in the United States and the recommended assessment, monitoring, and care of travelers arriving from areas with substantial COVID-19 transmission. Although these measures might not prevent widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare state and local health departments, health care systems, businesses, educational organizations, and the general public in the event that widespread transmission occurs; and 3) better characterize COVID-19 to guide public health recommendations and the development and deployment of medical countermeasures, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. U.S. public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely, and CDC is coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other global partners. Interim guidance is available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/index.html. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC, state and local health departments, health care providers, and communities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6908e1

RECORD 180
TITLE
  Development and Clinical Application of A Rapid IgM-IgG Combined Antibody Test for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Diagnosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Z.;  Yi Y.;  Luo X.;  Xiong N.;  Liu Y.;  Li S.;  Sun R.;  Wang Y.;  Hu B.;  Chen W.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang J.;  Huang B.;  Lin Y.;  Yang J.;  Cai W.;  Wang X.;  Cheng J.;  Chen Z.;  Sun K.;  Pan W.;  Zhan Z.;  Chen L.;  Ye F.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quickly spread all over China and to more than 20 other countries. Although the virus (SARS-Cov-2) nucleic acid RT-PCR test has become the standard method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, these real-time PCR test kits have many limitations. In addition, high false negative rates were reported. There is an urgent need for an accurate and rapid test method to quickly identify large number of infected patients and asymptomatic carriers to prevent virus transmission and assure timely treatment of patients. We have developed a rapid and simple point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay which can detect IgM and IgG antibodies simultaneously against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 15 minutes which can detect patients at different infection stages. With this test kit, we carried out clinical studies to validate its clinical efficacy uses. The clinical detection sensitivity and specificity of this test were measured using blood samples collected from 397 PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients and 128 negative patients at 8 different clinical sites. The overall testing sensitivity was 88.66% and specificity was 90.63%. In addition, we evaluated clinical diagnosis results obtained from different types of venous and fingerstick blood samples. The results indicated great detection consistency among samples from fingerstick blood, serum and plasma of venous blood. The IgM-IgG combined assay has better utility and sensitivity compared with a single IgM or IgG test. It can be used for the rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers, symptomatic or asymptomatic, in hospitals, clinics, and test laboratories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25727

RECORD 181
TITLE
  Virus Isolation from the First Patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park W.B.;  Kwon N.J.;  Choi S.J.;  Kang C.K.;  Choe P.G.;  Kim J.Y.;  Yun J.;  Lee G.W.;  Seong M.W.;  Kim N.J.;  Seo J.S.;  Oh M.D.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:7 (e84). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e84

RECORD 182
TITLE
  2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng Z.J.;  Shan J.
SOURCE
  Infection (2020) 48:2 (155-163). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y