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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Emetine, ipecac, ipecac alkaloids and analogues as potential antiviral agents for coronaviruses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bleasel M.D.;  Peterson G.M.
SOURCE
  Pharmaceuticals (2020) 13:3 Article Number: 51. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The COVID-19 coronavirus is currently spreading around the globe with limited treatment options available. This article presents the rationale for potentially using old drugs (emetine, other ipecac alkaloids or analogues) that have been used to treat amoebiasis in the treatment of COVID-19. Emetine had amongst the lowest reported half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) from over 290 agents screened for the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses. While EC50 concentrations of emetine are achievable in the blood, studies show that concentrations of emetine can be almost 300 times higher in the lungs. Furthermore, based on the relative EC50s of emetine towards the coronaviruses compared with Entamoeba histolytica, emetine could be much more effective as an anti-coronavirus agent than it is against amoebiasis. This paper also discusses the known side effects of emetine and related compounds, how those side effects can be managed, and the optimal method of administration for the potential treatment of COVID-19. Given the serious and immediate threat that the COVID-19 coronavirus poses, our long history with emetine and the likely ability of emetine to reach therapeutic concentrations within the lungs, ipecac, emetine, and other analogues should be considered as potential treatment options, especially if in vitro studies confirm viral sensitivity.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13030051

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Successful recovery of COVID-19 pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with long-term immunosuppression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu L.;  Xu X.;  Ma K.;  Yang J.;  Guan H.;  Chen S.;  Chen Z.;  Chen G.
SOURCE
  American Journal of Transplantation (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised great concern worldwide, but its impact on transplant recipients is unknown. We report here the clinical features and therapeutic course of the first reported renal transplant recipient with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. This is a 52-year-old man who received kidney transplantation 12 years ago. His overall clinical characteristics (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and chest CT) were similar to those of non-transplanted COVID-19 patients. Following a treatment regimen consisting of reduced immunosuppressant use and low dose methylprednisolone-based therapy, the COVID-19 pneumonia in this long-term immunosuppressive patient was successfully recovered. This effectively treated case has reference value for the future treatment of other transplant patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15869

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus in a 15-day-old neonate with clinical signs of sepsis, a case report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kamali Aghdam M.;  Jafari N.;  Eftekhari K.
SOURCE
  Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: Novel coronavirus or coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can affect all age groups. The clinical course of the disease in children and infants is milder than in adults. It should be noted that, although typical symptoms may be present in children, non-specific symptoms could be noted in the neonate. The disease is rare in the neonate, so, its suspicion in this group can help to make a quick diagnose. Case report: A 15-day-old neonate was admitted with fever, lethargy, cutaneous mottling, and respiratory distress without cough. His mother had symptoms of Novel coronavirus. So Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay was done for the neonate and showed to be positive. The newborn was isolated and subjected to supportive care. Antibiotic and antiviral treatment was initiated. Eventually, the baby was discharged in good general condition. Conclusion: When a newborn presents with non-specific symptoms of infection with an added history of COVID-19 in his/her parents, it indicates the need for PCR testing for Novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1747634

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients in northeast Chongqing
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wan S.;  Xiang Y.;  Fang W.;  Zheng Y.;  Li B.;  Hu Y.;  Lang C.;  Huang D.;  Sun Q.;  Xiong Y.;  Huang X.;  Lv J.;  Luo Y.;  Shen L.;  Yang H.;  Huang G.;  Yang R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (SARS-CoV-2) that began in December 2019 presents a significant and urgent threat to global health. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of this new infectious disease. Epidemiological, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of 135 patients in northeast Chongqing were collected and analyzed in this study. A total of 135 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 36-55), and there was no significant gender difference (53.3% men). The majority of patients had contact with people from the Wuhan area. Forty-three (31.9%) patients had underlying disease, primarily hypertension (13 [9.6%]), diabetes (12 [8.9%]), cardiovascular disease (7 [5.2%]), and malignancy (4 [3.0%]). Common symptoms included fever (120 [88.9%]), cough (102 [76.5%]), and fatigue (44 [32.5%]). Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all the patients. All patients received antiviral therapy (135 [100%]) (Kaletra and interferon were both used), antibacterial therapy (59 [43.7%]), and corticosteroids (36 [26.7%]). In addition, many patients received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (124 [91.8%]). It is suggested that patients should receive Kaletra early and should be treated by a combination of Western and Chinese medicines. Compared to the mild cases, the severe ones had lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma levels of Pt, APTT, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, PCT, ALB, C-reactive protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates the clinic features and therapies of 135 COVID-19 patients. Kaletra and TCM played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Further studies are required to explore the role of Kaletra and TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25783

RECORD 5
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak: A new challenge
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lupia T.;  Scabini S.;  Mornese Pinna S.;  Di Perri G.;  De Rosa F.G.;  Corcione S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance (2020) 21 (22-27). Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Following the public-health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 30 January 2020 and the recent outbreak caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [officially renamed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] in China and 29 other countries, we aimed to summarise the clinical aspects of the novelBetacoronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its possible clinical presentations together with suggested therapeutic algorithms for patients who may require antimicrobial treatment. Methods: The currently available literature was reviewed for microbiologically confirmed infections by 2019-nCoV or COVID-19 at the time of writing (13 February 2020). A literature search was performed using the PubMed database and Cochrane Library. Search terms included ‘novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV’ or ‘COVID-19’. Results: Published cases occurred mostly in males (age range, 8–92 years). Cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine system diseases were commonly reported, except previous chronic pulmonary diseases [e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis] that were surprisingly underreported. Fever was present in all of the case series available, flanked by cough, dyspnoea, myalgia and fatigue. Multiple bilateral lobular and subsegmental areas of consolidation or bilateral ground-glass opacities were the main reported radiological features of 2019-nCoV infection, at least in the early phases of the disease. Conclusion: The new 2019-nCoV epidemic is mainly associated with respiratory disease and few extrapulmonary signs. However, there is a low rate of associated pre-existing respiratory co-morbidities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.02.021

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pung R.;  Chiew C.J.;  Young B.E.;  Chin S.;  Chen M.I.-C.;  Clapham H.E.;  Cook A.R.;  Maurer-Stroh S.;  Toh M.P.H.S.;  Poh C.;  Low M.;  Lum J.;  Koh V.T.J.;  Mak T.M.;  Cui L.;  Lin R.V.T.P.;  Heng D.;  Leo Y.-S.;  Lye D.C.;  Lee V.J.M.;  Kam K.-Q.;  Kalimuddin S.;  Tan S.Y.;  Loh J.;  Thoon K.C.;  Vasoo S.;  Khong W.X.;  Suhaimi N.-A.;  Chan S.J.;  Zhang E.;  Oh O.;  Ty A.;  Tow C.;  Chua Y.X.;  Chaw W.L.;  Ng Y.;  Abdul-Rahman F.;  Sahib S.;  Zhao Z.;  Tang C.;  Low C.;  Goh E.H.;  Lim G.;  Hou Y.;  Roshan I.;  Tan J.;  Foo K.;  Nandar K.;  Kurupatham L.;  Chan P.P.;  Raj P.;  Lin Y.;  Said Z.;  Lee A.;  See C.;  Markose J.;  Tan J.;  Chan G.;  See W.;  Peh X.;  Cai V.;  Chen W.K.;  Li Z.;  Soo R.;  Chow A.L.;  Wei W.;  Farwin A.;  Ang L.W.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1039-1046). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Three clusters of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to a tour group from China, a company conference, and a church were identified in Singapore in February, 2020. Methods: We gathered epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed COVID-19, via interviews and inpatient medical records, and we did field investigations to assess interactions and possible modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Open source reports were obtained for overseas cases. We reported the median (IQR) incubation period of SARS-CoV-2. Findings: As of Feb 15, 2020, 36 cases of COVID-19 were linked epidemiologically to the first three clusters of circumscribed local transmission in Singapore. 425 close contacts were quarantined. Direct or prolonged close contact was reported among affected individuals, although indirect transmission (eg, via fomites and shared food) could not be excluded. The median incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 was 4 days (IQR 3–6). The serial interval between transmission pairs ranged between 3 days and 8 days. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 is transmissible in community settings, and local clusters of COVID-19 are expected in countries with high travel volume from China before the lockdown of Wuhan and institution of travel restrictions. Enhanced surveillance and contact tracing is essential to minimise the risk of widespread transmission in the community. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30528-6

RECORD 7
TITLE
  COVID-19: combining antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments
AUTHOR NAMES
  Stebbing J.;  Phelan A.;  Griffin I.;  Tucker C.;  Oechsle O.;  Smith D.;  Richardson P.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (400-402). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30132-8

RECORD 8
TITLE
  International Guidelines on Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Coles C.E.;  Aristei C.;  Bliss J.;  Boersma L.;  Brunt A.M.;  Chatterjee S.;  Hanna G.;  Jagsi R.;  Kaidar Person O.;  Kirby A.;  Mjaaland I.;  Meattini I.;  Luis A.M.;  Marta G.N.;  Offersen B.;  Poortmans P.;  Rivera S.
SOURCE
  Clinical Oncology (2020) 32:5 (279-281). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2020.03.006

RECORD 9
TITLE
  Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – United States, February 12-March 16, 2020
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (343-346). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Globally, approximately 170,000 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported, including an estimated 7,000 deaths in approximately 150 countries (1). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic (2). Data from China have indicated that older adults, particularly those with serious underlying health conditions, are at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and death than are younger persons (3). Although the majority of reported COVID-19 cases in China were mild (81%), approximately 80% of deaths occurred among adults aged ≥60 years; only one (0.1%) death occurred in a person aged ≤19 years (3). In this report, COVID-19 cases in the United States that occurred during February 12-March 16, 2020 and severity of disease (hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], and death) were analyzed by age group. As of March 16, a total of 4,226 COVID-19 cases in the United States had been reported to CDC, with multiple cases reported among older adults living in long-term care facilities (4). Overall, 31% of cases, 45% of hospitalizations, 53% of ICU admissions, and 80% of deaths associated with COVID-19 were among adults aged ≥65 years with the highest percentage of severe outcomes among persons aged ≥85 years. In contrast, no ICU admissions or deaths were reported among persons aged ≤19 years. Similar to reports from other countries, this finding suggests that the risk for serious disease and death from COVID-19 is higher in older age groups.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e2

RECORD 10
TITLE
  Liver and kidney injuries in COVID-19 and their effects on drug therapy; a letter to editor
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rismanbaf A.;  Zarei S.
SOURCE
  Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (2020) 8:1 Article Number: e17. Date of Publication: 2020

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Mesenchymal stem cell infusion shows promise for combating coronavirus (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shetty A.K.
SOURCE
  Aging and Disease (2020) 11:2 (462-464). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new study published by the journal Aging & Disease reported that intravenous administration of clinical-grade human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in improved functional outcomes (Leng et al., Aging Dis, 11:216-228, 2020). This study demonstrated that intravenous infusion of MSCs is a safe and effective approach for treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including elderly patients displaying severe pneumonia. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, treating COVID-19 patients, particularly those afflicted with severe pneumonia, is challenging as no specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available. Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking. Additional studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to validate this therapeutic intervention further, however.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0301

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus treatment with ribavirin: Groundwork for evaluation concerning COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khalili J.S.;  Zhu H.;  Mak A.;  Yan Y.;  Zhu Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Confronting the challenge of the outbreak of COVID-19 should sharpen our focus on global drug access as a key issue in anti-viral therapy testing. The testing and adoption of effective therapies for novel coronaviruses is hampered by the challenge of conducting controlled studies during a state of emergency. The access to direct anti-viral drugs such as ribavirin that have an existing inventory and reliable supply chain may be a priority consideration for therapies developed for the 2019-nCoV infection outbreaks and any strain variants that may emerge. Based on the direct anti-viral activity of ribavirin against 2019-nCoV in vitro and evidence for potency enhancement strategies developed during the prior SARS and MERS outbreaks, ribavirin may significantly impact our ability to end the lingering outbreaks in China and slow outbreaks in other countries. The apparent COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to follow dosage guidelines for treatment with ribavirin, test new therapeutic concepts, and conduct controlled testing to apply the scientific rigor required to address the controversy around this mainstay of anti-viral therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25798

RECORD 13
TITLE
  Quick community survey on the impact of COVID-19 outbreak for the healthcare of people living with HIV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo W.;  Weng H.L.;  Bai H.;  Liu J.;  Wei X.N.;  Zhou K.;  Sande A.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (663-667). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To collect the current status and healthcare needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak to inform quick response from government and communities. Methods: During February 5(th) to 10(th) , 2020, a national anonymous survey was conducted using an online questionnaire among PLHIV at least 18 years of age and had started antiretroviral treatment (ART) to collect the information on COVID-19 prevention, HIV-related health services and the needs on psychosocial support. Current status and needs of people living with HIV were analyzed in Hubei and other regions. Results: A total of 1 014 valid questionnaires were collected, with PLHIV respondents cross the country. The survey revealed that 93.79% of the respondents could obtain information regarding the prevention of COVID-19 from their communities or villages. Respondents were concerned with HIV-specific protective measures and personal protective equipment shortage. 32.64% of all respondents were not carrying sufficient antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to meet the needs under traffic and travel restrictions, and some could face stock-outs in the coming month. In Hubei province where 53 respondents needed ARV refill, 64.15% reported difficulty accessing ARV due to the “blockage”. 28.93% respondents were in need of sociopsychological support, and 85.31% anticipated further improvement of the out-of-town ARV refill process from the government. Conclusion: PLHIV wants to know HIV-specific protective measures against COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV who returned to their home-towns and affected by the lock-downs reported challenges with refills. We should undertake a more systematic study on impacts of the COVID-19 on PLHIV to develop preparedness capacity for future public health emergency.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200314-00345

RECORD 14
TITLE
  Comparison of Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by COVID-19 and H1N1
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang X.;  Du R.;  Wang R.;  Cao T.;  Guan L.;  Yang C.;  Zhu Q.;  Hu M.;  Li X.;  Li Y.;  Liang L.;  Tong Z.;  Sun B.;  Peng P.;  Shi H.
SOURCE
  Chest (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, considerable attention has been focused on its elucidation. However, it is also important for clinicians and epidemiologists to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza viruses. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the study was to explore the different clinical presentations between COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). STUDY DESIGN: and Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study. We compared two independent cohorts of ARDS patients infected with either COVID-19 (n=73) or H1N1 (n=75). We analyzed and compared their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, treatments, and prognosis. RESULTS: The median age of COVID-19 patients was higher than that of H1N1 patients, and there was a higher proportion of males among COVID-19 patients (p<0.05). COVID-19 patients exhibited higher proportions of non-productive coughs, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms than those of H1N1 patients (p<0.05). H1N1 patients had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than COVID-19 patients (p<0.05). The PaO2/FiO2 of 198.2 mmHg in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than the PaO2/FiO2 of 107.0 mmHg of H1N1 patients (p<0.001). Ground-glass opacities was more common in COVID-19 patients than in H1N1 patients (p<0.001). There was a greater variety of antiviral therapies administered to COVID-19 patients than to H1N1 patients. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was 28.8%, while that of H1N1 patients was 34.7% (p=0.483). SOFA-score adjusted mortality of H1N1 patients was significantly higher than that of COVID-19 patients with the rate ratio was 2.009 (95% CI [1.563, 2.583], p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: There were many differences between COVID-19 and H1N1-induced ARDS patients in clinical presentations. Compared with H1N1, patients with COVID-19 induced ARDS had lower severity of illness scores at presentation and lower SOFA-score adjusted mortality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.032

RECORD 15
TITLE
  Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou G.;  Zhao Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1718-1723). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A newly identified novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is causing pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome across the world. Epidemiology, genomics, and pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 show high homology with that of SARS-CoV. Current efforts are focusing on development of specific antiviral drugs. Therapeutic neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 will be greatly important therapeutic agents for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, the host immune responses against SARS-CoV discussed in this review provide implications for developing NAbs and understanding clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we describe the benefits, challenges and considerations of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Although many challenges exist, NAbs still offer a therapeutic option to control the current pandemic and the possible re-emergence of the virus in the future, and their development therefore remains a high priority.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45123

RECORD 16
TITLE
  Antihypertensive treatment with ACEI/ARB of patients with COVID-19 complicated by hypertension
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li G.;  Hu R.;  Zhang X.
SOURCE
  Hypertension Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-0433-1

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Comorbidities and multi-organ injuries in the treatment of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang T.;  Du Z.;  Zhu F.;  Cao Z.;  An Y.;  Gao Y.;  Jiang B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (e52). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30558-4

RECORD 18
TITLE
  The first Vietnamese case of COVID-19 acquired from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Van Cuong L.;  Giang H.T.N.;  Linh L.K.;  Shah J.;  Van Sy L.;  Hung T.H.;  Reda A.;  Truong L.N.;  Tien D.X.;  Huy N.T.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (408-409). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30111-0

RECORD 19
TITLE
  Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen L.;  Xiong J.;  Bao L.;  Shi Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (398-400). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30141-9

