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List of Articles

RECORD 1
TITLE
  Social media for rapid knowledge dissemination: early experience from the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chan A.K.M.;  Nickson C.P.;  Rudolph J.W.;  Lee A.;  Joynt G.M.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15057

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Successful recovery of COVID-19 pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with long-term immunosuppression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu L.;  Xu X.;  Ma K.;  Yang J.;  Guan H.;  Chen S.;  Chen Z.;  Chen G.
SOURCE
  American Journal of Transplantation (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised great concern worldwide, but its impact on transplant recipients is unknown. We report here the clinical features and therapeutic course of the first reported renal transplant recipient with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. This is a 52-year-old man who received kidney transplantation 12 years ago. His overall clinical characteristics (symptoms, laboratory examinations, and chest CT) were similar to those of non-transplanted COVID-19 patients. Following a treatment regimen consisting of reduced immunosuppressant use and low dose methylprednisolone-based therapy, the COVID-19 pneumonia in this long-term immunosuppressive patient was successfully recovered. This effectively treated case has reference value for the future treatment of other transplant patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15869

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Transcriptomic characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiong Y.;  Liu Y.;  Cao L.;  Wang D.;  Guo M.;  Jiang A.;  Guo D.;  Hu W.;  Yang J.;  Tang Z.;  Wu H.;  Lin Y.;  Zhang M.;  Zhang Q.;  Shi M.;  Liu Y.;  Zhou Y.;  Lan K.;  Chen Y.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (761-770). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Circulating in China and 158 other countries and areas, the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak has caused devastating mortality and posed a great threat to public health. However, efforts to identify effectively supportive therapeutic drugs and treatments has been hampered by our limited understanding of host immune response for this fatal disease. To characterize the transcriptional signatures of host inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 (HCoV-19) infection, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of the RNAs isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) specimens of COVID-19 patients. Our results reveal distinct host inflammatory cytokine profiles to SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients, and highlight the association between COVID-19 pathogenesis and excessive cytokine release such as CCL2/MCP-1, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL3/MIP-1A, and CCL4/MIP1B. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 induced activation of apoptosis and P53 signalling pathway in lymphocytes may be the cause of patients’ lymphopenia. The transcriptome dataset of COVID-19 patients would be a valuable resource for clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication and understanding the molecular mechansims of host response.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1747363

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Isolation and rapid sharing of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SAR-CoV-2) from the first patient diagnosed with COVID-19 in Australia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Caly L.;  Druce J.;  Roberts J.;  Bond K.;  Tran T.;  Kostecki R.;  Yoga Y.;  Naughton W.;  Taiaroa G.;  Seemann T.;  Schultz M.B.;  Howden B.P.;  Korman T.M.;  Lewin S.R.;  Williamson D.A.;  Catton M.G.
SOURCE
  Medical Journal of Australia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: To describe the first isolation and sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in Australia and rapid sharing of the isolate. Setting: SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from a 58-year-old man from Wuhan, China who arrived in Melbourne on 19 January 2020 and was admitted to the Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne from the emergency department on 24 January 2020 with fever, cough, and progressive dyspnoea. Major outcomes: Clinical course and laboratory features of the first reported case of COVID-19 (the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2) in Australia; isolation, whole genome sequencing, imaging, and rapid sharing of virus from the patient. Results: A nasopharyngeal swab and sputum collected when the patient presented to hospital were each positive for SARS-CoV-2 (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). Inoculation of Vero/hSLAM cells with material from the nasopharyngeal swab led to the isolation of SARS-CoV-2 virus in culture. Electron microscopy of the supernatant confirmed the presence of virus particles with morphology characteristic of viruses of the family Coronaviridae. Whole genome sequencing of the viral isolate and phylogenetic analysis indicated the isolate exhibited greater than 99.99% sequence identity with other publicly available SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Within 24 hours of isolation, the first Australian SARS-CoV-2 isolate was shared with local and overseas reference laboratories and major North American and European culture collections. Conclusions: The ability to rapidly identify, propagate, and internationally share our SARS-CoV-2 isolate is an important step in collaborative scientific efforts to deal effectively with this international public health emergency by developing better diagnostic procedures, vaccine candidates, and antiviral agents.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50569

RECORD 5
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak: A new challenge
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lupia T.;  Scabini S.;  Mornese Pinna S.;  Di Perri G.;  De Rosa F.G.;  Corcione S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance (2020) 21 (22-27). Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Following the public-health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 30 January 2020 and the recent outbreak caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) [officially renamed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] in China and 29 other countries, we aimed to summarise the clinical aspects of the novelBetacoronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its possible clinical presentations together with suggested therapeutic algorithms for patients who may require antimicrobial treatment. Methods: The currently available literature was reviewed for microbiologically confirmed infections by 2019-nCoV or COVID-19 at the time of writing (13 February 2020). A literature search was performed using the PubMed database and Cochrane Library. Search terms included ‘novel coronavirus’ or ‘2019-nCoV’ or ‘COVID-19’. Results: Published cases occurred mostly in males (age range, 8–92 years). Cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine system diseases were commonly reported, except previous chronic pulmonary diseases [e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis] that were surprisingly underreported. Fever was present in all of the case series available, flanked by cough, dyspnoea, myalgia and fatigue. Multiple bilateral lobular and subsegmental areas of consolidation or bilateral ground-glass opacities were the main reported radiological features of 2019-nCoV infection, at least in the early phases of the disease. Conclusion: The new 2019-nCoV epidemic is mainly associated with respiratory disease and few extrapulmonary signs. However, there is a low rate of associated pre-existing respiratory co-morbidities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.02.021

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pung R.;  Chiew C.J.;  Young B.E.;  Chin S.;  Chen M.I.-C.;  Clapham H.E.;  Cook A.R.;  Maurer-Stroh S.;  Toh M.P.H.S.;  Poh C.;  Low M.;  Lum J.;  Koh V.T.J.;  Mak T.M.;  Cui L.;  Lin R.V.T.P.;  Heng D.;  Leo Y.-S.;  Lye D.C.;  Lee V.J.M.;  Kam K.-Q.;  Kalimuddin S.;  Tan S.Y.;  Loh J.;  Thoon K.C.;  Vasoo S.;  Khong W.X.;  Suhaimi N.-A.;  Chan S.J.;  Zhang E.;  Oh O.;  Ty A.;  Tow C.;  Chua Y.X.;  Chaw W.L.;  Ng Y.;  Abdul-Rahman F.;  Sahib S.;  Zhao Z.;  Tang C.;  Low C.;  Goh E.H.;  Lim G.;  Hou Y.;  Roshan I.;  Tan J.;  Foo K.;  Nandar K.;  Kurupatham L.;  Chan P.P.;  Raj P.;  Lin Y.;  Said Z.;  Lee A.;  See C.;  Markose J.;  Tan J.;  Chan G.;  See W.;  Peh X.;  Cai V.;  Chen W.K.;  Li Z.;  Soo R.;  Chow A.L.;  Wei W.;  Farwin A.;  Ang L.W.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1039-1046). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Three clusters of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to a tour group from China, a company conference, and a church were identified in Singapore in February, 2020. Methods: We gathered epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed COVID-19, via interviews and inpatient medical records, and we did field investigations to assess interactions and possible modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Open source reports were obtained for overseas cases. We reported the median (IQR) incubation period of SARS-CoV-2. Findings: As of Feb 15, 2020, 36 cases of COVID-19 were linked epidemiologically to the first three clusters of circumscribed local transmission in Singapore. 425 close contacts were quarantined. Direct or prolonged close contact was reported among affected individuals, although indirect transmission (eg, via fomites and shared food) could not be excluded. The median incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 was 4 days (IQR 3–6). The serial interval between transmission pairs ranged between 3 days and 8 days. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 is transmissible in community settings, and local clusters of COVID-19 are expected in countries with high travel volume from China before the lockdown of Wuhan and institution of travel restrictions. Enhanced surveillance and contact tracing is essential to minimise the risk of widespread transmission in the community. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30528-6

RECORD 7
TITLE
  COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, February 27-March 9, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  McMichael T.M.;  Clark S.;  Pogosjans S.;  Kay M.;  Lewis J.;  Baer A.;  Kawakami V.;  Lukoff M.D.;  Ferro J.;  Brostrom-Smith C.;  Riedo F.X.;  Russell D.;  Hiatt B.;  Montgomery P.;  Rao A.K.;  Currie D.W.;  Chow E.J.;  Tobolowsky F.;  Bardossy A.C.;  Oakley L.P.;  Jacobs J.R.;  Schwartz N.G.;  Stone N.;  Reddy S.C.;  Jernigan J.A.;  Honein M.A.;  Clark T.A.;  Duchin J.S.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (339-342). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On February 28, 2020, a case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in a woman resident of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington.* Epidemiologic investigation of facility A identified 129 cases of COVID-19 associated with facility A, including 81 of the residents, 34 staff members, and 14 visitors; 23 persons died. Limitations in effective infection control and prevention and staff members working in multiple facilities contributed to intra- and interfacility spread. COVID-19 can spread rapidly in long-term residential care facilities, and persons with chronic underlying medical conditions are at greater risk for COVID-19-associated severe disease and death. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to protect the health of residents and preserve the health care workforce by identifying and excluding potentially infected staff members and visitors, ensuring early recognition of potentially infected patients, and implementing appropriate infection control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e1