RECORD 20
TITLE
  COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumomediastinum
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou C.;  Gao C.;  Xie Y.;  Xu M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (510). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30156-0

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang L.;  Karakiulakis G.;  Roth M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e21). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30116-8

RECORD 22
TITLE
  COVID-19, ECMO, and lymphopenia: a word of caution
AUTHOR NAMES
  Henry B.M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e24). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30119-3

RECORD 23
TITLE
  Staff safety during emergency airway management for COVID-19 in Hong Kong
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheung J.C.-H.;  Ho L.T.;  Cheng J.V.;  Cham E.Y.K.;  Lam K.N.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e19). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30084-9

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Respiratory support for patients with COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ñamendys-Silva S.A.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e18). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30110-7

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Covid-19: A puzzle with many missing pieces
AUTHOR NAMES
  Vetter P.;  Eckerle I.;  Kaiser L.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m627. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m627

RECORD 26
TITLE
  COVID-19 in the Pediatric Population
AUTHOR NAMES
  Abdelmaksoud A.;  Kroumpouzos G.;  Jafferany M.;  Lotti T.;  Sadoughifar R.;  Goldust M.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic therapy (2020) (e13339). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13339

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Lymphopenia predicts disease severity of COVID-19: a descriptive and predictive study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tan L.;  Wang Q.;  Zhang D.;  Ding J.;  Huang Q.;  Tang Y.-Q.;  Wang Q.;  Miao H.
SOURCE
  Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy (2020) 5:1 Article Number: 33. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0148-4

RECORD 28
TITLE
  The clinical characteristics of pneumonia patients coinfected with 2019 novel coronavirus and influenza virus in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ding Q.;  Lu P.;  Fan Y.;  Xia Y.;  Liu M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since then the novel coronavirus pneumonia disease has been spreading quickly and many countries and territories have been affected, with major outbreaks in China, South Korea, Italy, and Iran. Influenza virus has been known as a common pathogen in winter and it can cause pneumonia. It was found clinically that very few patients were diagnosed with both COVID-19 and influenza virus. A total of 5 of the 115 patients confirmed with COVID-19 were also diagnosed with influenza virus infection, with three cases being influenza A and two cases being influenza B. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics of those patients who got infected with COVID-19 as well as influenza virus. Common symptoms at onset of illness included fever (five [100%] patients), cough (five [100%] patients), shortness of breath (five [100%] patients), nasal tampon (three [60%] patients), pharyngalgia (three [60%] patients), myalgia (two [40%] patients), fatigue (two [40%] patients), headache (two [40%] patients), and expectoration (two [40%] patients). The laboratory results showed that compared to the normal values, the patients’ lymphocytes were reduced (four [80%] patients), and liver functions alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (two [40%] patients and two [40%] patients) and C-reactive protein (four [80%] patients) were increased when admitted to hospital. They stayed in the hospital for 14, 30, 17, 12, and 19 days (28.4 ± 7.02), respectively. The main complications for the patients were acute respiratory distress syndrome (one [20%] patients), acute liver injury (three [60%] patients), and diarrhea (two [40%] patients). All patients were given antiviral therapy (including oseltamivir), oxygen inhalation, and antibiotics. Three patients were treated with glucocorticoids including two treated with oral glucocorticoids. One of the five patients had transient hemostatic medication for hemoptysis. Fortunately, all patients did not need intensive care unit and were discharged from the hospital without death. In conclusion, those patients with both COVID-19 and influenza virus infection did not appear to show a more severe condition because based on the laboratory findings, imaging studies, and patient prognosis, they showed similar clinical characteristics as those patients with COVID-19 infection only. However, it is worth noting that the symptoms of nasal tampon and pharyngalgia may be more prone to appear for those coinfection patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25781

RECORD 29
TITLE
  Rules for scientific progress while living with the COVID-19 Pandemic: from ‘benchside’ to ‘fireside.’
SOURCE
  Cancer Biology and Therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2020.1747775

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu K.;  Chen Y.;  Lin R.;  Han K.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Due to the general susceptibility of new coronaviruses, the clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly and young patients may be different. Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with 2019 new-type coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19). Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) who were hospitalized in Hainan Provincial People’s Hospital from January 15, 2020 to February 18, 2020. Compare the clinical characteristics of elderly with Young and Middle-aged patients. Results: A total of 56 patients were enrolled 18 elderly patients (32.14%), and 38 young and middle-aged patients (67.86%). The most common symptoms in both groups were fever, followed by cough and sputum. Four patients in the elderly group received negative pressure ICU for mechanical ventilation, and five patients in the young and middle-aged group. One patient died in the elderly group (5.56%), and two patients died in the young and middle-aged group (5.26%). The PSI score of the elderly group was higher than that of the young and middle-aged group (P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with PSI grades IV and V was significantly higher in the elderly group than in the young and middle-aged group (P < 0.05). The proportion of multiple lobe involvement in the elderly group was higher than that in the young and middle-aged group (P < 0.001), and there was no difference in single lobe lesions between the two groups. The proportion of lymphocytes in the elderly group was significantly lower than that in the young and middle-aged group (P < 0.001), and the C-reactive protein was significantly higher in the young group (P < 0.001). The Lopinavir and Ritonavir Tablets, Chinese medicine, oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were statistically different in the elderly group and the young and middle-aged group, and the P values were all <0.05. Interpretation: The mortality of elderly patients with COVID-19 is higher than that of young and middle-aged patients, and the proportion of patients with PSI grade IV and V is significantly higher than that of young and middle-aged patients. Elderly patients with COVID-19 are more likely to progress to severe disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Teicoplanin: an alternative drug for the treatment of COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Baron S.A.;  Devaux C.;  Colson P.;  Raoult D.;  Rolain J.-M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) Article Number: 105944. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged from China causing pneumonia outbreaks, first in the Wuhan region of China and then spread worldwide because of its probable high transmission efficiency. Owing to the lack of efficient and specific treatments and the need to contain the epidemic, drug repurposing appears to be the best tool to find a therapeutic solution. Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin and ritonavir have shown efficacy to inhibit coronavirus in vitro. Teicoplanin, an antibiotic used to treat staphylococcal infections, previously showed efficacy to inhibit the first stage of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) viral life cycle in human cells. This activity is conserved against SARS-Cov-2, thus placing teicoplanin as a potential treatment for patients with this virus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105944

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Cancer Care Delivery Challenges Amidst Coronavirus Disease – 19 (COVID-19) Outbreak: Specific Precautions for Cancer Patients and Cancer Care Providers to Prevent Spread
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shankar A.;  Saini D.;  Roy S.;  Mosavi Jarrahi A.;  Chakraborty A.;  Bharti S.J.;  Taghizadeh-Hesary F.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP (2020) 21:3 (569-573). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus outbreak has affected thousands of people in at least 186 countries which has affected the cancer care delivery system apart from affecting the overall health system. Cancer patients are more susceptible to coronavirus infection than individuals without cancer as they are in an immunosuppressive state because of the malignancy and anticancer treatment. Oncologists should be more attentive to detect coronavirus infection early, as any type of advanced cancer is at much higher risk for unfavorable outcomes. Oncology communities must ensure that cancer patients should spend more time at home and less time out in the community. Oncologists and other health care professionals involved in cancer care have a critical opportunity to communicate to their patients to pass on right information regarding practice modifications in view of COVID-19 outbreaks. Countries must isolate, test, treat and trace to control the coronavirus pandemic. There is a paucity of information on novel coronavirus infection and its impact on cancer patients and cancer care providers. To date, there is no scientific guideline regarding management of cancer patients in a background of coronavirus outbreak.<br />.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.3.569

RECORD 33
TITLE
  COVID-19 and Economy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gupta M.;  Abdelmaksoud A.;  Jafferany M.;  Lotti T.;  Sadoughifar R.;  Goldust M.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic therapy (2020) (e13329). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13329

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dashraath P.;  Jing Lin Jeslyn W.;  Mei Xian Karen L.;  Li Min L.;  Sarah L.;  Biswas A.;  Arjandas Choolani M.;  Mattar C.;  Lin S.L.
SOURCE
  American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is spreading globally at an accelerated rate, with a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2 – 2.5, indicating that 2 – 3 persons will be infected from an index patient. A serious public health emergency, it is particularly deadly in vulnerable populations and communities in which healthcare providers are insufficiently prepared to manage the infection. As of March 16, 2020, there are more than 180,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with over 7,000 related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated from asymptomatic individuals, and affected patients continue to be infectious two weeks after cessation of symptoms. The substantial morbidity and socioeconomic impact have necessitated drastic measures across all continents, including nationwide lockdowns and border closures. Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks. To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. Physiological and mechanical changes in pregnancy increase susceptibility to infections in general, particularly when the cardiorespiratory system is affected, and encourage rapid progression to respiratory failure in the gravida. Furthermore, the pregnancy bias towards T-helper 2 (Th2) system dominance which protects the fetus, leaves the mother vulnerable to viral infections, which are more effectively contained by the Th1 system. These unique challenges mandate an integrated approach to pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2. Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission and maternal-fetal complications. We discuss the latest options in antiviral therapy and vaccine development, including the novel use of chloroquine in the management of COVID-19. Fetal surveillance, in view of the predisposition to growth restriction and special considerations during labor and delivery are addressed. Additionally, we focus on keeping frontline obstetric care providers safe while continuing to provide essential services. Our clinical service model is built around the principles of workplace segregation, responsible social distancing, containment of cross-infection to healthcare providers, judicious use of personal protective equipment and telemedicine. Our aim is to share a framework which can be adopted by tertiary maternity units managing pregnant women in the flux of a pandemic while maintaining the safety of the patient and healthcare provider at its core.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.03.021

RECORD 35
TITLE
  Clinical and coagulation characteristics of 7 patients with critical COVID-2019 pneumonia and acro-ischemia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang Y.;  Cao W.;  Xiao M.;  Li Y.J.;  Yang Y.;  Zhao J.;  Zhou X.;  Jiang W.;  Zhao Y.Q.;  Zhang S.Y.;  Li T.S.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi (2020) 41 (E006). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To investigate the clinical and coagulation characteristics of the critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acro-ischemia in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: The retrospective study included 7 critical COVID-19 patients with acro-ischemia in a single center in Wuhan, from Feb 4 to Feb 15, 2020. The clinical and laboratory data before and during the ICU stay were analyzed. Results: The median age of 7 patients was 59 years and 4 of them were men. 3 of them were associated with underlying comorbidities. Fever, cough, dyspnea and diarrhea were common clinical symptoms. All patients had acro-ischemia presentations including finger/toe cyanosis, skin bulla and dry gangrene. D-dimer, fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) were significantly elevated in most patients. Prothrombin time (PT) were prolonged in 4 patients. D-dimer and FDP levels increased progressively when COVID-2019 exacerbated, and 4 patients were diagnosed with definite disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). 6 patients received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment, after which their D-dimer and FDP decreased, but there was no significant improvement in clinical symptoms. 5 patients died finally and the median time from acro-ischemia to death was 12 days. Conclusions: The existence of hypercoagulation status in critical COVID-2019 patients should be monitored closely, and anticoagulation therapy can be considered in selected patients. More clinical data is needed to investigate the role of anticoagulation in COVID-2019 treatment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2020.0006

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiménez-Pavón D.;  Carbonell-Baeza A.;  Lavie C.J.
SOURCE
  Progress in cardiovascular diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.03.009

RECORD 37
TITLE
  Therapeutic opportunities to manage COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 infection: Present and future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shetty R.;  Ghosh A.;  Honavar S.G.;  Khamar P.;  Sethu S.
SOURCE
  Indian journal of ophthalmology (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A severe form of respiratory disease – COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, has evolved into a pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The unabated spread of the disease is due to lack of vaccine and effective therapeutic agents against this novel virus. Hence, the situation demands an immediate need to explore all the plausible therapeutic and prophylactic strategies that can be made available to stem the spread of the disease. Towards this effort, the current review outlines the key aspects of the pathobiology associated with the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients, which includes a viral response phase and an exaggerated host response phase. The review also summarizes therapeutic agents that are currently being explored along with those with potential for consideration. The broad groups of therapeutic agents discussed include those that: (i) block viral entry to host cells, (ii) block viral replication and survival in host cells, and (iii) dampen exaggerated host immune response. The various kinds of pharmaceutical prophylactic options that may be followed to prevent COVID-19 have also been discussed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_639_20

RECORD 38
TITLE
  COVID-19 Infection in a Patient with End-Stage Kidney Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fu D.;  Yang B.;  Xu J.;  Mao Z.;  Zhou C.;  Xue C.
SOURCE
  Nephron (2020) (1-3). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread very rapidly in China and worldwide. In this article, we report on a 75-year-old man infected with 2019 novel coronavirus who has end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). COVID-19 patients with ESKD need isolation dialysis, but most of them cannot be handled in time due to limited continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machines. CRRT provided benefits for this patient by removing potentially damaging toxins and stabilizing his metabolic and hemodynamic status. With the control of uremia and fluid status, this patient ended up with an uneventful post-CRRT course, absence of clinical symptoms, and negative PCR tests. Greater efforts are needed to decrease the mortality of COVID-19-infected ESKD patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507261

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Alhazzani W.;  Møller M.H.;  Arabi Y.M.;  Loeb M.;  Gong M.N.;  Fan E.;  Oczkowski S.;  Levy M.M.;  Derde L.;  Dzierba A.;  Du B.;  Aboodi M.;  Wunsch H.;  Cecconi M.;  Koh Y.;  Chertow D.S.;  Maitland K.;  Alshamsi F.;  Belley-Cote E.;  Greco M.;  Laundy M.;  Morgan J.S.;  Kesecioglu J.;  McGeer A.;  Mermel L.;  Mammen M.J.;  Alexander P.E.;  Arrington A.;  Centofanti J.E.;  Citerio G.;  Baw B.;  Memish Z.A.;  Hammond N.;  Hayden F.G.;  Evans L.;  Rhodes A.
SOURCE
  Intensive care medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5

RECORD 40
TITLE
  European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-infection and atopic dermatitis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wollenberg A.;  Flohr C.;  Simon D.;  Cork M.J.;  Thyssen J.P.;  Bieber T.;  de Bruin-Weller M.S.;  Weidinger S.;  Deleuran M.;  Taieb A.;  Paul C.;  Trzeciak M.;  Werfel T.;  Seneschal J.;  Barbarot S.;  Darsow U.;  Torrelo A.;  Stalder J.-F.;  Svensson Å.;  Hijnen D.;  Gelmetti C.;  Szalai Z.;  Gieler U.;  De Raeve L.;  Kunz B.;  Spuls P.;  von Kobyletzki L.B.;  Fölster-Holst R.;  Chernyshov P.V.;  Cristen-Zaech S.;  Heratizadeh A.;  Ring J.;  Vestergaard C.
SOURCE
  Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease with elevated risk of respiratory comorbidities.1,2 Severely affected patients are often treated with immune-modulating systemic drugs.3,4 On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) epidemic to be a pandemic. The number of cases worldwide is increasing exponentially and poses a major health threat, especially for those who are elderly, immuno-compromised, or have comorbidities. This also applies to AD patients on systemic immune-modulating treatment. In these days of uncertainty, reallocation of medical resources, curfew, hoarding, and shutdown of normal social life, patients, caregivers and doctors ask questions regarding the continuation of systemic immune-modulating treatment of AD patients. The ETFAD decided to address some of these questions here.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.16411

RECORD 41
TITLE
  Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Galidesivir, and Tenofovir against SARS-CoV-2 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp): A molecular docking study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Elfiky A.A.
SOURCE
  Life sciences (2020) (117592). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  AIMS: A new human coronavirus (HCoV), which has been designated SARS-CoV-2, began spreading in December 2019 in Wuhan City, China causing pneumonia called COVID-19. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been faster than any other coronaviruses that have succeeded in crossing the animal-human barrier. There is concern that this new virus will spread around the world as did the previous two HCoVs-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-each of which caused approximately 800 deaths in the years 2002 and 2012, respectively. Thus far, 11,268 deaths have been reported from the 258,842 confirmed infections in 168 countries. MAIN METHODS: In this study, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the newly emerged coronavirus is modeled, validated, and then targeted using different anti-polymerase drugs currently on the market that have been approved for use against various viruses. KEY FINDINGS: The results suggest the effectiveness of Ribavirin, Remdesivir, Sofosbuvir, Galidesivir, and Tenofovir as potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 since they tightly bind to its RdRp. In addition, the results suggest guanosine derivative (IDX-184), Setrobuvir, and YAK as top seeds for antiviral treatments with high potential to fight the SARS-CoV-2 strain specifically. SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of FDA-approved anti-RdRp drugs can help treat patients and reduce the danger of the mysterious new viral infection COVID-19. The drugs mentioned above can tightly bind to the RdRp of the SARS-CoV-2 strain and thus may be used to treat the disease. No toxicity measurements are required for these drugs since they were previously tested prior to their approval by the FDA.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117592