RECORD 8
TITLE
  Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships – Worldwide, February-March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Moriarty L.F.;  Plucinski M.M.;  Marston B.J.;  Kurbatova E.V.;  Knust B.;  Murray E.L.;  Pesik N.;  Rose D.;  Fitter D.;  Kobayashi M.;  Toda M.;  Canty P.T.;  Scheuer T.;  Halsey E.S.;  Cohen N.J.;  Stockman L.;  Wadford D.A.;  Medley A.M.;  Green G.;  Regan J.J.;  Tardivel K.;  White S.;  Brown C.;  Morales C.;  Yen C.;  Wittry B.;  Freeland A.;  Naramore S.;  Novak R.T.;  Daigle D.;  Weinberg M.;  Acosta A.;  Herzig C.;  Kapella B.K.;  Jacobson K.R.;  Lamba K.;  Ishizumi A.;  Sarisky J.;  Svendsen E.;  Blocher T.;  Wu C.;  Charles J.;  Wagner R.;  Stewart A.;  Mead P.S.;  Kurylo E.;  Campbell S.;  Murray R.;  Weidle P.;  Cetron M.;  Friedman C.R.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (347-352). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An estimated 30 million passengers are transported on 272 cruise ships worldwide each year* (1). Cruise ships bring diverse populations into proximity for many days, facilitating transmission of respiratory illness (2). SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread worldwide to at least 187 countries and territories. Widespread COVID-19 transmission on cruise ships has been reported as well (3). Passengers on certain cruise ship voyages might be aged ≥65 years, which places them at greater risk for severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). During February-March 2020, COVID-19 outbreaks associated with three cruise ship voyages have caused more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases among passengers and crew, including 10 deaths. Transmission occurred across multiple voyages of several ships. This report describes public health responses to COVID-19 outbreaks on these ships. COVID-19 on cruise ships poses a risk for rapid spread of disease, causing outbreaks in a vulnerable population, and aggressive efforts are required to contain spread. All persons should defer all cruise travel worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3

RECORD 9
TITLE
  Covid-19: A remote assessment in primary care
AUTHOR NAMES
  Greenhalgh T.;  Koh G.C.H.;  Car J.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1182. Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1182

RECORD 10
TITLE
  Roadblocks to Infection Prevention Efforts in Healthcare SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Popescu S.
SOURCE
  Disaster medicine and public health preparedness (2020) (1-7). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, is challenging international public health and healthcare efforts. As hospitals work to acquire enough personal protective equipment and brace for potential cases, the role of infection prevention efforts and programs has become increasingly important. Lessons from the 2003 SARS-CoV outbreak in Toronto and 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea have unveiled the critical role that hospitals play in outbreaks, especially of novel coronaviruses. Their ability to amplify the spread of disease can rapidly fuel transmission of the disease and often those failures in infection prevention and general hospital practices contribute to such events. While efforts to enhance infection prevention measures and hospital readiness are underway in the United States, it is important to understand why these programs were not able to maintain continued, sustainable levels of readiness. History has shown that infection prevention programs are primarily responsible for preparing hospitals and responding to biological events but face under-staffing and focused efforts defined by administrators. The current U.S. healthcare system though, is built upon a series of priorities that often view biopreparedness as a costly endeavor. Awareness of these competing priorities and the challenges infection prevention programs face when working to maintain biopreparedness is critical in adequately addressing this critical infrastructure in the face of an international outbreak.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.55

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Pathways for urology patients during the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Simonato A.;  Giannarini G.;  Abrate A.;  Bartoletti R.;  Crestani A.;  De Nunzio C.;  Gregori A.;  Liguori G.;  Novara G.;  Pavan N.;  Trombetta C.;  Tubaro A.;  Porpiglia F.;  Ficarra V.
SOURCE
  Minerva urologica e nefrologica = The Italian journal of urology and nephrology (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The public health emergency caused by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant reallocation of health resources with a consequent reorganization of the clinical activities also in several urological centers. A panel of Italian urologists has agreed on a set of recommendations on pathways of pre-, intra- and post-operative care for urological patients undergoing urgent procedures or non-deferrable oncological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Simplification of the diagnostic and staging pathway has to be prioritized in order to reduce hospital visits and consequently the risk of contagion. In absence of strict uniform regulations that impose the implementation of nasopharyngeal swabs, we recommend that an accurate triage for possible COVID-19 symptoms be performed both by telephone at home before hospitalization and at the time of hospitalization. We recommend that during hospital stay patients should be provided with as many instructions as possible to facilitate their return to, and stay at, home. Patients should be discharged under stable good conditions in order to minimize the risk of readmission. It is advisable to reduce or reschedule post-discharge controls and implement an adequate system of communication for telemonitoring discharged patients in order to reduce hospital visits.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0393-2249.20.03861-8

RECORD 12
TITLE
  The Late Arrival of COVID-19 in Africa – Mitigating Pan-Continental Spread
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nachega J.B.;  Seydi M.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa353

RECORD 13
TITLE
  High population densities catalyze the spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rocklöv J.;  Sjödin H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa038

RECORD 14
TITLE
  Proposal for international standardization of the use of lung ultrasound for COVID-19 patients; a simple, quantitative, reproducible method
AUTHOR NAMES
  Soldati G.;  Smargiassi A.;  Inchingolo R.;  Buonsenso D.;  Perrone T.;  Briganti D.F.;  Perlini S.;  Torri E.;  Mariani A.;  Mossolani E.E.;  Tursi F.;  Mento F.;  Demi L.
SOURCE
  Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Growing evidences are showing the usefulness of lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19. Sars-CoV-2 has now spread in almost every country in the world. In this study, we share our experience and propose a standardized approach in order to optimize the use of lung ultrasound in covid-19 patients. We focus on equipment, procedure, classification and data-sharing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15285

RECORD 15
TITLE
  The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen L.;  Li X.;  Chen M.;  Feng Y.;  Xiong C.
SOURCE
  Cardiovascular research (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new type of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks recently in China and spreads into many other countries. This disease, named as COVID-19, is similar to patients infected by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and nearly 20% of patients developed severe condition. Cardiac injury is a prevalent complication of severe patients, exacerbating the disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key host cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, has been identified in multiple organs, but its cellular distribution in human heart is not illuminated clearly. This study performed the first state-of-art single cell atlas of adult human heart, and revealed that pericytes with high expression of ACE2 might act as the target cardiac cell of SARS-CoV-2. The pericytes injury due to virus infection may result in capillary endothelial cells dysfunction, inducing microvascular dysfunction. And patients with basic heart failure disease showed increased ACE2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, meaning that if infected by the virus these patients may have higher risk of heart attack and critically ill condition. The finding of this study explains the high rate of severe cases among COVID-19 patients with basic cardiovascular disease; and these results also perhaps provide important reference to clinical treatment of cardiac injury among severe patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa078

RECORD 16
TITLE
  Quick community survey on the impact of COVID-19 outbreak for the healthcare of people living with HIV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo W.;  Weng H.L.;  Bai H.;  Liu J.;  Wei X.N.;  Zhou K.;  Sande A.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (663-667). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To collect the current status and healthcare needs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in China during the COVID-19 outbreak to inform quick response from government and communities. Methods: During February 5(th) to 10(th) , 2020, a national anonymous survey was conducted using an online questionnaire among PLHIV at least 18 years of age and had started antiretroviral treatment (ART) to collect the information on COVID-19 prevention, HIV-related health services and the needs on psychosocial support. Current status and needs of people living with HIV were analyzed in Hubei and other regions. Results: A total of 1 014 valid questionnaires were collected, with PLHIV respondents cross the country. The survey revealed that 93.79% of the respondents could obtain information regarding the prevention of COVID-19 from their communities or villages. Respondents were concerned with HIV-specific protective measures and personal protective equipment shortage. 32.64% of all respondents were not carrying sufficient antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) to meet the needs under traffic and travel restrictions, and some could face stock-outs in the coming month. In Hubei province where 53 respondents needed ARV refill, 64.15% reported difficulty accessing ARV due to the “blockage”. 28.93% respondents were in need of sociopsychological support, and 85.31% anticipated further improvement of the out-of-town ARV refill process from the government. Conclusion: PLHIV wants to know HIV-specific protective measures against COVID-19 outbreak. PLHIV who returned to their home-towns and affected by the lock-downs reported challenges with refills. We should undertake a more systematic study on impacts of the COVID-19 on PLHIV to develop preparedness capacity for future public health emergency.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200314-00345

RECORD 17
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak: An overview on dentistry
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spagnuolo G.;  De Vito D.;  Rengo S.;  Tatullo M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:6 Article Number: 2094. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062094

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Mass masking in the COVID-19 epidemic: people need guidance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Leung C.C.;  Lam T.H.;  Cheng K.K.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (945). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30520-1

RECORD 19
TITLE
  Did the hesitancy in declaring COVID-19 a pandemic reflect a need to redefine the term?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Green M.S.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1034-1035). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30630-9

RECORD 20
TITLE
  What can early Canadian experience screening for COVID-19 teach us about how to prepare for a pandemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin M.;  Beliavsky A.;  Katz K.;  Powis J.E.;  Ng W.;  Williams V.;  Science M.;  Groves H.;  Muller M.P.;  Vaisman A.;  Hota S.;  Johnstone J.;  Leis J.A.
SOURCE
  CMAJ (2020) 192:12 (E314-E318). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200305

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Health security capacities in the context of COVID-19 outbreak: an analysis of International Health Regulations annual report data from 182 countries
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kandel N.;  Chungong S.;  Omaar A.;  Xing J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1047-1053). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Public health measures to prevent, detect, and respond to events are essential to control public health risks, including infectious disease outbreaks, as highlighted in the International Health Regulations (IHR). In light of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), we aimed to review existing health security capacities against public health risks and events. Methods: We used 18 indicators from the IHR State Party Annual Reporting (SPAR) tool and associated data from national SPAR reports to develop five indices: (1) prevent, (2) detect, (3) respond, (4) enabling function, and (5) operational readiness. We used SPAR 2018 data for all of the indicators and categorised countries into five levels across the indices, in which level 1 indicated the lowest level of national capacity and level 5 the highest. We also analysed data at the regional level (using the six geographical WHO regions). Findings: Of 182 countries, 52 (28%) had prevent capacities at levels 1 or 2, and 60 (33%) had response capacities at levels 1 or 2. 81 (45%) countries had prevent capacities and 78 (43%) had response capacities at levels 4 or 5, indicating that these countries were operationally ready. 138 (76%) countries scored more highly in the detect index than in the other indices. 44 (24%) countries did not have an effective enabling function for public health risks and events, including infectious disease outbreaks (7 [4%] at level 1 and 37 [20%] at level 2). 102 (56%) countries had level 4 or level 5 enabling function capacities in place. 32 (18%) countries had low readiness (2 [1%] at level 1 and 30 [17%] at level 2), and 104 (57%) countries were operationally ready to prevent, detect, and control an outbreak of a novel infectious disease (66 [36%] at level 4 and 38 [21%] at level 5). Interpretation: Countries vary widely in terms of their capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to outbreaks. Half of all countries analysed have strong operational readiness capacities in place, which suggests that an effective response to potential health emergencies could be enabled, including to COVID-19. Findings from local risk assessments are needed to fully understand national readiness capacities in relation to COVID-19. Capacity building and collaboration between countries are needed to strengthen global readiness for outbreak control. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30553-5