RECORD 42
TITLE
  Management of a colon cancer patient infected with corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Z.;  Hong Y.;  Wu X.;  Hong D.;  Zhang Y.;  Dong X.;  Rao Y.;  Lu X.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of surgical treatment for cancer patients complicated with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The management and clinical outcome of a sigmoid cancer patient with COVID-19 were analyzed. RESULTS: The inflammation indicators and fever of this patient were effectively controlled and the lung lesions remained stable after active anti-viral treatment, then the radical colorectomy was performed after the viral negative conversion for twice. CONCLUSIONS: The case indicates that it may feasible to undergo radical tumor surgery for cancer patients with COVID-19 after the virus nucleic acid testing turns negative and more studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Antipsoriatic treatments during COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Di Lernia V.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic therapy (2020) (e13345). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13345

RECORD 44
TITLE
  68 Consecutive patients assessed for COVID-19 infection; experience from a UK regional infectious disease unit
AUTHOR NAMES
  Easom N.;  Moss P.;  Barlow G.;  Samson A.;  Taynton T.;  Adams K.;  Ivan M.;  Burns P.;  Gajee K.;  Eastick K.;  Lillie P.J.
SOURCE
  Influenza and other respiratory viruses (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Assessment of possible infection with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 illness, has been a major activity of infection services since the first reports of cases in December 2019. We report a series of 68 patients assessed at a Regional Infection Unit in the UK. METHODS: Between the 29th Jan 2020 – 24th Feb 2020 demographic, clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data were collected. We compared clinical features between patients not requiring admission for clinical reasons or antimicrobials with those assessed as needing either admission or antimicrobial treatment. RESULTS: Patients assessed were aged from 0-76 years, 36/68 were female. Peaks of clinical assessments coincided with updates to the case definition for suspected COVID-19. Microbiological diagnoses included SARS-CoV-2, Mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza A, non SARS/MERS coronaviruses and rhinovirus/enterovirus. 9/68 received antimicrobials, 15/68 were admitted, 5 due to inability to self-isolate. Patients requiring admission on clinical grounds or antimicrobials (14/68) were more likely to have fever or raised respiratory rate compared to those not requiring admission or antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had mild illness, which did not require clinical intervention. This finding supports a community testing approach, supported by clinicians able to review more unwell patients. Extensions of the epidemiological criteria for the case definition of suspected COVID-19 lead to increased screening intensity, strategies must be in place to accommodate this in time for forthcoming changes as the epidemic develops.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12739

RECORD 45
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pneumonia: Serial computed tomography findings
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wei J.;  Xu H.;  Xiong J.;  Shen Q.;  Fan B.;  Ye C.;  Dong W.;  Hu F.
SOURCE
  Korean Journal of Radiology (2020) 21:4 (494-497). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  From December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia (formerly known as the 2019 novel Coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) broke out in Wuhan, China. In this study, we present serial CT findings in a 40-year-old female patient with COVID-19 pneumonia who presented with the symptoms of fever, chest tightness, and fatigue. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 infection confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CT showed rapidly progressing peripheral consolidations and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. After treatment, the lesions were shown to be almost absorbed leaving the fibrous lesions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0112

RECORD 46
TITLE
  A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Singhal T.
SOURCE
  Indian Journal of Pediatrics (2020) 87:4 (281-286). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6

RECORD 47
TITLE
  Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Q.;  Qiu H.;  Huang M.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Annals of Intensive Care (2020) 10:1 Article Number: 33. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00650-2

RECORD 48
TITLE
  Consensus of Chinese experts on protection of skin and mucous membrane barrier for health-care workers fighting against coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yan Y.;  Chen H.;  Chen L.;  Cheng B.;  Diao P.;  Dong L.;  Gao X.;  Gu H.;  He L.;  Ji C.;  Jin H.;  Lai W.;  Lei T.;  Li L.;  Li L.;  Li R.;  Liu D.;  Liu W.;  Lu Q.;  Shi Y.;  Song J.;  Tao J.;  Wang B.;  Wang G.;  Wu Y.;  Xiang L.;  Xie J.;  Xu J.;  Yao Z.;  Zhang F.;  Zhang J.;  Zhong S.;  Li H.;  Li H.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic Therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection. It is necessary to strictly follow standards of wearing protective equipment and specification of sterilizing and cleaning. Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier. At the same time, using moisturizing products is highly recommended to achieve better protection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13310

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Challenges and Countermeasures of Integrative Cancer Therapy in the Epidemic of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang G.;  Zhang H.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Integrative Cancer Therapies (2020) 19. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420912811

RECORD 50
TITLE
  COVID-19 treatment by repurposing drugs until the vaccine is in sight
AUTHOR NAMES
  Phadke M.;  Saunik S.
SOURCE
  Drug Development Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has created pandemic in the world as declared by WHO on March 12, 2020. It is a viral disease caused by SARS-CoV 2 virus and has affected large populations in over 120 countries. There is no specific treatment available and management is empirical. Until such time that an effective vaccine is available for COVID-19 viral infection, one can repurpose known therapeutic drug molecules such as angiotensin receptor 2 blocker, a commonly used antihypertensive drug, to control COVID-19 virus from gaining entry into the host cell by blocking the angiotensin receptor. Clinical trials should also be undertaken to use statins, which are lipid-lowering drugs but have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to prevent acute lung injury in COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21666

RECORD 51
TITLE
  The Italian coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak: recommendations from clinical practice
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sorbello M.;  El-Boghdadly K.;  Di Giacinto I.;  Cataldo R.;  Esposito C.;  Falcetta S.;  Merli G.;  Cortese G.;  Corso R.M.;  Bressan F.;  Pintaudi S.;  Greif R.;  Donati A.;  Petrini F.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel coronavirus 2019 is a single-stranded, ribonucleic acid virus that has led to an international pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019. Clinical data from the Chinese outbreak have been reported, but experiences and recommendations from clinical practice during the Italian outbreak have not. We report the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on regional and national healthcare infrastructure. We also report on recommendations based on clinical experiences of managing patients throughout Italy. In particular, we describe key elements of clinical management, including: safe oxygen therapy; airway management; personal protective equipment; and non-technical aspects of caring for patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. Only through planning, training and team working will clinicians and healthcare systems be best placed to deal with the many complex implications of this new pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15049

RECORD 52
TITLE
  The correlation between viral clearance and biochemical outcomes of 94 COVID-19 infected discharged patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yuan J.;  Zou R.;  Zeng L.;  Kou S.;  Lan J.;  Li X.;  Liang Y.;  Ding X.;  Tan G.;  Tang S.;  Liu L.;  Liu Y.;  Pan Y.;  Wang Z.
SOURCE
  Inflammation Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: This study aims to evaluate the correlation between viral clearance and blood biochemical index of 94 discharged patients with COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, enrolled from Jan 5 to Feb 13, 2020. Methods: The clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of the patients. The data were analysed and reviewed by a trained team of physicians. Information on clinical signs and symptoms, medical treatment, virus clearance, and laboratory parameters including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein were collected. Results: COVID-19 mRNA clearance ratio was identified significantly correlated with the decline of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. Conclusions: Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. Serum LDH or CK decline may predict a favorable response to treatment of COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01342-0

RECORD 53
TITLE
  COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mehta P.;  McAuley D.F.;  Brown M.;  Sanchez E.;  Tattersall R.S.;  Manson J.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1033-1034). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0

RECORD 54
TITLE
  COVID-19 challenge: Feverish search for vaccines and antiviral treatments
AUTHOR NAMES
  Blasius H.
SOURCE
  Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung (2020) 160:10 Article Number: S24. Date of Publication: 2020

RECORD 55
TITLE
  COVID-19 infection and rheumatoid arthritis: Faraway, so close!
AUTHOR NAMES
  Favalli E.G.;  Ingegnoli F.;  De Lucia O.;  Cincinelli G.;  Cimaz R.;  Caporali R.
SOURCE
  Autoimmunity Reviews (2020) Article Number: 102523. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the new coronavirus infections COVID-19 in December 2019 in China has quickly become a global health emergency. Given the lack of specific anti-viral therapies, the current management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly supportive, even though several compounds are now under investigation for the treatment of this life-threatening disease. COVID-19 pandemic is certainly conditioning the treatment strategy of a complex disorder as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whose infectious risk is increased compared to the general population because of an overall impairment of immune system typical of autoimmune diseases combined with the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. However, the increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is leading to consider some anti-rheumatic drugs as potential treatment options for the management of COVID-19. In this review we will critically analyse the evidences on either positive or negative effect of drugs commonly used to treat RA in this particular scenario, in order to optimize the current approach to RA patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102523

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Safe patient transport for COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liew M.F.;  Siow W.T.;  Yau Y.W.;  See K.C.
SOURCE
  Critical Care (2020) 24:1 Article Number: 94. Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2828-4

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Treatment of COVID-19: Old tricks for new challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cunningham A.C.;  Goh H.P.;  Koh D.
SOURCE
  Critical Care (2020) 24:1 Article Number: 91. Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2818-6

RECORD 58
TITLE
  COVID-19 – what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wujtewicz M.;  Dylczyk-Sommer A.;  Aszkiełowicz A.;  Zdanowski S.;  Piwowarczyk S.;  Owczuk R.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesiology intensive therapy (2020) 52:1 (34-41). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Over the past three months, the world has faced an unprecedented health hazard. The World Health Organization has announced a pandemic infection with an unknown species of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. Spreading mainly through the droplet route, the virus causes mild symptoms in the majority of cases, the most common being: fever (80%), dry cough (56%), fatigue (22%) and muscle pain (7%); less common symptoms include a sore throat, a runny nose, diarrhea, hemoptysis and chills. A life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection is an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs more often in older adults, those with immune disorders and co-morbidities. Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. The article presents basic information about etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics (with particular emphasis on the importance of tomocomputer imaging), clinical picture, treatment and prevention of the infection. It goes on to emphasize the specific risks of providing anesthesiology and intensive care services. Due to the fact that effective causal treatment is not yet available and the number of infections and deaths increases day by day, infection prevention and strict adherence to recommendations of infection control organizations remain the basis for fighting the virus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ait.2020.93756

RECORD 59
TITLE
  Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.L.;  Desai A.;  Duca A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:5 (1-28). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients.

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo T.;  Fan Y.;  Chen M.;  Wu X.;  Zhang L.;  He T.;  Wang H.;  Wan J.;  Wang X.;  Lu Z.
SOURCE
  JAMA Cardiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are occurring in several countries and continents. Information regarding the impact of cardiovascular complication on fatal outcome is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the association of underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial injury with fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed patients with COVID-19 at the Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from January 23, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Analysis began February 25, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and treatments were collected and analyzed in patients with and without elevation of troponin T (TnT) levels. Result: Among 187 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 144 patients (77%) were discharged and 43 patients (23%) died. The mean (SD) age was 58.50 (14.66) years. Overall, 66 (35.3%) had underlying CVD including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, and 52 (27.8%) exhibited myocardial injury as indicated by elevated TnT levels. The mortality during hospitalization was 7.62% (8 of 105) for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% (4 of 30) for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% (6 of 16) for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% (25 of 36) for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs. Patients with underlying CVD were more likely to exhibit elevation of TnT levels compared with the patients without CVD (36 [54.5%] vs 16 [13.2%]). Plasma TnT levels demonstrated a high and significantly positive linear correlation with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (β = 0.530, P <.001) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (β = 0.613, P <.001). Plasma TnT and NT-proBNP levels during hospitalization (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 0.307 [0.094-0.600]; 1902.00 [728.35-8100.00]) and impending death (median [IQR], 0.141 [0.058-0.860]; 5375 [1179.50-25695.25]) increased significantly compared with admission values (median [IQR], 0.0355 [0.015-0.102]; 796.90 [401.93-1742.25]) in patients who died (P =.001; P <.001), while no significant dynamic changes of TnT (median [IQR], 0.010 [0.007-0.019]; 0.013 [0.007-0.022]; 0.011 [0.007-0.016]) and NT-proBNP (median [IQR], 352.20 [174.70-636.70]; 433.80 [155.80-1272.60]; 145.40 [63.4-526.50]) was observed in survivors (P =.96; P =.16). During hospitalization, patients with elevated TnT levels had more frequent malignant arrhythmias, and the use of glucocorticoid therapy (37 [71.2%] vs 69 [51.1%]) and mechanical ventilation (41 [59.6%] vs 14 [10.4%]) were higher compared with patients with normal TnT levels. The mortality rates of patients with and without use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was 36.8% (7 of 19) and 25.6% (43 of 168). Conclusions and Relevance: Myocardial injury is significantly associated with fatal outcome of COVID-19, while the prognosis of patients with underlying CVD but without myocardial injury is relatively favorable. Myocardial injury is associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Inflammation may be a potential mechanism for myocardial injury. Aggressive treatment may be considered for patients at high risk of myocardial injury..
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1017

RECORD 61
TITLE
  Cardiac Involvement in a Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Inciardi R.M.;  Lupi L.;  Zaccone G.;  Italia L.;  Raffo M.;  Tomasoni D.;  Cani D.S.;  Cerini M.;  Farina D.;  Gavazzi E.;  Maroldi R.;  Adamo M.;  Ammirati E.;  Sinagra G.;  Lombardi C.M.;  Metra M.
SOURCE
  JAMA Cardiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Virus infection has been widely described as one of the most common causes of myocarditis. However, less is known about the cardiac involvement as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To describe the presentation of acute myocardial inflammation in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who recovered from the influenzalike syndrome and developed fatigue and signs and symptoms of heart failure a week after upper respiratory tract symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participant: This case report describes an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who tested positive for COVID-19 and was admitted to the cardiac care unit in March 2020 for acute myopericarditis with systolic dysfunction, confirmed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the week after onset of fever and dry cough due to COVID-19. The patient did not show any respiratory involvement during the clinical course. Exposure: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection of cardiac involvement with an increase in levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T, echocardiography changes, and diffuse biventricular myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results: An otherwise healthy 53-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with severe fatigue. She described fever and dry cough the week before. She was afebrile but hypotensive; electrocardiography showed diffuse ST elevation, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T and NT-proBNP levels were detected. Findings on chest radiography were normal. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary disease on coronary angiography. Based on the COVID-19 outbreak, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed increased wall thickness with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis, especially in the apical segments, and severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%). Short tau inversion recovery and T2-mapping sequences showed marked biventricular myocardial interstitial edema, and there was also diffuse late gadolinium enhancement involving the entire biventricular wall. There was a circumferential pericardial effusion that was most notable around the right cardiac chambers. These findings were all consistent with acute myopericarditis. She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization. Conclusions and Relevance: This case highlights cardiac involvement as a complication associated with COVID-19, even without symptoms and signs of interstitial pneumonia..
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1096

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Expanded Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs) as a Therapeutic Strategy in Managing Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: The Case for Compassionate Use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Atluri S.;  Manchikanti L.;  Hirsch J.A.
SOURCE
  Pain physician (2020) 23:2 (E71-E83). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 has affected the United States leading to a national emergency with health care and economic impact, propelling the country into a recession with disrupted lifestyles not seen in recent history. COVID-19 is a serious illness leading to multiple deaths in various countries including the United States. Several million Americans satisfy the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for being high risk. Unfortunately, the available supply of medical beds and equipment for mechanical ventilation are much less than is projected to be needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and multiple agencies led by the CDC in the United States have attempted to organize intensive outbreak investigation programs utilizing appropriate preventive measures, evaluation, and treatment. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic forms to conditions encompassing multiorgan and systemic manifestations in terms of septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) syndromes. The presently approved treatments are supportive but not curative for the disease. There are multiple treatments being studied. These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy. Finally, expanded umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells or (UC-MSCs) may have a role and are being studied. The cure of COVID-19 is essentially dependent on the patients’ own immune system. When the immune system is over activated in an attempt to kill the virus, this can lead to the production of a large number of inflammatory factors, resulting in severe cytokine storm. The cytokine storm may induce organ damage followed by the edema, dysfunction of air exchange, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, and secondary infection, which may lead to death. Thus, at this point, the avoidance of the cytokine storm may be the key for the treatment of HCOV-19 infected patients.In China, where there was limited availability of effective modalities to manage COVID-19 several patients were treated with expanded UC-MSCs. Additionally, the Italian College of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care have reported guidelines to treat coronavirus patients with stem cells in the hope of decreasing the number of patients going to the ICU, and, also relatively quickly getting them out of ICU. In this manuscript, we describe the urgent need for various solutions, pathogenesis of coronavirus and the clinical evidence for treatment of COVID-19 with stem cells. The limited but emerging evidence regarding UC MSC in managing COVID-19 suggests that it might be considered for compassionate use in critically ill patients to reduce morbidity and mortality in the United States. The administration and Coronavirus Task Force might wish to approach the potential of expanded UC-MSCs as an evolutionary therapeutic strategy in managing COVID-19 illness with a 3-pronged approach: If proven safe and effective on a specific and limited basis…1. Minimize regulatory burden by all agencies so that critically ill COVID-19 patients will have access regardless of their financial circumstance.2. Institute appropriate safeguards to avoid negative consequences from unscrupulous actors.3. With proper informed consent from patients or proxy when necessary, and subject to accumulation of data in that cohort, allow the procedure to be initiated in critically ill patients who are not responding to conventional therapies.KEY WORDS: Coronavirus, COVID-19, cytokine storm, multiorgan failure, expanded umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Could Intravenous Immunoglobulin Collected from Recovered Coronavirus Patients Protect against COVID-19 and Strengthen the Immune System of New Patients?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jawhara S.
SOURCE
  International journal of molecular sciences (2020) 21:7. Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of the novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (COVID-19), has become a global health concern. Most coronaviruses infect animals but can evolve into strains that cross the species barrier and infect humans. At the present, there is no single specific vaccine or efficient antiviral therapy against COVID-19. Recently, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment reduces inflammation of intestinal epithelial cells and eliminates overgrowth of the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans in the murine gut. Immunotherapy with IVIg could be employed to neutralize COVID-19. However, the efficacy of IVIg would be better if the immune IgG antibodies were collected from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 in the same city, or the surrounding area, in order to increase the chance of neutralizing the virus. These immune IgG antibodies will be specific against COVID-19 by boosting the immune response in newly infected patients. Different procedures may be used to remove or inactivate any possible pathogens from the plasma of recovered coronavirus patient derived immune IgG, including solvent/detergent, 60 °C heat-treatment, and nanofiltration. Overall, immunotherapy with immune IgG antibodies combined with antiviral drugs may be an alternative treatment against COVID-19 until stronger options such as vaccines are available.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072272