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Screening for Chinese medical staff mental health by SDS and SAS during the outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liang Y.;  Chen M.;  Zheng X.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Psychosomatic Research (2020) 133 Article Number: 110102. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110102

RECORD 23
TITLE
  Why is it difficult to accurately predict the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Roda W.C.;  Varughese M.B.;  Han D.;  Li M.Y.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (271-281). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan City in December of 2019, numerous model predictions on the COVID-19 epidemics in Wuhan and other parts of China have been reported. These model predictions have shown a wide range of variations. In our study, we demonstrate that nonidentifiability in model calibrations using the confirmed-case data is the main reason for such wide variations. Using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) for model selection, we show that an SIR model performs much better than an SEIR model in representing the information contained in the confirmed-case data. This indicates that predictions using more complex models may not be more reliable compared to using a simpler model. We present our model predictions for the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan after the lockdown and quarantine of the city on January 23, 2020. We also report our results of modeling the impacts of the strict quarantine measures undertaken in the city after February 7 on the time course of the epidemic, and modeling the potential of a second outbreak after the return-to-work in the city.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.03.001

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises
AUTHOR NAMES
  Poole D.N.;  Escudero D.J.;  Gostin L.O.;  Leblang D.;  Talbot E.A.
SOURCE
  International Journal for Equity in Health (2020) 19:1 Article Number: 41. Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01162-y

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Considering inequalities in the school closure response to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Armitage R.;  Nellums L.B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Global health (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30116-9

RECORD 26
TITLE
  A pregnant woman with COVID-19 in Central America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zambrano L.I.;  Fuentes-Barahona I.C.;  Bejarano-Torres D.A.;  Bustillo C.;  Gonzales G.;  Vallecillo-Chinchilla G.;  Sanchez-Martínez F.E.;  Valle-Reconco J.A.;  Sierra M.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Cardona-Ospina J.A.;  Rodríguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101639). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101639

RECORD 27
TITLE
  US public health budget cuts in the face of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Devi S.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020) 20:4 (415). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30182-1

RECORD 28
TITLE
  National UK programme of community health workers for COVID-19 response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haines A.;  de Barros E.F.;  Berlin A.;  Heymann D.L.;  Harris M.J.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30735-2

RECORD 29
TITLE
  Liver injury during highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu L.;  Liu J.;  Lu M.;  Yang D.;  Zheng X.
SOURCE
  Liver International (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to global public health. The WHO has declared the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection an international public health emergency. Lung lesions have been considered as the major damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, liver injury has also been reported to occur during the course of the disease in severe cases. Similarly, previous studies have shown that liver damage was common in the patients infected by the other two highly pathogenic coronavirus – severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and associated with the severity of diseases. In this review, the characteristics and mechanism of liver injury caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection were summarized, which may provide help for further studies on the liver injury of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14435

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Will COVID-19 be a litmus test for post-Ebola sub-Saharan Africa?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Agyeman A.A.;  Laar A.;  Ofori-Asenso R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25780

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Offline: COVID-19—a reckoning
AUTHOR NAMES
  Horton R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (935). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30669-3

RECORD 32
TITLE
  COVID-19 battle during the toughest sanctions against Iran
AUTHOR NAMES
  Takian A.;  Raoofi A.;  Kazempour-Ardebili S.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1035-1036). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30668-1

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Preventing COVID-19 prejudice in academia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rzymski P.;  Nowicki M.
SOURCE
  Science (2020) 367:6484 (1313). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb4870

RECORD 34
TITLE
  COVID-19: a potential public health problem for homeless populations
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tsai J.;  Wilson M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Public Health (2020) 5:4 (e186-e187). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30053-0

RECORD 35
TITLE
  Prisons and custodial settings are part of a comprehensive response to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kinner S.A.;  Young J.T.;  Snow K.;  Southalan L.;  Lopez-Acuña D.;  Ferreira-Borges C.;  O’Moore É.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Public Health (2020) 5:4 (e188-e189). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30058-X

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin Y.;  Yang H.;  Ji W.;  Wu W.;  Chen S.;  Zhang W.;  Duan G.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:4 Article Number: 372. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

RECORD 37
TITLE
  A systems approach to preventing and responding to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bradley D.T.;  Mansouri M.A.;  Kee F.;  Garcia L.M.T.
SOURCE
  EClinicalMedicine (2020) Article Number: 100325. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100325

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Audio interview: Preparing for the spread of covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rubin E.J.;  Baden L.R.;  Morrissey S.
SOURCE
  New England Journal of Medicine (2020) 382:9 (E18). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2003319

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Covid-19: Control measures must be equitable and inclusive
AUTHOR NAMES
  Berger Z.D.;  Evans N.G.;  Phelan A.L.;  Silverman R.D.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1141. Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1141