RECORD 64
TITLE
  Safe Delivery for COVID-19 Infected Pregnancies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qi H.;  Luo X.;  Zheng Y.;  Zhang H.;  Li J.;  Zou L.;  Feng L.;  Chen D.;  Shi Y.;  Tong C.;  Baker P.N.
SOURCE
  BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a new coronavirus (COVID-19) infection has rapidly become prevalent in central China1 . On the basis of knowledge obtained from a previous coronavirus outbreak2 , pregnant women are believed to be susceptible to this virus. Once a maternal infection of COVID-19 is suspected or confirmed, childbirth becomes complicated and challenging. Efficient obstetric treatment is required, and is key to optimizing the prognosis for both mother and child. Care should be taken in determination of the timing of delivery, assessment of the indications for caesarean section, preparation of the delivery room to prevent infection, choice of the type of anesthesia, and newborn management.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16231

RECORD 65
TITLE
  Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients with coagulopathy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang N.;  Bai H.;  Chen X.;  Gong J.;  Li D.;  Sun Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A relatively high mortality of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is worrying, the application of heparin in COVID-19 has been recommended by some expert consensus due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation and venous thromboembolism. However, its efficacy remains to be validated. METHODS: Coagulation results, medications and outcomes of consecutive patients being classified as severe COVID-19 in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analysed. The 28-day mortality between heparin users and nonusers were compared, also in different risk of coagulopaphy which was stratified by the sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) score or D-dimer result. RESULTS: There were 449 patients with severe COVID-19 enrolled into the study, 99 of them received heparin (mainly with low molecular weight heparin, LMWH) for 7 days or longer. The D-dimer, prothrombin time and age were positively, and platelet count was negatively, correlated with 28-day mortality in multivariate analysis. No difference on 28-day mortality was found between heparin users and nonusers (30.3% vs 29.7%, P=0.910). But the 28-day mortality of heparin users were lower than nonusers In patients with SIC score ≥4 (40.0% vs 64.2%, P=0.029), or D-dimer > 6 fold of upper limit of normal (32.8% vs 52.4%, P=0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Anticoagulant therapy mainly with LMWH appears to be associated with better prognosis in severe COVID-19 patients meeting SIC criteria or with markedly elevated D-dimer.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14817

RECORD 66
TITLE
  The Management of Blood Glucose Should be Emphasized in the Treatment of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ma W.-X.;  Ran X.-W.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (146-150). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Based on the higher mortality and the higher proportion of critically ill adults in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes, good inpatient glycemic control is particularly important in the comprehensive treatment of COVID-19. Individualized blood glucose target goals and treatment strategies should be made according to specific circumstances of COVID-19 inpatients with diabetes. For mild patients, a strict glycemic control target (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 4.4-6.1 mmol/L, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (2 h PG) 6.1-7.8 mmol/L) are recommended; a target for the glycemic control of common type patients (FPG 6.1-7.8 mmol/L, 2 h PG 7.8-10.0 mmol/L) and subcutaneous insulin deliver therapy are recommended; a target nonfasting blood glucose range of 10.0 mmol or less per liter for severe-type COVID-19 patients, a relatively Less stringent blood glucose control target (FPG 7.8-10.0 mmol/L, 2 h PG 7.8-13.9 mmol/L) for critically ill patients and intravenous insulin infusion therapy are recommended. Due to the rapid changes in the condition of some patients, the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar status (HHS) maybe occur during the treatment. Blood glucose monitoring, dynamic evaluation and timely adjustment of strategies should be strengthened to ensure patient safety and promote early recovery of patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360606

RECORD 67
TITLE
  Controversial treatments: an updated understanding of the Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang C.;  Huang S.;  Zheng F.;  Dai Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. In the absence of specific treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to learn from the experience and lessons in China. To reduce the case-fatality rate among COVID-19 patients, we should not ignore the complications, such as RNAaemia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ dysfunction. To help understand the advantages and limitations of differential treatments, we provide a timely review and discuss the complications and corresponding major treatments, especially controversial ones such as antiviral therapy (remdesivir, ribavirin, chloroquine), glucocorticoid therapy, extracorporeal support including an artificial liver system (ALS) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), based on available evidence. As a result, we suggest that antiviral therapy and organ function support are vital to reduce mortality for mild patients and critical patients, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25788

RECORD 68
TITLE
  Advice regarding COVID-19 and use of immunomodulators, in patients with severe dermatological diseases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rademaker M.;  Baker C.;  Foley P.;  Sullivan J.;  Wang C.
SOURCE
  The Australasian journal of dermatology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as named by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). There is very limited evidence base to formulate specific advice for dermatology patients on immunomodulators with regards to COVID-19. The following is based on expert opinion, taking into account known risks of influenza (a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus) and other, positive-sense single-stranded, RNA virus infections (such as SARS, MERS, and the common cold). An Australia/New Zealand consensus document is in development.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.13295

RECORD 69
TITLE
  Early antiviral treatment contributes to alleviate the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu J.;  Li W.;  Shi X.;  Chen Z.;  Jiang B.;  Liu J.;  Wang D.;  Liu C.;  Meng Y.;  Cui L.;  Yu J.;  Cao H.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Journal of internal medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: At present, the severity of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a focal point. METHODS: To assess the factors associated with severity and prognosis of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, we retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed 280 cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from January 20 to February 20, 2020. RESULTS: The median age of patients in the mild group was 37.55 years old, while that in the severe group was 63.04 years old. The proportion of patients over 65 years old in the severe group was significantly higher than that of the mild group (59.04% vs. 10.15%, P < 0.05). 85.54% of severe patients had diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, which was significantly higher than that of the mild group (51.81% vs 7.11%, P = 0.025; 33.73% vs 3.05%, P = 0.042). Patients in the mild group experienced earlier initiation of antiviral treatment (1.19 ± 0.45 vs 2.65 ± 1.06 days in the severe group, P < 0.001). Our study showed that comorbidity, time from illness onset to antiviral, and age >=65 were three major risk factors for COVID-19 progression, while comorbidity and time from illness onset to antiviral were two major risk factors for COVID-19 recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly and patients with underlying diseases are more likely to experience a severe progression of COVID-19. It is recommended that timely antiviral treatment should be initiated to slow the disease progression and improve the prognosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13063

RECORD 70
TITLE
  Perioperative COVID-19 Defense: An Evidence-Based Approach for Optimization of Infection Control and Operating Room Management
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dexter F.;  Parra M.C.;  Brown J.R.;  Loftus R.W.
SOURCE
  Anesthesia and analgesia (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We describe an evidence-based approach for optimization of infection control and operating room management during the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Confirmed modes of viral transmission are primarily contact with contaminated environmental surfaces and aerosolization. Evidence-based improvement strategies for attenuation of residual environmental contamination involve a combination of deep cleaning with surface disinfectants and ultraviolet light (UV-C). Clinician components include placing alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on the intravenous (IV) pole to the left of the provider and utilization of double glove techniques during induction. In addition, a wire basket lined with a zip closure plastic bag should be located on the IV pole to the right of the provider, and all contaminated instruments placed in the bag (i.e. laryngoscope blades and handles) and securely closed. Anesthesia professionals should designate and maintain clean and dirty areas in their work environment. After the induction of anesthesia, we recommend providers wipe down all equipment and surfaces with disinfection wipes that contain a quaternary ammonium compound and alcohol, using a top down cleaning sequence adequate to reduce the bioburden. We endorse cleaning operating rooms with use of UV-C lights. Patients should decolonize using pre-procedural chlorhexidine wipes, two doses of nasal povidone iodine within one hour of incision, and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse. All IV line ports must be closed and use vigorous hub disinfection. Lastly, end users need timely feedback of infectious data collected by surveillance of classic pathogen transmission.OR management should strive to reduce the use of surgical masks and minimize potential COVID-19 exposure by scheduling relatively long (e.g., 12-hour) staff shifts. For instance, if there are 8 essential cases to be done (each lasting 1-2 hours), the ideal solution is to have 2 teams complete the 8 cases, and to avoid 8 first case starts. The ideal schedule should accommodate one case in each operating room daily, with terminal cleaning after each case including UV-C light or equivalent. After emergence from anesthesia, it is best to have most patients recover in the room where they had surgery, a strategy quite common in Japan. This avoids having patients clustered into a large, pooled phase I post-anesthesia care unit, and minimizes the risk of contaminating more staff and the facility at large. In summary, these 8 programmatic recommendations stand on a substantial body of empirical evidence characterizing the epidemiology of perioperative transmission and infection transmission supported by grants from the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004829

RECORD 71
TITLE
  Biological Product Development Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yan C.-X.;  Li J.;  Shen X.;  Luo L.;  Li Y.;  Li M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (139-145). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the large infection population, broad transmissibility and high mortality, it is urgent to find out the efficient and specific methods to prevent and treat COVID-19. As biological products have broadly applied in the prevention and treatment of severe epidemic diseases, they are promising in blocking novel coronavirus infection. According to the research advances of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), we reviewed the potential application of biological products such as interferon, convalescent plasma, intestinal micro-ecological regulators, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, etc. , on prevention and treatment of COVID-19. May this review be helpful for conquering COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360506

RECORD 72
TITLE
  COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang R.;  Wang X.;  Ni L.;  Di X.;  Ma B.;  Niu S.;  Liu C.;  Reiter R.J.
SOURCE
  Life sciences (2020) (117583). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has become a pandemic with tens of thousands of infected patients. Based on clinical features, pathology, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disorder induced by either highly homogenous coronaviruses or other pathogens, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response very likely contribute to COVID-19 pathology. This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression to acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and often death. Melatonin, a well-known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule, is protective against ALI/ARDS caused by viral and other pathogens. Melatonin is effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, sedation use, and improving sleeping quality, which might also be beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Notably, melatonin has a high safety profile. There is significant data showing that melatonin limits virus-related diseases and would also likely be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. Additional experiments and clinical studies are required to confirm this speculation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117583

RECORD 73
TITLE
  Controversies about COVID-19 and anticancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bersanelli M.
SOURCE
  Immunotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/imt-2020-0067

RECORD 74
TITLE
  A Message to Our Community in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Flotte T.R.
SOURCE
  Human gene therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2020.29121.trf

RECORD 75
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 76
TITLE
  Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng L.;  Li C.;  Zeng Q.;  Liu X.;  Li X.;  Zhang H.;  Hong Z.;  Xia J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included adults (age≥18years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 without Invasive ventilation, diagnosed between Jan 17, 2020, and Feb 13, 2020. Patients, diagnosed after Jan 17, 2020, were given oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group for 5–21 days. The primary endpoint was a negative conversion rate of coronavirus from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis(day7, day14), and assessed whether the pneumonia was progressing or improving by chest CT (day7). Results: We analyzed 16 patients who received oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and 17 who oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group, and both initiated after diagnosis. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and chest CT characteristics were similar between groups. The SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected for 12(75%) of 16 patients’ nasopharyngeal specimens in the combination group after seven days, compared with 6 (35%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). After 14 days, 15 (94%) of 16 and 9 (52·9%) of 17, respectively, SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected (p < 0·05). The chest CT scans were improving for 11(69%) of 16 patients in the combination group after seven days, compared with 5(29%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). Conclusion: In patients with COVID-19, the apparent favorable clinical response with arbidol and LPV/r supports further LPV/r only.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.002

RECORD 77
TITLE
  The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang W.;  Zhao Y.;  Zhang F.;  Wang Q.;  Li T.;  Liu Z.;  Wang J.;  Qin Y.;  Zhang X.;  Yan X.;  Zeng X.;  Zhang S.
SOURCE
  Clinical Immunology (2020) 214 Article Number: 108393. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading all over the world. Reports from China showed that about 20% of patients developed severe disease, resulting in a fatality of 4%. In the past two months, we clinical immunologists participated in multi-rounds of MDT (multidiscipline team) discussion on the anti-inflammation management of critical COVID-19 patients, with our colleagues dispatched from Chinese leading PUMC Hospital to Wuhan to admit and treat the most severe patients. Here, from the perspective of clinical immunologists, we will discuss the clinical and immunological characteristics of severe patients, and summarize the current evidence and share our experience in anti-inflammation treatment, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 antagonist, JAK inhibitors and choloroquine/hydrocholoroquine, of patients with severe COVID-19 that may have an impaired immune system.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108393

RECORD 78
TITLE
  Practical Strategies Against the Novel Coronavirus and COVID-19—the Imminent Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rahimi F.;  Talebi Bezmin Abadi A.
SOURCE
  Archives of Medical Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The last month of 2019 harbingered the emergence of a viral outbreak that is now a major public threat globally. COVID-19 was first diagnosed and confirmed in a couple of cases with unknown pneumonia; the patients lived in, or travelled to, Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province. People now face a complex challenge that deserves urgent intervention by all involved in medical healthcare globally. Conventional antiviral therapies or vaccines are the most referred means of tackling the virus, but we think establishing these ideal management strategies is presently far-fetched. In-house isolation or quarantine of suspected cases to keep hospital admissions manageable and prevent in-hospital spread of the virus, and promoting general awareness about transmission routes are the practical strategies used to tackle the spread of COVID-19. Cases with weakened or compromised immune systems—for example, elderly individuals, young children, and those with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases—are particularly more susceptible to COVID-19. Hopefully, cumulative data using whole-genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in parallel with mathematical modeling will help the molecular biologists to understand unknown features of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.03.005

RECORD 79
TITLE
  Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gautret P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Parola P.;  Hoang V.T.;  Meddeb L.;  Mailhe M.;  Doudier B.;  Courjon J.;  Giordanengo V.;  Vieira V.E.;  Dupont H.T.;  Honoré S.;  Colson P.;  Chabrière E.;  La Scola B.;  Rolain J.-M.;  Brouqui P.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105949). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. PATIENTS AND METHODS: French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. RESULTS: Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported of untreated patients in the literature. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. CONCLUSION: Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105949

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Clinical observation and management of COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li T.;  Lu H.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (687-690). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  Three leading infectious disease experts in China were invited to share their bedside observations in the management of COVID-19 patients. Professor Taisheng Li was sent to Wuhan to provide frontline medical care. He depicts the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, he observes the significant abnormality of coagulation function and proposes that the early intravenous immunoglobulin and low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation therapy are very important. Professor Hongzhou Lu, a leader in China to try various anti-viral drugs, expresses concern on the quality of the ongoing clinical trials as most trials are small in scale and repetitive in nature, and emphasizes the importance of the quick publication of clinical trial results. Regarding the traditional Chinese medicine, Professor Lu suggests to develop a creative evaluation system because of the complicated chemical compositions. Professor Wenhong Zhang is responsible for Shanghai’s overall clinical management of the COVID-19 cases. He introduces the team approach to manage COVID-19 patients. For severe or critically ill patients, in addition to the respiratory supportive treatment, timely multiorgan evaluation and treatment is very crucial. The medical decisions and interventions are carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of each patient.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1741327

RECORD 81
TITLE
  Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 with Convalescent Plasma
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shen C.;  Wang Z.;  Zhao F.;  Yang Y.;  Li J.;  Yuan J.;  Wang F.;  Li D.;  Yang M.;  Xing L.;  Wei J.;  Xiao H.;  Yang Y.;  Qu J.;  Qing L.;  Chen L.;  Xu Z.;  Peng L.;  Li Y.;  Zheng H.;  Chen F.;  Huang K.;  Jiang Y.;  Liu D.;  Zhang Z.;  Liu Y.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials..
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4783

RECORD 82
TITLE
  Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin X.;  Lian J.-S.;  Hu J.-H.;  Gao J.;  Zheng L.;  Zhang Y.-M.;  Hao S.-R.;  Jia H.-Y.;  Cai H.;  Zhang X.-L.;  Yu G.-D.;  Xu K.-J.;  Wang X.-Y.;  Gu J.-Q.;  Zhang S.-Y.;  Ye C.-Y.;  Jin C.-L.;  Lu Y.-F.;  Yu X.;  Yu X.-P.;  Huang J.-R.;  Xu K.-L.;  Ni Q.;  Yu C.-B.;  Zhu B.;  Li Y.-T.;  Liu J.;  Zhao H.;  Zhang X.;  Yu L.;  Guo Y.-Z.;  Su J.-W.;  Tao J.-J.;  Lang G.-J.;  Wu X.-X.;  Wu W.-R.;  Qv T.-T.;  Xiang D.-R.;  Yi P.;  Shi D.;  Chen Y.;  Ren Y.;  Qiu Y.-Q.;  Li L.-J.;  Sheng J.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Gut (2020) Article Number: 320926. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. Design: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. Results: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. Conclusion: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320926

RECORD 83
TITLE
  Considerations for Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Procedures During the COVID-19 Pandemic Perspectives from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Emerging Leader Mentorship (SCAI ELM) Members and Graduates
AUTHOR NAMES
  Szerlip M.;  Anwaruddin S.;  Aronow H.D.;  Cohen M.G.;  Daniels M.J.;  Dehghani P.;  Drachman D.E.;  Elmariah S.;  Feldman D.N.;  Garcia S.;  Giri J.;  Kaul P.;  Kapur N.;  Kumbhani D.J.;  Meraj P.M.;  Morray B.;  Nayak K.R.;  Parikh S.A.;  Sakhuja R.;  Schussler J.M.;  Seto A.;  Shah B.;  Swaminathan R.V.;  Zidar D.A.;  Naidu S.S.
SOURCE
  Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28887

RECORD 84
TITLE
  The Trial of Chloroquine in the Treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 COVID-19 and Its Research Progress in Forensic Toxicology
AUTHOR NAMES
  Duan Y.J.;  Liu Q.;  Zhao S.Q.;  Huang F.;  Ren L.;  Liu L.;  Zhou Y.W.
SOURCE
  Fa yi xue za zhi (2020) 36:2. Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Abstract: Chloroquine is a long-established prescription drug that is often used clinically to treat malaria and connective tissue diseases. Since December 2019, COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has occurred in China and many countries around the world. Due to the lack of drugs against COVID-19, the disease spreads rapidly and the mortality rate is relatively high. Therefore, specific drugs against SARS-CoV-2 need to be quickly screened. The antimalarial drug Chloroquine phosphate which has already been approved is confirmed to have an anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect and has been included in diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. However, awareness of the risk of chloroquine phosphate causing acute poisoning or even death should be strengthened. The dosage used according to current clinical recommended dosage and course of treatment are larger than that of previous treatment of malaria. Many provinces have required close clinical monitoring of adverse reactions. This paper reviews the pharmacological effects, poisoning and toxicological mechanisms, in vivo metabolism and distribution, and forensic issues of chloroquine drugs, in order to provide help to forensic practice and clinical work.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.02.001

RECORD 85
TITLE
  Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang L.;  Liu Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020) 92:5 (479-490). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of a novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-CoV) infection has posed significant threats to international health and the economy. In the absence of treatment for this virus, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control the spread of disease. Here, we have conducted an online search for all treatment options related to coronavirus infections as well as some RNA-virus infection and we have found that general treatments, coronavirus-specific treatments, and antiviral treatments should be useful in fighting COVID-19. We suggest that the nutritional status of each infected patient should be evaluated before the administration of general treatments and the current children’s RNA-virus vaccines including influenza vaccine should be immunized for uninfected people and health care workers. In addition, convalescent plasma should be given to COVID-19 patients if it is available. In conclusion, we suggest that all the potential interventions be implemented to control the emerging COVID-19 if the infection is uncontrollable.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25707

RECORD 86
TITLE
  COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dhama K.;  Sharun K.;  Tiwari R.;  Dadar M.;  Malik Y.S.;  Singh K.P.;  Chaicumpa W.
SOURCE
  Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province of China has spread to many countries worldwide. Efforts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus (CoV) infections such as MERS and SARS in the past decades. However, to date, no licensed antiviral treatment or vaccine exists for MERS and SARS. Most of the efforts for developing CoV vaccines and drugs target the spike glycoprotein or S protein, the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies. Although a few candidates have shown efficacy in in vitro studies, not many have progressed to randomized animal or human trials, hence may have limited use to counter COVID-19 infection. This article highlights ongoing advances in designing vaccines and therapeutics to counter COVID-19 while also focusing on such experiences and advances as made with earlier SARS- and MERS-CoVs, which together could enable efforts to halt this emerging virus infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227

RECORD 87
TITLE
  Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang M.;  Cao R.;  Zhang L.;  Yang X.;  Liu J.;  Xu M.;  Shi Z.;  Hu Z.;  Zhong W.;  Xiao G.
SOURCE
  Cell research (2020) 30:3 (269-271). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0

RECORD 88
TITLE
  Diagnosis and treatment recommendation for pediatric coronavirus disease-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Z.;  Fu J.;  Shu Q.;  Chen Y.;  Hua C.;  Li F.;  Lin R.;  Tang L.;  Wang T.;  Wang W.;  Wang Y.;  Xu W.;  Yang Z.;  Ye S.;  Yuan T.;  Zhang C.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (1-8). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020

RECORD 89
TITLE
  Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shanmugaraj B.;  Siriwattananon K.;  Wangkanont K.;  Phoolcharoen W.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2020) 38:1 (10-18). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Last decade witnessed the outbreak of many life-threatening human pathogens including Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and more recently novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The disease condition associated with novel coronavirus, referred to as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The emergence of novel coronavirus in 2019 in Wuhan, China marked the third highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting humans in the 21st century. The continuing emergence of coronaviruses at regular intervals poses a significant threat to human health and economy. Ironically, even after a decade of research on coronavirus, still there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat coronavirus infection which highlights an urgent need to develop effective vaccines or post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent future epidemics. Several clinical, genetic and epidemiological features of COVID-19 resemble SARS-CoV infection. Hence, the research advancements on SARS-CoV treatment might help scientific community in quick understanding of this virus pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic/prophylactic agents to treat and prevent this infection. Monoclonal antibodies represent the major class of biotherapeutics for passive immunotherapy to fight against viral infection. The therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies has been well recognized in the treatment of many diseases. Here, we summarize the potential monoclonal antibody based therapeutic intervention for COVID-19 by considering the existing knowledge on the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against similar coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Further research on COVID-19 pathogenesis could identify appropriate therapeutic targets to develop specific anti-virals against this newly emerging pathogen.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0773

RECORD 90
TITLE
  What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lake M.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical medicine (London, England) (2020) 20:2 (124-127). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, health authorities in Wuhan, China, identified a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology linked to the city’s South China Seafood Market. Subsequent investigations revealed a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, as the causative agent now at the heart of a major outbreak. The rising case numbers have been accompanied by unprecedented public health action, including the wholesale isolation of Wuhan. Alongside this has been a robust scientific response, including early publication of the pathogen genome, and rapid development of highly specific diagnostics. This article will review the new knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 acute respiratory disease, and summarise its clinical features.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2019-coron

RECORD 91
TITLE
  Report on the Epidemiological Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in the Republic of Korea from January 19 to March 2, 2020
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:10 (e112). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the first case of coronavirus disease19 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China, as of March 2, 2020, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 was 89,069 cases in 67 countries and regions. As of 0 am, March 2, 2020, the Republic of Korea had the second-largest number of confirmed cases (n = 4,212) after China (n = 80,026). This report summarizes the epidemiologic features and the snapshots of the outbreak in the Republic of Korea from January 19 and March 2, 2020.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e112

RECORD 92
TITLE
  The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergency and the role of timely and effective national health surveillance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lana R.M.;  Coelho F.C.;  Gomes M.F.D.C.;  Cruz O.G.;  Bastos L.S.;  Villela D.A.M.;  Codeço C.T.
SOURCE
  Cadernos de saude publica (2020) 36:3 (e00019620). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311×00019620

RECORD 93
TITLE
  Chemotherapy strategy for colorectal cancer under the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.H.;  Shen L.;  Li J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (217-219). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) makes the medical treatment of colorectal cancers difficult. Cancer patients are more susceptible to infection and tumor history is defined as an important factor of poor prognosis, which challenges both doctors and patients. For metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, maintenance therapy is the optimal choice. The patients with tumor progression or poor biological behavior should receive or continue combination chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy should reduce the intensity of treatment and shorten the therapy time. Fever patients during chemotherapy need to receive differential diagnosis and screening according to national standards. Patients with stable diseases and good general conditions may delay imaging examination. Clinicians should make individual clinical decisions based on the specifics of each patient during epidemic situation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200225-00089

RECORD 94
TITLE
  Treatment strategies for colorectal cancer patients in tumor hospitals under the background of corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu X.H.;  Niu W.B.;  Zhang J.F.;  Li B.K.;  Yu B.;  Zhang Z.Y.;  Zhou C.X.;  Zhang X.N.;  Gao Y.;  Wang G.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (201-208). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a new outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 began to occur. Its pathogen is 2019-nCoV, which has the characteristics of strong infectivity and general susceptibility. The current situation of prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia is severe. In this context, as front-line medical workers bearing important responsibilities and pressure, while through strict management strategy, we can minimize the risk of infection exposure. By summarizing the research progress and guidelines in recent years in the fields of colorectal cancer disease screening, treatment strategies (including early colorectal cancer, locally advanced colorectal cancer, obstructive colorectal cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer and the treatment of patients after neoadjuvant therapy), the choice of medication and time limit for adjuvant therapy, the protective measures for patients undergoing emergency surgery, the re-examination of postoperative patients and the protection of medical staff, etc., authors improve treatment strategies in order to provide more choices for patients to obtain the best treatment under the severe epidemic situation of new coronavirus pneumonia. Meanwhile we hope that it can also provide more timely treatment modeling schemes for colleagues.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200217-00058

RECORD 95
TITLE
  Standardized diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer during the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 in Renji hospital
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luo Y.;  Zhong M.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (211-216). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently raging in China. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be transmitted from human to human and cause hospital infection, which seriously threatens surgical staffs and inpatients. Although colorectal surgery is not a front-line subject in the fight against the epidemic, but in this special situation, it is a difficult task to provide the highest quality medical services and ensure the orderly clinical work, on the premise of maximizing the protection for patients and their families, health of medical staff, and the safety of wards and hospitals, We summarize how to carry out the clinical practice of colorectal surgery under the situation of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemiology, including the procedures of diagnose and treatment for emergency patients with colorectal tumor, and share the experiences of the diagnosis of colorectal tumor, the management of patients with colorectal cancer who are scheduled to be admitted for surgery, the protection of wards, the perioperative management. More importantly, we introduce in detail the operative management and perioperative management of colorectal surgery patients suspected or diagnosed with new coronary pneumonia, including prevention and control measures for medical staff, operating rooms and surgical instruments. The main points are as follows: (1) Multidisciplinary team (MDT) must be run through the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The members include not only routine departments, but also respiratory department and infectious department. (2) Colonoscopy examination may cause cross infection of COVID-19 to patients and doctors. Therefore, it is prior to examine the emergency cases and life-threatening patients (bleeding, obstruction, gastrointestinal foreign bodies, etc.). If the emergent patients (intestinal obstruction) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, the surgeons must perform emergency surgery, and intestinal decompressive tube through colonoscopy is not recommended. (3) The colorectal cancer patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be placed in the isolated room with separate medical devices, and the operative room with negative pressure (under -5 Pa) must be separated. All disposable medical items, body fluids and feces of the patients in perioperative periods must be unified disposed according to the medical waste standard. (4) The surgical medical workers who process colorectal cancer patients with COVID-19 must be protected by three-level. After operation, the medical workers must receive medical observation and be isolated for 14 days. We hope our “Renji experience” will be beneficial to colleagues.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200217-00057

RECORD 96
TITLE
  COVID-19: gastrointestinal symptoms and potential sources of 2019-nCoV transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kotfis K.;  Skonieczna-Żydecka K.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesiology intensive therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new type of coronavirus, i.e. se-vere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly known as 2019-nCoV) appeared in December 2019 in the province of Hubei, China, and over the past four months the number of cases of infection has exceeded 240,000 worldwide, leading to a pandemia [1]. At the genetic level, 2019-nCoV is closely related to the SARS-CoV and, to a lesser extent, to MERS-CoV, which appeared as epidemiological threats in recent years in China and the Middle East, respectively. Infections with the Coronaviridae virus family in a small percentage of patients, especially in those over 60 years of age with a positive clinical history, lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome [2].
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ait.2020.93867

RECORD 97
TITLE
  COVID-19 pandemic: palliative care for elderly and frail patients at home and in residential and nursing homes
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kunz R.;  Minder M.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20235). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20235

RECORD 98
TITLE
  COVID-19: decision making and palliative care
AUTHOR NAMES
  Borasio G.D.;  Gamondi C.;  Obrist M.;  Jox R.;  For The Covid-Task Force Of Palliative Ch
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20233). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Due to the current development around the COVID-19 pandemic, palliative ch has created a Task Force to provide recommendations for health professionals on the treatment of palliative care patients in the various settings ‒ inpatient and outpatient.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20233

RECORD 99
TITLE
  The impact of covid-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li S.;  Wang Y.;  Xue J.;  Zhao N.;  Zhu T.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:6 Article Number: 2032. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) has significantly resulted in a large number of psychological consequences. The aim of this study is to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on people’s mental health, to assist policy makers to develop actionable policies, and help clinical practitioners (e.g., social workers, psychiatrists, and psychologists) provide timely services to affected populations. We sample and analyze the Weibo posts from 17,865 active Weibo users using the approach of Online Ecological Recognition (OER) based on several machine-learning predictive models. We calculated word frequency, scores of emotional indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, indignation, and Oxford happiness) and cognitive indicators (e.g., social risk judgment and life satisfaction) from the collected data. The sentiment analysis and the paired sample t-test were performed to examine the differences in the same group before and after the declaration of COVID-19 on 20 January, 2020. The results showed that negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, depression and indignation) and sensitivity to social risks increased, while the scores of positive emotions (e.g., Oxford happiness) and life satisfaction decreased. People were concerned more about their health and family, while less about leisure and friends. The results contribute to the knowledge gaps of short-term individual changes in psychological conditions after the outbreak. It may provide references for policy makers to plan and fight against COVID-19 effectively by improving stability of popular feelings and urgently prepare clinical practitioners to deliver corresponding therapy foundations for the risk groups and affected people.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032

RECORD 100
TITLE
  Hiding in plain sight: An approach to treating patients with severe covid-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fedson D.S.;  Opal S.M.;  Rordam O.M.
SOURCE
  mBio (2020) 11:2 Article Number: e00398-20. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Patients with COVID-19 infection are at risk of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) and death. The tissue receptor for COVID-19 is ACE2, and higher levels of ACE2 can protect against ARDS. Angiotensin receptor blockers and statins upregulate ACE2. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether this drug combination might be used to treat patients with severe COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00398-20

RECORD 101
TITLE
  Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu S.;  Yang L.;  Zhang C.;  Xiang Y.-T.;  Liu Z.;  Hu S.;  Zhang B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e17-e18). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-8

RECORD 102
TITLE
  The role of CT for Covid-19 patient’s management remains poorly Defined
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang X.Y.J.;  Hong Liu W.;  Yang M.;  Chen W.
SOURCE
  Annals of Translational Medicine (2020) 8:4. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.71

RECORD 103
TITLE
  Managing Cancer Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Agility and Collaboration Toward a Common Goal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ueda M.;  Martins R.;  Hendrie P.C.;  McDonnell T.;  Crews J.R.;  Wong T.L.;  McCreery B.;  Jagels B.;  Crane A.;  Byrd D.R.;  Pergam S.A.;  Davidson N.E.;  Liu C.;  Stewart F.M.
SOURCE
  Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN (2020) (1-4). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States was reported on January 20, 2020, in Snohomish County, Washington. At the epicenter of COVID-19 in the United States, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and University of Washington are at the forefront of delivering care to patients with cancer during this public health crisis. This Special Feature highlights the unique circumstances and challenges of cancer treatment amidst this global pandemic, and the importance of organizational structure, preparation, agility, and a shared vision for continuing to provide cancer treatment to patients in the face of uncertainty and rapid change.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7560