RECORD 40
TITLE
  Trust in humanitarian aid from the earthquake 2017 to COVID-19 in Iran: A policy analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Seddighi H.
SOURCE
  Disaster medicine and public health preparedness (2020) (1-9). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The earthquake of November 2017, the great flood of April 2019, and the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 are three major emergencies in Iran during the last three years. A common issue in all these crises seems to be the issue of “trust”.Official authorities including Iranian President, ministers, and the Judiciary system tried to gain people’s trust by either changing policies or developing new ones. In August 2019, the new law on crisis management in Iran went into effect and the issue of people donation has been considered too. Also, in their response to COVID-19 outbreak, Iranian officials ordered to all sectors to cooperate with Ministry of Health and provide it with all necessary facilities.Therefore, it seems that new policies are still needed to overcome mistrust in Iran at the times of emergency. Developing a policy on donation management was the first step, while there are several factors could have contributing to the perception of the mistrust and failure in emergency missions. Mistrust can be the result of different causes including but not limited to lack of knowledge on capabilities and efficiencies of humanitarian organizations, engagement of a wide range of organizations from different categories, extending of mistrust of an organization to other emergency organizations in the area or all of operation, lack of unity in emergency response; and poor public relations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.54

RECORD 41
TITLE
  Mitigating the impact of conference and travel cancellations on researchers’ futures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Weissgerber T.;  Bediako Y.;  de Winde C.M.;  Ebrahimi H.;  Fernández-Chiappe F.;  Ilangovan V.;  Mehta D.;  Paz Quezada C.;  Riley J.L.;  Saladi S.M.;  Sarabipour S.;  Tay A.
SOURCE
  eLife (2020) 9. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The need to protect public health during the current COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated conference cancellations on an unprecedented scale. As the scientific community adapts to new working conditions, it is important to recognize that some of our actions may disproportionately affect early-career researchers and scientists from countries with limited research funding. We encourage all conference organizers, funders and institutions who are able to do so to consider how they can mitigate the unintended consequences of conference and travel cancellations and we provide seven recommendations for how this could be achieved. The proposed solutions may also offer long-term benefits for those who normally cannot attend conferences, and thus lead to a more equitable future for generations of researchers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.57032

RECORD 42
TITLE
  Geriatric Care during Public Health Emergencies: Lessons Learned from Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mazumder H.;  Hossain M.M.;  Das A.
SOURCE
  Journal of gerontological social work (2020) (1-2). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Geriatric care in public health emergencies is a serious concern, while, high case-fatalities among older adults across the globe in COVID-19 pandemic implies lack of preparedness. Most of the countries irrespective of developing and developed one enormously struggling because of an inchoate response system ignorant of geriatric health needs. Therefore, a robust approach is highly essential that requires an integrated emergency preparedness by addressing geriatric care.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01634372.2020.1746723

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dashraath P.;  Jing Lin Jeslyn W.;  Mei Xian Karen L.;  Li Min L.;  Sarah L.;  Biswas A.;  Arjandas Choolani M.;  Mattar C.;  Lin S.L.
SOURCE
  American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, is spreading globally at an accelerated rate, with a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2 – 2.5, indicating that 2 – 3 persons will be infected from an index patient. A serious public health emergency, it is particularly deadly in vulnerable populations and communities in which healthcare providers are insufficiently prepared to manage the infection. As of March 16, 2020, there are more than 180,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, with over 7,000 related deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated from asymptomatic individuals, and affected patients continue to be infectious two weeks after cessation of symptoms. The substantial morbidity and socioeconomic impact have necessitated drastic measures across all continents, including nationwide lockdowns and border closures. Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks. To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. Physiological and mechanical changes in pregnancy increase susceptibility to infections in general, particularly when the cardiorespiratory system is affected, and encourage rapid progression to respiratory failure in the gravida. Furthermore, the pregnancy bias towards T-helper 2 (Th2) system dominance which protects the fetus, leaves the mother vulnerable to viral infections, which are more effectively contained by the Th1 system. These unique challenges mandate an integrated approach to pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2. Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission and maternal-fetal complications. We discuss the latest options in antiviral therapy and vaccine development, including the novel use of chloroquine in the management of COVID-19. Fetal surveillance, in view of the predisposition to growth restriction and special considerations during labor and delivery are addressed. Additionally, we focus on keeping frontline obstetric care providers safe while continuing to provide essential services. Our clinical service model is built around the principles of workplace segregation, responsible social distancing, containment of cross-infection to healthcare providers, judicious use of personal protective equipment and telemedicine. Our aim is to share a framework which can be adopted by tertiary maternity units managing pregnant women in the flux of a pandemic while maintaining the safety of the patient and healthcare provider at its core.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.03.021

RECORD 44
TITLE
  Postacute Care Preparedness for COVID-19: Thinking Ahead
AUTHOR NAMES
  Grabowski D.C.;  Joynt Maddox K.E.
SOURCE
  JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association (2020) Article Number: 4686. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4686

RECORD 45
TITLE
  The time-varying serial interval of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its gender-specific difference: A data-driven analysis using public surveillance data in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China from January 10 to February 15, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao S.;  Cao P.;  Chong M.K.C.;  Gao D.;  Lou Y.;  Ran J.;  Wang K.;  Wang W.;  Yang L.;  He D.;  Wang M.H.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.64