RECORD 104
TITLE
  Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Driggin E.;  Madhavan M.V.;  Bikdeli B.;  Chuich T.;  Laracy J.;  Bondi-Zoccai G.;  Brown T.S.;  Nigoghossian C.;  Zidar D.A.;  Haythe J.;  Brodie D.;  Beckman J.A.;  Kirtane A.J.;  Stone G.W.;  Krumholz H.M.;  Parikh S.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become host or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and preprint literature pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health systems.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.031

RECORD 105
TITLE
  Lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy amongst symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India: Protocol for restricted public health emergency use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bhatnagar T.;  Murhekar M.V.;  Soneja M.;  Gupta N.;  Giri S.;  Wig N.;  Gangakhedkar R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of February 29, 2020, more than 85,000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from China and 53 other countries with 2,924 deaths. On January 30, 2020, the first laboratory-confirmed case of COVID was reported from Kerala, India. In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups – age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons. Patients will be monitored to document clinical (hospital length of stay and mortality at 14, 28 and 90 days), laboratory (presence of viral RNA in serial throat swab samples) and safety (adverse events and serious adverse events) outcomes. Treatment outcomes amongst initial cases would be useful in providing guidance about the clinical management of patients with COVID-19. If found useful in managing initial SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, further evaluation using a randomized control trial design is warranted to guide future therapeutic use of this combination.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_20

RECORD 106
TITLE
  COVID-19: time for WHO to reconsider its stance towards Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nelson C.W.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (193). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00693-2

RECORD 107
TITLE
  COVID-19 and psoriasis: Is it time to limit treatment with immunosuppressants? A call for action
AUTHOR NAMES
  Conforti C.;  Giuffrida R.;  Dianzani C.;  Di Meo N.;  Zalaudek I.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic Therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13298

RECORD 108
TITLE
  Clinical and CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia: Focus on pregnant women and children
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu H.;  Liu F.;  Li J.;  Zhang T.;  Wang D.;  Lan W.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 pneumonia is globally concerning. We aimed to investigate the clinical and CT features in the pregnant women and children with this disease, which have not been well reported. Methods: Clinical and CT data of 59 patients with COVID-19 from January 27 to February 14, 2020 were retrospectively reviewed, including 14 laboratory-confirmed non-pregnant adults, 16 laboratory-confirmed and 25 clinically-diagnosed pregnant women, and 4 laboratory-confirmed children. The clinical and CT features were analyzed and compared. Findings: Compared with the non-pregnant adults group (n = 14), initial normal body temperature (9 [56%] and 16 [64%]), leukocytosis (8 [50%] and 9 [36%]) and elevated neutrophil ratio (14 [88%] and 20 [80%]), and lymphopenia (9 [56%] and 16 [64%]) were more common in the laboratory-confirmed (n = 16) and clinically-diagnosed (n = 25) pregnant groups. Totally 614 lesions were detected with predominantly peripheral and bilateral distributions in 54 (98%) and 37 (67%) patients, respectively. Pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) was the predominant presence in 94/131 (72%) lesions for the non-pregnant adults. Mixed consolidation and complete consolidation were more common in the laboratory-confirmed (70/161 [43%]) and clinically-diagnosed (153/322 [48%]) pregnant groups than 37/131 (28%) in the non-pregnant adults (P = 0·007, P < 0·001). GGO with reticulation was less common in 9/161 (6%) and 16/322 (5%) lesions for the two pregnant groups than 24/131 (18%) for the non-pregnant adults (P = 0·001, P < 0·001). The pulmonary involvement in children with COVID-19 was mild with a focal GGO or consolidation. Twenty-three patients underwent follow-up CT, revealing progression in 9/13 (69%) at 3 days whereas improvement in 8/10 (80%) at 6–9 days after initial CT scans. Interpretation: Atypical clinical findings of pregnant women with COVID-19 could increase the difficulty in initial identification. Consolidation was more common in the pregnant groups. The clinically-diagnosed cases were vulnerable to more pulmonary involvement. CT was the modality of choice for early detection, severity assessment, and timely therapeutic effects evaluation for the cases with epidemic and clinical features of COVID-19 with or without laboratory confirmation. The exposure history and clinical symptoms were more helpful for screening in children versus chest CT.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.007

RECORD 109
TITLE
  COVID-19 in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin X.-H.;  Zheng K.I.;  Pan K.-H.;  Xie Y.-P.;  Zheng M.-H.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Haematology (2020) 7:4 (e351-e352). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30074-0

RECORD 110
TITLE
  Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kruse R.L.
SOURCE
  F1000Research (2020) 9 (72). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) originating in Wuhan, China presents a potential respiratory viral pandemic to the world population. Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals. Ultimately, the outbreak could be controlled with a protective vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. While vaccine research should be pursued intensely, there exists today no therapy to treat 2019-nCoV upon infection, despite an urgent need to find options to help these patients and preclude potential death. Herein, I review the potential options to treat 2019-nCoV in patients, with an emphasis on the necessity for speed and timeliness in developing new and effective therapies in this outbreak. I consider the options of drug repurposing, developing neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy, and an oligonucleotide strategy targeting the viral RNA genome, emphasizing the promise and pitfalls of these approaches. Finally, I advocate for the fastest strategy to develop a treatment now, which could be resistant to any mutations the virus may have in the future. The proposal is a biologic that blocks 2019-nCoV entry using a soluble version of the viral receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), fused to an immunoglobulin Fc domain, providing a neutralizing antibody with maximal breath to avoid any viral escape, while also helping to recruit the immune system to build lasting immunity. The sequence of the ACE2-Fc protein is provided to investigators, allowing its possible use in recombinant protein expression systems to start producing drug today to treat patients under compassionate use, while formal clinical trials are later undertaken. Such a treatment could help infected patients before a protective vaccine is developed and widely available in the coming months to year(s).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.22211.2

RECORD 111
TITLE
  The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.-R.;  Cao Q.-D.;  Hong Z.-S.;  Tan Y.-Y.;  Chen S.-D.;  Jin H.-J.;  Tan K.-S.;  Wang D.-Y.;  Yan Y.
SOURCE
  Military Medical Research (2020) 7:1 (11). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

RECORD 112
TITLE
  Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiang S.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7799 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00751-9

RECORD 113
TITLE
  A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cao B.;  Wang Y.;  Wen D.;  Liu W.;  Wang J.;  Fan G.;  Ruan L.;  Song B.;  Cai Y.;  Wei M.;  Li X.;  Xia J.;  Chen N.;  Xiang J.;  Yu T.;  Bai T.;  Xie X.;  Zhang L.;  Li C.;  Yuan Y.;  Chen H.;  Li H.;  Huang H.;  Tu S.;  Gong F.;  Liu Y.;  Wei Y.;  Dong C.;  Zhou F.;  Gu X.;  Xu J.;  Liu Z.;  Zhang Y.;  Li H.;  Shang L.;  Wang K.;  Li K.;  Zhou X.;  Dong X.;  Qu Z.;  Lu S.;  Hu X.;  Ruan S.;  Luo S.;  Wu J.;  Peng L.;  Cheng F.;  Pan L.;  Zou J.;  Jia C.;  Wang J.;  Liu X.;  Wang S.;  Wu X.;  Ge Q.;  He J.;  Zhan H.;  Qiu F.;  Guo L.;  Huang C.;  Jaki T.;  Hayden F.G.;  Horby P.W.;  Zhang D.;  Wang C.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir-ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir-ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir-ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir-ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, -5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, -17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir-ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir-ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir-ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir-ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001282

RECORD 114
TITLE
  Covid-19 – The Search for Effective Therapy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Baden L.R.;  Rubin E.J.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2005477

RECORD 115
TITLE
  Intubation and Ventilation amid the COVID-19 Outbreak: Wuhan’s Experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  Meng L.;  Qiu H.;  Wan L.;  Ai Y.;  Xue Z.;  Guo Q.;  Deshpande R.;  Zhang L.;  Meng J.;  Tong C.;  Liu H.;  Xiong L.
SOURCE
  Anesthesiology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The COVID-19 outbreak has led to 80,409 diagnosed cases and 3,012 deaths in mainland China based on the data released on March 4, 2020. Approximately 3.2% of patients with COVID-19 required intubation and invasive ventilation at some point in the disease course. Providing best practices regarding intubation and ventilation for an overwhelming number of patients with COVID-19 amid an enhanced risk of cross-infection is a daunting undertaking. The authors presented the experience of caring for the critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan. It is extremely important to follow strict self-protection precautions. Timely, but not premature, intubation is crucial to counter a progressively enlarging oxygen debt despite high-flow oxygen therapy and bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation. Thorough preparation, satisfactory preoxygenation, modified rapid sequence induction, and rapid intubation using a video laryngoscope are widely used intubation strategies in Wuhan. Lung-protective ventilation, prone position ventilation, and adequate sedation and analgesia are essential components of ventilation management.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003296

RECORD 116
TITLE
  COVID-19: a recommendation to examine the effect of hydroxychloroquine in preventing infection and progression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou D.;  Dai S.-M.;  Tong Q.
SOURCE
  The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, has swept across 31 provinces in China and over 40 countries worldwide. The transition from first symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is highly likely to be due to uncontrolled cytokine release. There is an urgent need to identify safe and effective drugs for treatment. Chloroquine (CQ) exhibits a promising inhibitory effect. However, the clinical use of CQ can cause severe side effects. We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach. HCQ is likely to attenuate the severe progression of COVID-19, inhibiting the cytokine storm by suppressing T cell activation. It has a safer clinical profile and is suitable for those who are pregnant. It is cheaper and more readily available in China. We herein strongly urge that clinical trials are performed to assess the preventive effects of HCQ in both disease infection and progression.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa114

RECORD 117
TITLE
  CT appearance of severe, laboratory-proven coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Caucasian patient in Berlin, Germany
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gross A.;  Thiemig D.;  Koch F.-W.;  Schwarz M.;  Gläser S.;  Albrecht T.
SOURCE
  RoFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1138-8783

RECORD 118
TITLE
  Response of Chinese Anesthesiologists to the COVID-19 Outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang H.-F.;  Bo L.-L.;  Lin Y.;  Li F.-X.;  Sun S.-J.;  Lin H.-B.;  Xu S.-Y.;  Bian J.-J.;  Yao S.-L.;  Chen X.-D.;  Meng L.;  Deng X.-M.
SOURCE
  Anesthesiology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019, named COVID-19 officially by the World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) on February 12, 2020, has spread at unprecedented speed. After the first outbreak in Wuhan, China, Chinese anesthesiologists encountered increasing numbers of infected patients since December 2019. Because the main route of transmission is via respiratory droplets and close contact, anesthesia providers are at a high risk when responding to the devastating mass emergency. So far, actions have been taken including but not limited to nationwide actions and online education regarding special procedures of airway management, oxygen therapy, ventilation support, hemodynamic management, sedation, and analgesia. As the epidemic situation has lasted for months (thus far), special platforms have also been set up to provide free mental health care to all anesthesia providers participating in acute and critical caring for COVID-19 patients. The current article documents the actions taken, lesson learned, and future work needed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003300

RECORD 119
TITLE
  Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection-a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin L.;  Lu L.;  Cao W.;  Li T.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (727-732). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. Since the first case appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the outbreak has gradually spread nationwide. Up to now, according to official data released by the Chinese health commission, the number of newly diagnosed patients has been declining, and the epidemic is gradually being controlled. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection, some patients developed severe and die from multiple organ complications. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans remains unclear. Immune function is a strong defense against invasive pathogens and there is currently no specific antiviral drug against the virus. This article reviews the immunological changes of coronaviruses like SARS, MERS and other viral pneumonia similar to SARS-CoV-2. Combined with the published literature, the potential pathogenesis of COVID-19 is inferred, and the treatment recommendations for giving high-doses intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant therapy to severe type patients are proposed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1746199

RECORD 120
TITLE
  CT manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019: A retrospective analysis of 73 cases by disease severity
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu K.-C.;  Xu P.;  Lv W.-F.;  Qiu X.-H.;  Yao J.-L.;  Gu J.-F.;  Wei W.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Radiology (2020) 126 Article Number: 108941. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: To report CT features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in patients with various disease severity. Methods: The CT manifestations and clinical data of 73 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively collected in 6 hospitals from Jan 21 to Feb 3, 2020. We analyzed the initial and follow-up CT features of patients with disease severity, according to the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia. Results: Six patients (8%) were diagnosed as mild type pneumonia; these patients had no obvious abnormal CT findings or manifested mild changes of lung infection. All 43 patients (59 %) with common type presented unique or multiple ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the periphery of the lungs, with or without interlobular septal thickening. In the 21 patients (29 %) with severe type, extensive GGO and pulmonary consolidation were found in 16 cases (16/21, 76 %) and 5 cases (24 %), respectively. An extensive “white lung”, with atelectasis and pleural effusion were found in critical type patients (3, 4%). On the resolutive phase of the disease, CT abnormalities showed complete resolution, or demonstrated residual linear opacities. Conclusions: Different CT features are seen according to disease severity, which can help COVID-19 stratification.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108941

RECORD 121
TITLE
  China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking
AUTHOR NAMES
  Callaway E.;  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 577:7792 (605-607). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00166-6

RECORD 122
TITLE
  Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lu H.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (69-71). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01020

RECORD 123
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Z.;  Chen X.;  Lu Y.;  Chen F.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (64-68). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. No effective antiviral treatment has been verified thus far. We report here the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four patients with mild or severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. After treatment, three patients gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms, two of whom were confirmed 2019-nCoV negative and discharged, and one of whom was virus negative at the first test. The remaining patient with severe pneumonia had shown signs of improvement by the cutoff date for data collection. Results obtained in the current study may provide clues for treatment of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01030

RECORD 124
TITLE
  Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao J.;  Tian Z.;  Yang X.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (72-73). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01047

RECORD 125
TITLE
  COVID-19: Real-time dissemination of scientific information to fight a public health emergency of international concern
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song P.;  Karako T.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01056

RECORD 126
TITLE
  Machine Learning, COVID-19 (2019-nCoV), and multi-OMICS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020) 97:3 (215-216). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23990

RECORD 127
TITLE
  Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dong L.;  Hu S.;  Gao J.
SOURCE
  Drug discoveries & therapeutics (2020) 14:1 (58-60). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in December 2019 and then spread rapidly worldwide, particularly to China, Japan, and South Korea. Scientists are endeavoring to find antivirals specific to the virus. Several drugs such as chloroquine, arbidol, remdesivir, and favipiravir are currently undergoing clinical studies to test their efficacy and safety in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China; some promising results have been achieved thus far. This article summarizes agents with potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/ddt.2020.01012

RECORD 128
TITLE
  Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a potential approach for coronavirus infection therapy?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Batlle D.;  Wysocki J.;  Satchell K.
SOURCE
  Clinical science (London, England : 1979) (2020) 134:5 (543-545). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new coronavirus, referred to as SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the recent outbreak of severe respiratory disease. This outbreak first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread to other regions of China and to 25 other countries as of January, 2020. It has been known since the 2003 SARS epidemic that the receptor critical for SARS-CoV entry into host cells is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S1 domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV attaches the virus to its cellular receptor ACE2 on the host cells. We thought that it is timely to explain the connection between the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and the rationale for soluble ACE2 as a potential therapy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200163

RECORD 129
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mo P.;  Xing Y.;  Xiao Y.;  Deng L.;  Zhao Q.;  Wang H.;  Xiong Y.;  Cheng Z.;  Gao S.;  Liang K.;  Luo M.;  Chen T.;  Song S.;  Ma Z.;  Chen X.;  Zheng R.;  Cao Q.;  Wang F.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1st to February 5th. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy after hospitalization, and the difference between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with general COVID-19 patients (45.2%), refractory patients had an older age, male sex, more underlying comorbidities, lower incidence of fever, higher levels of maximum temperature among fever cases, higher incidence of breath shortness and anorexia, severer disease assessment on admission, high levels of neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein, lower levels of platelets and albumin, and higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P<0.05). Refractory COVID-19 patients were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment including corticosteroid, antiviral drugs and immune enhancer (P<0.05). After adjustment, those with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to have a male sex and manifestations of anorexia and fever on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant and adjunctive agents (P<0.05) when considering the factors of disease severity on admission, mechanical ventilation, and ICU transfer. CONCLUSION: Nearly 50% COVID-19 patients could not reach obvious clinical and radiological remission within 10 days after hospitalization. The patients with male sex, anorexia and no fever on admission predicted poor efficacy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa270

RECORD 130
TITLE
  Patients of COVID-19 may benefit from sustained lopinavir-combined regimen and the increase of eosinophil may predict the outcome of COVID-19 progression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu F.;  Xu A.;  Zhang Y.;  Xuan W.;  Yan T.;  Pan K.;  Yu W.;  Zhang J.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To explore the epidemiological information, clinical characteristics, therapeutic outcomes and temporal progression of laboratory findings in 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients exposed to lopinavir. METHODS: We collected data from ten COVID-19 patients admitted between January 22, 2020 and February 11, 2020 at Xixi hospital in Hangzhou, China. RESULTS: Of ten patients, secondary, tertiary and quartus patients emerged, the incubation period was 3-7 days. Mainly initial symptoms were cough and low fever (37.3-38.0 ℃). An asymptomatic case presented normal radiography, the others existed ground glass opacities. All cases (three transferred, seven discharged) exposed to lopinavir on initial hospitalization. Three patients stopped lopinavir using because of adverse effect, two of them deteriorated, one hospitalized longer than others who with sustained lopinavir using. Levels of potassium, albumin, lymphocyte were low, but increased persistently after treatment. Eosinophil values were low on initial hospitalization, then all returned to normal before discharge. Viral load of SARS-CoV-2, radiography and eosinophil improved continuously in 3-14, 6-8 and 7-9 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing eosinophils may be an indicator of COVID-19 improvement. The COVID-19 patients may benefit from sustained lopinavir using. More researches on a larger scale are needed to verify these points.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.013

RECORD 131
TITLE
  Clinical Features of 69 Cases with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Z.;  Yang B.;  Li Q.;  Wen L.;  Zhang R.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: From December 2019 to February 2020, 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a serious outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Related clinical features are needed. METHODS: We reviewed 69 patients who were hospitalized in Union hospital in Wuhan between January 16 to January 29, 2020. All patients were confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 and the final date of follow-up was February 4, 2020. RESULTS: The median age of 69 enrolled patients was 42.0 years (IQR 35.0-62.0), and 32 patients (46%) were men. The most common symptoms were fever (60[87%]), cough (38[55%]), and fatigue (29[42%]). Most patients received antiviral therapy (66 [98.5%] of 67 patients) and antibiotic therapy (66 [98.5%] of 67 patients). As of February 4, 2020, 18 (26.9%) of 67 patients had been discharged, and five patients had died, with a mortality rate of 7.5%. According to the lowest SpO2 during admission, cases were divided into the SpO2≥90% group (n=55) and the SpO2<90% group (n=14). All 5 deaths occurred in the SpO2<90% group. Compared with SpO2≥90% group, patients of the SpO2<90% group were older, and showed more comorbidities and higher plasma levels of IL6, IL10, lactate dehydrogenase, and c reactive protein. Arbidol treatment showed tendency to improve the discharging rate and decrease the mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 appears to show frequent fever, dry cough, and increase of inflammatory cytokines, and induced a mortality rate of 7.5%. Older patients or those with underlying comorbidities are at higher risk of death.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa272

RECORD 132
TITLE
  Clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19: a report of two family cluster cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ji L.-N.;  Chao S.;  Wang Y.-J.;  Li X.-J.;  Mu X.-D.;  Lin M.-G.;  Jiang R.-M.
SOURCE
  World journal of pediatrics : WJP (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe. People of all ages are susceptible to COVID-19. However, literature reports on pediatric patients are limited. METHODS: To improve the recognition of COVID-19 infection in children, we retrospectively reviewed two confirmed pediatric cases from two family clusters. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results of the children and their family members were described. RESULTS: The two confirmed children only presented with mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. Both of them had normal chest CT images. After general and symptomatic treatments, both children recovered quickly. Both families had travel histories to Hubei Province. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 are mostly owing to family cluster or with a close contact history. Infected children have relatively milder clinical symptoms than infected adults. We should attach importance to early recognition, early diagnosis, and early treatment of infected children.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-020-00356-2

RECORD 133
TITLE
  The Cholera Epidemics in Hamburg and What to Learn for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
    © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23999

RECORD 134
TITLE
  Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Elfiky A.A.
SOURCE
  Life Sciences (2020) 248 Article Number: 117477. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Aims: A newly emerged Human Coronavirus (HCoV) is reported two months ago in Wuhan, China (COVID-19). Until today >2700 deaths from the 80,000 confirmed cases reported mainly in China and 40 other countries. Human to human transmission is confirmed for COVID-19 by China a month ago. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) reports, SARS HCoV is responsible for >8000 cases with confirmed 774 deaths. Additionally, MERS HCoV is responsible for 858 deaths out of about 2500 reported cases. The current study aims to test anti-HCV drugs against COVID-19 RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Materials and methods: In this study, sequence analysis, modeling, and docking are used to build a model for Wuhan COVID-19 RdRp. Additionally, the newly emerged Wuhan HCoV RdRp model is targeted by anti-polymerase drugs, including the approved drugs Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin. Key findings: The results suggest the effectiveness of Sofosbuvir, IDX-184, Ribavirin, and Remidisvir as potent drugs against the newly emerged HCoV disease. Significance: The present study presents a perfect model for COVID-19 RdRp enabling its testing in silico against anti-polymerase drugs. Besides, the study presents some drugs that previously proved its efficiency against the newly emerged viral infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117477

RECORD 135
TITLE
  How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Asmundson G.J.G.;  Taylor S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2020) 71 Article Number: 102211. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102211

RECORD 136
TITLE
  Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Liu Y.H.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Wang Y.-H.;  Hsueh S.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.;  Ko W.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

RECORD 137
TITLE
  TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Yang X.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 emerges as a pandemic disease with high mortality. Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need. We reviewed TH17 responses in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and proposed an FDA approved JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib for reducing mortality of patients with TH17 type immune profiles.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.005

RECORD 138
TITLE
  Case of the Index Patient Who Caused Tertiary Transmission of COVID-19 Infection in Korea: the Application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia Monitored by Quantitative RT-PCR
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lim J.;  Jeon S.;  Shin H.Y.;  Kim M.J.;  Seong Y.M.;  Lee W.J.;  Choe K.W.;  Kang Y.M.;  Lee B.;  Park S.J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:6 (e79). Date of Publication: 17 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79

RECORD 139
TITLE
  Clinical Management of Lung Cancer Patients during the Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Y.;  Liu H.;  Hu K.;  Wang M.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer (2020) 23. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since late December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments, lung cancer patients are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. Furthermore, patients with cancer had poorer prognosis from infection. Lung cancer patients should be the priority group for COVID-19 prevention. The protection provisions and control measures aiming to protect lung cancer patients from COVID-19 have been increasingly concerned. During the COVID-19 outbreak period, it should be carefully differentiated for fever and respiratory symptoms for lung cancer patients receiving anti-tumor treatment, in order to evaluate the risk of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to carry out meticulous and individualized clinical management for lung cancer patients to effectively protect the patients from COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.03.02

RECORD 140
TITLE
  Management of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19): the Zhejiang experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu K.;  Cai H.;  Shen Y.;  Ni Q.;  Chen Y.;  Hu S.;  Li J.;  Wang H.;  Yu L.;  Huang H.;  Qiu Y.;  Wei G.;  Fang Q.;  Zhou J.;  Sheng J.;  Liang T.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current epidemic situation of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 inZhejiang Province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” for clinical practice. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinarypersonalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in10% patients’blood samples at acute periodand 50% of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifyingcytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategyeffectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favoredthe balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short periods of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be prescribed rationally and was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbialdysbiosis with decreasedprobiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, two weeks’ quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience above and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.

RECORD 141
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus COVID-19: an overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.;  Desai A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:2 Supplement 2 (1-21). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Prior to the global outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 were the only coronaviruses known to infect humans. Following the SARS outbreak, 5 additional coronaviruses have been discovered in humans, most recently the novel coronavirus COVID-19, believed to have originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV and MERSCoV are particularly pathogenic in humans and are associated with high mortality. In this review, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the recently discovered COVID-19 are reviewed, with a focus on best practices and the public health implications.

RECORD 142
TITLE
  Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.;  Qi T.;  Liu L.;  Ling Y.;  Qian Z.;  Li T.;  Li F.;  Xu Q.;  Zhang Y.;  Xu S.;  Song Z.;  Zeng Y.;  Shen Y.;  Shi Y.;  Zhu T.;  Lu H.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P<0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P<0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR]=1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR=0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004

RECORD 143
TITLE
  New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Devaux C.A.;  Rolain J.-M.;  Colson P.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105938). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938

RECORD 144
TITLE
  Potential preanalytical and analytical vulnerabilities in the laboratory diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lippi G.;  Simundic A.-M.;  Plebani M.
SOURCE
  Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel zoonotic coronavirus outbreak is spreading all over the world. This pandemic disease has now been defined as novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is sustained by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the current gold standard for the etiological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on respiratory tract specimens, the diagnostic accuracy of this technique shall be considered a foremost prerequisite. Overall, potential RT-PCR vulnerabilities include general preanalytical issues such as identification problems, inadequate procedures for collection, handling, transport and storage of the swabs, collection of inappropriate or inadequate material (for quality or volume), presence of interfering substances, manual errors, as well as specific aspects such as sample contamination and testing patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Some analytical problems may also contribute to jeopardize the diagnostic accuracy, including testing outside the diagnostic window, active viral recombination, use of inadequately validated assays, insufficient harmonization, instrument malfunctioning, along with other specific technical issues. Some practical indications can hence be identified for minimizing the risk of diagnostic errors, encompassing the improvement of diagnostic accuracy by combining clinical evidence with results of chest computed tomography (CT) and RT-PCR, interpretation of RT-PCR results according to epidemiologic, clinical and radiological factors, recollection and testing of upper (or lower) respiratory specimens in patients with negative RT-PCR test results and high suspicion or probability of infection, dissemination of clear instructions for specimen (especially swab) collection, management and storage, together with refinement of molecular target(s) and thorough compliance with analytical procedures, including quality assurance.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-0285

RECORD 145
TITLE
  A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus—A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao T.-T.;  Qian J.-D.;  Zhu W.-Y.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the past few decades, coronaviruses have risen as a global threat to public health. Currently, the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from Wuhan caused a worldwide panic. There are no specific antiviral therapies for COVID-19. However, there are agents that were used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. We could learn from SARS and MERS. Lopinavir (LPV) is an effective agent that inhibits the protease activity of coronavirus. In this review, we discuss the literature on the efficacy of LPV in vitro and in vivo, especially in patients with SARS and MERS, so that we might clarify the potential for the use of LPV in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25729

RECORD 146
TITLE
  How do we plan hematopoietic cell transplant and cellular therapy with the looming COVID-19 threat?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dholaria B.;  Savani B.N.
SOURCE
  British Journal of Haematology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16597

RECORD 147
TITLE
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Shih T.-P.;  Ko W.-C.;  Tang H.-J.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) 55:3 Article Number: 105924. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924

RECORD 148
TITLE
  Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou F.;  Yu T.;  Du R.;  Fan G.;  Liu Y.;  Liu Z.;  Xiang J.;  Wang Y.;  Song B.;  Gu X.;  Guan L.;  Wei Y.;  Li H.;  Wu X.;  Xu J.;  Tu S.;  Zhang Y.;  Chen H.;  Cao B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings: 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation: The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

RECORD 149
TITLE
  Risk Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu C.;  Chen X.;  Cai Y.;  Xia J.;  Zhou X.;  Xu S.;  Huang H.;  Zhang L.;  Zhou X.;  Du C.;  Zhang Y.;  Song J.;  Wang S.;  Chao Y.;  Yang Z.;  Xu J.;  Zhou X.;  Chen D.;  Xiong W.;  Xu L.;  Zhou F.;  Jiang J.;  Bai C.;  Zheng J.;  Song Y.
SOURCE
  JAMA Internal Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well delineated. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or died. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 201 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China between December 25, 2019, and January 26, 2020. The final date of follow-up was February 13, 2020. Exposures: Confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Main Outcomes and Measures: The development of ARDS and death. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management, treatment, and outcome data were also collected and analyzed. Results: Of 201 patients, the median age was 51 years (interquartile range, 43-60 years), and 128 (63.7%) patients were men. Eighty-four patients (41.8%) developed ARDS, and of those 84 patients, 44 (52.4%) died. In those who developed ARDS, compared with those who did not, more patients presented with dyspnea (50 of 84 [59.5%] patients and 30 of 117 [25.6%] patients, respectively [difference, 33.9%; 95% CI, 19.7%-48.1%]) and had comorbidities such as hypertension (23 of 84 [27.4%] patients and 16 of 117 [13.7%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.7%; 95% CI, 1.3%-26.1%]) and diabetes (16 of 84 [19.0%] patients and 6 of 117 [5.1%] patients, respectively [difference, 13.9%; 95% CI, 3.6%-24.2%]). In bivariate Cox regression analysis, risk factors associated with the development of ARDS and progression from ARDS to death included older age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.26; 95% CI 2.08-5.11; and HR, 6.17; 95% CI, 3.26-11.67, respectively), neutrophilia (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.09-1.19; and HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.17, respectively), and organ and coagulation dysfunction (eg, higher lactate dehydrogenase [HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.44-1.79; and HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.11-1.52, respectively] and D-dimer [HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; and HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04, respectively]). High fever (≥39 °C) was associated with higher likelihood of ARDS development (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.11-2.84) and lower likelihood of death (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.82). Among patients with ARDS, treatment with methylprednisolone decreased the risk of death (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.20-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance: Older age was associated with greater risk of development of ARDS and death likely owing to less rigorous immune response. Although high fever was associated with the development of ARDS, it was also associated with better outcomes among patients with ARDS. Moreover, treatment with methylprednisolone may be beneficial for patients who develop ARDS.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.0994

RECORD 150
TITLE
  Combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine in treating a family case of COVID-19 in Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ni L.;  Zhou L.;  Zhou M.;  Zhao J.;  Wang D.W.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. By February 14, 2020, it has led to 66 492 confirmed patients in China and high mortality up to ∼2.96% (1123/37 914) in Wuhan. Here we report the first family case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed in Wuhan and treated using the combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL). This report describes the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of three cases from a family, suggests the expected therapeutic effects of SHL on COVID-19, and warrants further clinical trials.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0757-x

RECORD 151
TITLE
  Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) and lung inflammation by COVID-19: anti-inflammatory strategies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Conti P.;  Ronconi G.;  Caraffa A.;  Gallenga C.E.;  Ross R.;  Frydas I.;  Kritas S.K.
SOURCE
  Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents (2020) 34:2. Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) involves humans as well as animals and may cause serious damage to the respiratory tract including the lung. This pathogenic virus has been identified in swabs performed on the throat and nose of patients who suffer from or are suspected of the disease. When COVID-19 infect the upper and lower respiratory tract it can cause mild or highly acute respiratory syndrome with consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1b and IL-6. The binding of COVID-19 to the Toll Like Receptor (TLR) causes the release of pro-IL-1b which is cleaved by caspase-1, followed by inflammasome activation and production of active mature IL-1b which is a mediator of lung inflammation, fever and fibrosis. Suppression of pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members and IL-6 have been shown to have a therapeutic effect in many inflammatory diseases, including viral infections. Cytokine IL-37 has the ability to suppress innate and acquired immune response and also has the capacity to inhibit inflammation by acting on IL-18Ra receptor. IL-37 performs its immunosuppressive activity by acting on mTOR and increasing the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) kinase. This cytokine inhibits class II histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and inflammation in inflammatory diseases by suppressing MyD88 and subsequently IL-1β, IL-6, TNF and CCL2. The suppression of IL-1b by IL-37 in inflammatory state induced by COVID-19 can have a new therapeutic effect previously unknown. Another inhibitory cytokine is IL-38, the newest cytokine of the IL-1 family members, produced by several immune cells including B cells and macrophages. IL-38 is also a suppressor cytokine which inhibits IL-1b and other pro-inflammatory IL-family members. IL-38 is a potential therapeutic cytokine which inhibits inflammation in viral infections including that caused by COVID-19, providing a new relevant strategy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.23812/CONTI-E.