RECORD 46
TITLE
  The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Prem K.;  Liu Y.;  Russell T.W.;  Kucharski A.J.;  Eggo R.M.;  Davies N.;  Jit M.;  Klepac P.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December, 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, emerged in Wuhan, China. Since then, the city of Wuhan has taken unprecedented measures in response to the outbreak, including extended school and workplace closures. We aimed to estimate the effects of physical distancing measures on the progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, hoping to provide some insights for the rest of the world. METHODS: To examine how changes in population mixing have affected outbreak progression in Wuhan, we used synthetic location-specific contact patterns in Wuhan and adapted these in the presence of school closures, extended workplace closures, and a reduction in mixing in the general community. Using these matrices and the latest estimates of the epidemiological parameters of the Wuhan outbreak, we simulated the ongoing trajectory of an outbreak in Wuhan using an age-structured susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model for several physical distancing measures. We fitted the latest estimates of epidemic parameters from a transmission model to data on local and internationally exported cases from Wuhan in an age-structured epidemic framework and investigated the age distribution of cases. We also simulated lifting of the control measures by allowing people to return to work in a phased-in way and looked at the effects of returning to work at different stages of the underlying outbreak (at the beginning of March or April). FINDINGS: Our projections show that physical distancing measures were most effective if the staggered return to work was at the beginning of April; this reduced the median number of infections by more than 92% (IQR 66-97) and 24% (13-90) in mid-2020 and end-2020, respectively. There are benefits to sustaining these measures until April in terms of delaying and reducing the height of the peak, median epidemic size at end-2020, and affording health-care systems more time to expand and respond. However, the modelled effects of physical distancing measures vary by the duration of infectiousness and the role school children have in the epidemic. INTERPRETATION: Restrictions on activities in Wuhan, if maintained until April, would probably help to delay the epidemic peak. Our projections suggest that premature and sudden lifting of interventions could lead to an earlier secondary peak, which could be flattened by relaxing the interventions gradually. However, there are limitations to our analysis, including large uncertainties around estimates of R0 and the duration of infectiousness. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, and Health Data Research UK.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-6

RECORD 47
TITLE
  COVID-19: extending or relaxing distancing control measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Colbourn T.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30072-4

RECORD 48
TITLE
  The Italian health system and the COVID-19 challenge
AUTHOR NAMES
  Armocida B.;  Formenti B.;  Ussai S.;  Palestra F.;  Missoni E.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30074-8

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Parenting in a time of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cluver L.;  Lachman J.M.;  Sherr L.;  Wessels I.;  Krug E.;  Rakotomalala S.;  Blight S.;  Hillis S.;  Bachman G.;  Green O.;  Butchart A.;  Tomlinson M.;  Ward C.L.;  Doubt J.;  McDonald K.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30736-4

RECORD 50
TITLE
  Sound Science before Quick Judgement Regarding RAS Blockade in COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sparks M.A.;  South A.;  Welling P.;  Luther J.M.;  Cohen J.;  Byrd J.B.;  Burrell L.M.;  Batlle D.;  Tomlinson L.;  Bhalla V.;  Rheault M.N.;  Soler M.J.;  Swaminathan S.;  Hiremath S.
SOURCE
  Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03530320

RECORD 51
TITLE
  Looking after yourself and others
AUTHOR NAMES
  Allister R.
SOURCE
  The Veterinary record (2020) 186:12 (368-369). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The global Covid-19 outbreak is having a profound impact on everyone, including people in the veterinary profession. Public health and government advice for some to self isolate and for all of us to increase social distancing poses huge challenges for the industry and its people, as well as clients and patients. Here, Vetlife Helpline manager.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.m1234

RECORD 52
TITLE
  Estimation of the COVID-19 burden in Egypt through exported case detection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tuite A.R.;  Ng V.;  Rees E.;  Fisman D.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Khan K.;  Bogoch I.I.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30233-4

RECORD 53
TITLE
  Follow-up testing of viral nucleic acid in discharged patients with moderate type of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Hu Y.;  Zhang X.;  Yu Y.;  Li B.;  Wu J.;  Wu Y.;  Xia X.;  Xu J.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. METHODS: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantine in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the three weeks of quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented; and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. RESULTS: There were no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-COV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that there is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.

RECORD 54
TITLE
  COVID-19 gives the lie to global health expertise
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dalglish S.L.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30739-X

RECORD 55
TITLE
  Providing pharmacy services during the coronavirus pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu S.;  Luo P.;  Tang M.;  Hu Q.;  Polidoro J.P.;  Sun S.;  Gong Z.
SOURCE
  International journal of clinical pharmacy (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is quickly spreading across China and globally. Pharmacy services are an important pillar in public health to prevent and contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Chinese pharmacists have acted swiftly in the public health response in China, such as drafting professional service guidance to pharmacists and pharmacies, establishing emergency drug formularies, monitoring and resolving drug shortages, establishing remote pharmacy services to prevent human-to-human infections, providing event-driven pharmaceutical care, educating the public on infection prevention and disease management, and participating in clinical trials and drug evaluation. This commentary reviews the unique needs of pharmacy services in the COVID-19 pandemic, and shares our experiences with the international pharmacy community in the response to these needs.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01017-0