RECORD 152
TITLE
  Impact of complicated myocardial injury on the clinical outcome of severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  He X.W.;  Lai J.S.;  Cheng J.;  Wang M.W.;  Liu Y.J.;  Xiao Z.C.;  Xu C.;  Li S.S.;  Zeng H.S.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi (2020) 48 (E011). Date of Publication: 15 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of the severe or critically ill patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), and evaluate the impact of complicated myocardial injury on the prognosis of these patients. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 54 patients who admitted to Tongji hospital from February 3, 2020 to February 24, 2020 and met the criteria of severe or critical conditions of COVID-19. The clinical characteristics and hospital mortality rate were analyzed and compared between the patients with or without myocardial injury, which was defined with 3 times higher serum cardiac troponin value. Results: The median age of the 54 patients was 68 (59.8, 74.3) years. Among all the patients, 24 (44.4%) patients were complicated with hypertension, 13 (24.1%) with diabetes, 8 (14.8%) with coronary heart disease, and 3 (5.6%) with previous cerebral infarction. During hospitalization, 24 (44.4%) of the patients were complicated with myocardial injury and 26 (48.1%) patients died in hospital. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with myocardial injury than in patients without myocardial injury (14 (60.9%) vs. 8 (25.8%), P=0.013). Moreover, the levels of C-reactive protein (153.6 (80.3, 240.7) ng/L vs. 49.8 (15.9, 101.9) ng/L) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (852.0 (400.0, 2 315.3) ng/L vs. 197.0 (115.3, 631.0) ng/L) were significantly higher than patients without myocardial injury (all P<0.01). Conclusions: Prevalence of myocardial injury is high among severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients. Severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients with myocardial injury face a significantly higher risk of in-hospital mortality. The study suggests that it is important to monitor and manage the myocardial injury during hospitalization for severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112148-20200228-00137

RECORD 153
TITLE
  Traditional Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ren J.-L.;  Zhang A.-H.;  Wang X.-J.
SOURCE
  Pharmacological Research (2020) 155 Article Number: 104743. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104743

RECORD 154
TITLE
  From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  El Zowalaty M.E.;  Järhult J.D.
SOURCE
  One Health (2020) 9 Article Number: 100124. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Human coronaviruses continue to pose a threat to human health. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. This recent emergence of a previously unknown coronavirus in China leads to huge impacts on humans globally. Covid-19 is a challenge to global public health. Here, we discuss the COVID-19 outbreak in a one health context, highlighting the need for the implementation of one health measures and practices to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemic viruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100124

RECORD 155
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and influencing factors of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia combined with liver injury in Shaanxi region
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao N.;  Wang S.N.;  Lian J.Q.;  Sun Y.T.;  Zhang G.F.;  Kang W.Z.;  Kang W.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology (2020) 28 (E003). Date of Publication: 10 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To understand the clinical characteristics, change of liver function, influencing factors and prognosis in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) combined with liver injury. Methods: The general conditions, biochemical indicators of liver, blood clotting mechanism, routine blood test, UGT1A1 * 28 gene polymorphism and other data of 40 cases with COVID-19 admitted to the isolation ward of Tangdu Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics, influencing factors and prognosis of liver injury in patients with liver injury group and those with normal liver function group were compared. The mean of two samples in univariate analysis was compared by t-test and analysis of variance. The counting data was measured by χ(2) tests. The non-normal distribution measurement data were described by the median, and the non-parametric test was used. Statistically significant influencing factors were used as the independent variables in univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the main influencing factors of liver injury. Results: Of the 40 cases, 25 were male (62.5%) and 15 were female (37.5%), aged 22 to 83 (53.87 ± 15.84) years. Liver injury was occurred in 22 cases (55%) during the course of the disease. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was initially increased (4.4 to 3.5 times of the normal value) along with decrease of albumin in the second week, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Ten cases (43.5%) had highest abnormal total blood bilirubin (54.1 μmol/ L). There was no correlation between the increase in transaminase and the increase in total blood bilirubin (R = -0.006, P = 0.972). Three cases had prothrombin activity (PTA) of ≤ 50%, 10 cases had elevated FDP, and 13 cases had elevated D-dimer, all of whom were severe or critically ill. Liver function injury was more likely to occur in patients who used many types of drugs and large amounts of hormones (P = 0.002, P = 0.031), and there was no correlation with the TA6TA7 mutation in the UGT1A1 * 28 gene locus. Multiple regression analysis showed that the occurrence of liver injury was only related to critical illness. The liver function of all patients had recovered within one week after conventional liver protection treatment. Conclusion: COVID-19 combined with liver function injury may be due to the slight elevation of transaminase, mostly around the second week of the disease course. Severe patients have a higher proportion of liver injury, and critical type is an independent risk factor for liver injury.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn501113-20200226-00070

RECORD 156
TITLE
  The call for a rapid response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peters R.
SOURCE
  BioPharm International (2020) 33:2 (6). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020

RECORD 157
TITLE
  Computers and viral diseases. Preliminary bioinformatics studies on the design of a synthetic vaccine and a preventative peptidomimetic antagonist against the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV, COVID-19) coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Robson B.
SOURCE
  Computers in Biology and Medicine (2020) 119 Article Number: 103670. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  This paper concerns study of the genome of the Wuhan Seafood Market isolate believed to represent the causative agent of the disease COVID-19. This is to find a short section or sections of viral protein sequence suitable for preliminary design proposal for a peptide synthetic vaccine and a peptidomimetic therapeutic, and to explore some design possibilities. The project was originally directed towards a use case for the Q-UEL language and its implementation in a knowledge management and automated inference system for medicine called the BioIngine, but focus here remains mostly on the virus itself. However, using Q-UEL systems to access relevant and emerging literature, and to interact with standard publically available bioinformatics tools on the Internet, did help quickly identify sequences of amino acids that are well conserved across many coronaviruses including 2019-nCoV. KRSFIEDLLFNKV was found to be particularly well conserved in this study and corresponds to the region around one of the known cleavage sites of the SARS virus that are believed to be required for virus activation for cell entry. This sequence motif and surrounding variations formed the basis for proposing a specific synthetic vaccine epitope and peptidomimetic agent. The work can, nonetheless, be described in traditional bioinformatics terms, and readily reproduced by others, albeit with the caveat that new data and research into 2019-nCoV is emerging and evolving at an explosive pace. Preliminary studies using molecular modeling and docking, and in that context the potential value of certain known herbal extracts, are also described.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.103670

RECORD 158
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 induced diarrhoea as onset symptom in patient with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song Y.;  Liu P.;  Shi X.L.;  Chu Y.L.;  Zhang J.;  Xia J.;  Gao X.Z.;  Qu T.;  Wang M.Y.
SOURCE
  Gut (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320891

RECORD 159
TITLE
  A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cortegiani A.;  Ingoglia G.;  Ippolito M.;  Giarratano A.;  Einav S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Critical Care (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern. As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical treatment, although it is much needed for patient contracting the severe form of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and three trial Registries were searched for studies on the use of chloroquine in patients with COVID-19. Results: We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China. Chloroquine seems to be effective in limiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 (virus causing COVID-19) in vitro. Conclusions: There is rationale, pre-clinical evidence of effectiveness and evidence of safety from long-time clinical use for other indications to justify clinical research on chloroquine in patients with COVID-19. However, clinical use should either adhere to the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions (MEURI) framework or be ethically approved as a trial as stated by the World Health Organization. Safety data and data from high-quality clinical trials are urgently needed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005

RECORD 160
TITLE
  Effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia: protocol of a randomized controlled trial
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou Y.-H.;  Qin Y.-Y.;  Lu Y.-Q.;  Sun F.;  Yang S.;  Harypursat V.;  Tang S.-Q.;  Huang Y.-Q.;  He X.-Q.;  Zeng Y.-M.;  Li Y.;  Xu X.-L.;  Zhao T.;  Chen Y.-K.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus outbreak emerged in Wuhan, China, and its causative organism has been subsequently designated the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The virus has since rapidly spread to all provinces and autonomous regions of China, and to countries outside of China. Patients who become infected with 2019-nCoV may initially develop mild upper respiratory tract symptoms. However, a significant fraction of these patients goes on to subsequently develop serious lower respiratory disease. The effectiveness of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy uses in the management of 2019-nCoV infected patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections is not clear, and warrants further investigation. METHODS: The present study will be conducted as an open-labelled, randomised controlled trial. We will enrol 48 subjects from Chongqing Public Health Medical Center. Each eligible subject will be assigned to an intervention group (methylprednisolone via intravenous injection at a dose of 1-2mg/kg/day for 3 days) or a control group (no glucocorticoid use) randomly, at a 1:1 ratio. Subjects in both groups will be invited for 28 days of follow-up which will be scheduled at 4 consecutive visit points. We will use the clinical improvement rate as our primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints include the timing of clinical improvement after intervention, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of hospitalization, overall incidence of adverse events, as well as rate of adverse events at each visit, and mortality at 2 and 4 weeks. DISCUSSION: The present coronavirus outbreak is the third serious global coronavirus outbreak in the past two decades. Oral and parenteral glucocorticoids have been used in the management of severe respiratory symptoms in coronavirus-infected patients in the past. However, there remains no definitive evidence in the literature for or against the utilization of systemic glucocorticoids in seriously ill patients with coronavirus-related severe respiratory disease, or indeed in other types of severe respiratory disease. In this study, we hope to discover evidence either supporting or opposing the systemic therapeutic administration of glucocorticoids in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ChiCTR2000029386, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=48777.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000791

RECORD 161
TITLE
  Repurposing of clinically approved drugs for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in a 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) related coronavirus model
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fan H.-H.;  Wang L.-Q.;  Liu W.-L.;  An X.-P.;  Liu Z.-D.;  He X.-Q.;  Song L.-H.;  Tong Y.-G.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Medicines for the treatment of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections are urgently needed. However, drug screening using live 2019-nCoV requires high-level biosafety facilities, which imposes an obstacle for those without such facilities or 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This study aims to repurpose the clinically approved drugs for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a 2019-nCoV related coronavirus model. METHODS: A 2019-nCoV related pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V/pangolin/2017/ Guangxi was described. Whether GX_P2X uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the cell receptor was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) -mediated silencing of ACE2. The pangolin coronavirus model was used to identify drug candidates for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Two libraries of 2406 clinically approved drugs were screened for their ability to inhibit cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells by GX_P2X infection. The antiviral activities and antiviral mechanisms of potential drugs were further investigated. Viral yields of RNAs and infectious particles were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and plaque assay, respectively. RESULTS: The spike protein of coronavirus GX_P2V shares 92.2% amino acid identity with that of 2019-nCoV isolate Wuhan-hu-1, and uses ACE2 as the receptor for infection just like 2019-nCoV. Three drugs-cepharanthine (CEP), selamectin and mefloquine hydrochloride exhibited complete inhibition of cytopathic effects in cell culture at 10 μmol/L. CEP demonstrated the most potent inhibition of GX_P2V infection, with a concentration for 50% of maximal effect [EC50] of 0.98 μmol/L. The viral RNA yield in cells treated with 10 μmol/L CEP was 15,393-fold lower than in cells without CEP treatment ([6.48 ± 0.02] × 10vs. 1.00 ± 0.12, t = 150.38, P < 0.001) at 72 h post-infection (p.i.). Plaque assays found no production of live viruses in media containing 10 μmol/L CEP at 48 h p.i. Furthermore, we found CEP has potent antiviral activities against both viral entry (1.00 ± 0.37 vs. 0.46 ± 0.12, t = 2.42, P < 0.05) and viral replication (1.00 ± 0.43 vs. [6.18 ± 0.95] × 10, t = 3.98, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V is a workable model for 2019-nCoV research. CEP, selamectin and mefloquine hydrochloride are potential drugs for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Our results strongly suggest that CEP is a wide-spectrum inhibitor of pan-betacoronavirus, and clinical trial of CEP for treatment of 2019-nCoV infection is warranted.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000797

RECORD 162
TITLE
  Of chloroquine and COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Touret F.;  de Lamballerie X.
SOURCE
  Antiviral Research (2020) 177 Article Number: 104762. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recent publications have brought attention to the possible benefit of chloroquine, a broadly used antimalarial drug, in the treatment of patients infected by the novel emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The scientific community should consider this information in light of previous experiments with chloroquine in the field of antiviral research.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104762

RECORD 163
TITLE
  Q&A: The novel coronavirus outbreak causing COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fisher D.;  Heymann D.
SOURCE
  BMC Medicine (2020) 18:1 Article Number: 57. Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01533-w

RECORD 164
TITLE
  Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Al-Tawfiq J.A.;  Al-Homoud A.H.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101615. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101615

RECORD 165
TITLE
  Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li G.;  De Clercq E.
SOURCE
  Nature reviews. Drug discovery (2020) 19:3 (149-150). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0

RECORD 166
TITLE
  Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent Niclosamide and Its Therapeutic Potential
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu J.;  Shi P.-Y.;  Li H.;  Zhou J.
SOURCE
  ACS infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlights an urgent need for therapeutics. Through a series of drug repurposing screening campaigns, niclosamide, an FDA-approved anthelminthic drug, was found to be effective against various viral infections with nanomolar to micromolar potency such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, ZIKV, HCV and human adenovirus, indicating its potential as an antiviral agent. In this brief article, we summarize the broad antiviral activities of niclosamide and highlight its potential clinical use for treatment of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00052

RECORD 167
TITLE
  Relation Between Chest CT Findings and Clinical Conditions of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Multicenter Study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao W.;  Zhong Z.;  Xie X.;  Yu Q.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2020) (1-6). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE. The increasing number of cases of confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China is striking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between chest CT findings and the clinical conditions of COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Data on 101 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia were retrospectively collected from four institutions in Hunan, China. Basic clinical characteristics and detailed imaging features were evaluated and compared between two groups on the basis of clinical status: nonemergency (mild or common disease) and emergency (severe or fatal disease). RESULTS. Patients 21-50 years old accounted for most (70.2%) of the cohort, and five (5.0%) patients had disease associated with a family outbreak. Most patients (78.2%) had fever as the onset symptom. Most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had typical imaging features, such as ground-glass opacities (GGO) (87 [86.1%]) or mixed GGO and consolidation (65 [64.4%]), vascular enlargement in the lesion (72 [71.3%]), and traction bronchiectasis (53 [52.5%]). Lesions present on CT images were more likely to have a peripheral distribution (88 [87.1%]) and bilateral involvement (83 [82.2%]) and be lower lung predominant (55 [54.5%]) and multifocal (55 [54.5%]). Patients in the emergency group were older than those in the non-emergency group. Architectural distortion, traction bronchiectasis, and CT involvement score aided in evaluation of the severity and extent of the disease. CONCLUSION. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia have typical imaging features that can be helpful in early screening of highly suspected cases and in evaluation of the severity and extent of disease. Most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have GGO or mixed GGO and consolidation and vascular enlargement in the lesion. Lesions are more likely to have peripheral distribution and bilateral involvement and be lower lung predominant and multifocal. CT involvement score can help in evaluation of the severity and extent of the disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22976

RECORD 168
TITLE
  COVID-19 in 2 Persons with Mild Upper Respiratory Symptoms on a Cruise Ship, Japan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arashiro T.;  Furukawa K.;  Nakamura A.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 17 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  We describe 2 cases of COVID-19 in patients with mild upper respiratory symptoms. Both patients worked on a cruise ship quarantined off the coast of Japan. One patient had persistent, low-grade upper respiratory tract symptoms without fever. The other patient had rapid symptom cessation but persistent viral RNA detection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200452

RECORD 169
TITLE
  A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: Structured letter therapy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao C.
SOURCE
  Psychiatry Investigation (2020) 17:2 (175-176). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0047

RECORD 170
TITLE
  Asymptomatic novel coronavirus pneumonia patient outside Wuhan: The value of CT images in the course of the disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin C.;  Ding Y.;  Xie B.;  Sun Z.;  Li X.;  Chen Z.;  Niu M.
SOURCE
  Clinical Imaging (2020) 63 (7-9). Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  The purpose of this case report is to describe the imaging and associated clinical features of an asymptomatic novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) patient outside Wuhan, China. The principle findings are that in this patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, CT findings preceded symptoms and included bilateral pleural effusions, previously not reported in association with COVID-19. The role of this case report is promotion of potential recognition amongst radiologists of this new disease, which has been declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.02.008

RECORD 171
TITLE
  First case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng S.-C.;  Chang Y.-C.;  Fan Chiang Y.-L.;  Chien Y.-C.;  Cheng M.;  Yang C.-H.;  Huang C.-H.;  Hsu Y.-N.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Formosan Medical Association (2020) 119:3 (747-751). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of respiratory illness proved to be infected by a 2019 novel coronavirus, officially named Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was notified first in Wuhan, China, and has spread rapidly in China and to other parts of the world. Herein, we reported the first confirmed case of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) imported from China in Taiwan. This case report revealed a natural course of NCP with self-recovery, which may be a good example in comparison with medical treatments.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.02.007

RECORD 172
TITLE
  The treatment proposal for the patients with breast diseases in the central epidemic area of 2019 coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao L.;  Zhang L.;  Liu J.W.;  Yang Z.F.;  Shen W.Z.;  Li X.R.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58 (E005). Date of Publication: 25 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Currently, the epidemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still ongoing. The characteristics including high contagiousness, herd susceptibility and clinical phenotype diversity, made a serious influence on people’s daily life and rountine therapy for other diseases. Breast dieases are clinical common diseases. In the central epidemic area of COVID-19, Hubei province, especially Wuhan, the clinical specialists of breast diseases should consider all of the following factors comprehensively: the prevention of COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases and the accessibility of medical resources. Besides, we should select the appropriate therapy and optimize treatment process so as to prevent the propagation and cross infection of COVID-19 as well as manage the breast diseases without delay. Therefore, we carried out some management proposals of the patients with breast diseases in the central epidemic area during the epidemic of COVID-19 on the basis of conventional treatment guidelines and clinical experiences. The suggestions and corrections from colleagues will be welcomed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112139-20200221-00116

RECORD 173
TITLE
  Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Z.;  Shi L.;  Wang Y.;  Zhang J.;  Huang L.;  Zhang C.;  Liu S.;  Zhao P.;  Liu H.;  Zhu L.;  Tai Y.;  Bai C.;  Gao T.;  Song J.;  Xia P.;  Dong J.;  Zhao J.;  Wang F.-S.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (420-422). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X