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of 54 medical staff with COVID-19: A retrospective study in a single center in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chu J.;  Yang N.;  Wei Y.;  Yue H.;  Zhang F.;  Zhao J.;  He L.;  Sheng G.;  Chen P.;  Li G.;  Wu S.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang S.;  Wang C.;  Miao X.;  Li J.;  Liu W.;  Zhang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 infection occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to worldwide, which has attracted many people’s concerns about the patients. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnels is still lacking. METHODS: 54 cases of SARS-Cov-2 infected medical staff from Tongji Hospital between January 7th to February 11th of 2020 were analyzed in this retrospective study. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were compared between different groups by statistical method. RESULTS: From January 7 to February 11, 2020, 54 medical staff of Tongji Hospital were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Most of them were from other clinical departments (72.2%) rather than emergency department (3.7%) or medical technology departments (18.5%). Among the 54 COVID-19 patients, the distribution of age had a significant difference between non-severe type and severe/critical cases (median age: 47 years vs. 38 years, p=0.0015). However, there was no statistical difference in terms of gender distribution and the first symptoms between theses two groups. Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs. 0%, P=0.028) and right lung (61% vs. 18.2%, P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings with medical staff infection data, we suggest training for all hospital staff to prevent infection and preparation of sufficient protection and disinfection materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25793

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Alhazzani W.;  Møller M.H.;  Arabi Y.M.;  Loeb M.;  Gong M.N.;  Fan E.;  Oczkowski S.;  Levy M.M.;  Derde L.;  Dzierba A.;  Du B.;  Aboodi M.;  Wunsch H.;  Cecconi M.;  Koh Y.;  Chertow D.S.;  Maitland K.;  Alshamsi F.;  Belley-Cote E.;  Greco M.;  Laundy M.;  Morgan J.S.;  Kesecioglu J.;  McGeer A.;  Mermel L.;  Mammen M.J.;  Alexander P.E.;  Arrington A.;  Centofanti J.E.;  Citerio G.;  Baw B.;  Memish Z.A.;  Hammond N.;  Hayden F.G.;  Evans L.;  Rhodes A.
SOURCE
  Intensive care medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5

RECORD 58
TITLE
  COVID-19 is a disease of older people
AUTHOR NAMES
  Le Couteur D.G.;  Anderson R.M.;  Newman A.B.
SOURCE
  The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa077

RECORD 59
TITLE
  European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2)-infection and atopic dermatitis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wollenberg A.;  Flohr C.;  Simon D.;  Cork M.J.;  Thyssen J.P.;  Bieber T.;  de Bruin-Weller M.S.;  Weidinger S.;  Deleuran M.;  Taieb A.;  Paul C.;  Trzeciak M.;  Werfel T.;  Seneschal J.;  Barbarot S.;  Darsow U.;  Torrelo A.;  Stalder J.-F.;  Svensson Å.;  Hijnen D.;  Gelmetti C.;  Szalai Z.;  Gieler U.;  De Raeve L.;  Kunz B.;  Spuls P.;  von Kobyletzki L.B.;  Fölster-Holst R.;  Chernyshov P.V.;  Cristen-Zaech S.;  Heratizadeh A.;  Ring J.;  Vestergaard C.
SOURCE
  Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex disease with elevated risk of respiratory comorbidities.1,2 Severely affected patients are often treated with immune-modulating systemic drugs.3,4 On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization declared the 2019 novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Cov-2) epidemic to be a pandemic. The number of cases worldwide is increasing exponentially and poses a major health threat, especially for those who are elderly, immuno-compromised, or have comorbidities. This also applies to AD patients on systemic immune-modulating treatment. In these days of uncertainty, reallocation of medical resources, curfew, hoarding, and shutdown of normal social life, patients, caregivers and doctors ask questions regarding the continuation of systemic immune-modulating treatment of AD patients. The ETFAD decided to address some of these questions here.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.16411

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Neurosurgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: update from Lombardy, northern Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zoia C.;  Bongetta D.;  Veiceschi P.;  Cenzato M.;  Di Meco F.;  Locatelli D.;  Boeris D.;  Fontanella M.M.
SOURCE
  Acta neurochirurgica (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04305-w

RECORD 61
TITLE
  Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao J.;  Yuan Q.;  Wang H.;  Liu W.;  Liao X.;  Su Y.;  Wang X.;  Yuan J.;  Li T.;  Li J.;  Qian S.;  Hong C.;  Wang F.;  Liu Y.;  Wang Z.;  He Q.;  Li Z.;  He B.;  Zhang T.;  Fu Y.;  Ge S.;  Liu L.;  Zhang J.;  Xia N.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patient remains largely unknown, and the clinical values of antibody testing have not been fully demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 173 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n=535) collected during the hospitalization were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. The dynamics of antibodies with the disease progress was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 173 patients, the seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG was 93.1%, 82.7% and 64.7%, respectively. The reason for the negative antibody findings in 12 patients might due to the lack of blood samples at the later stage of illness. The median seroconversion time for Ab, IgM and then IgG were day-11, day-12 and day-14, separately. The presence of antibodies was <40% among patients within 1-week since onset, and rapidly increased to 100.0% (Ab), 94.3% (IgM) and 79.8% (IgG) since day-15 after onset. In contrast, RNA detectability decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day-7 to 45.5% (25/55) during day 15-39. Combining RNA and antibody detections significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 (p<0.001), even in early phase of 1-week since onset (p=0.007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa344

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Quantitative Detection and Viral Load Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Infected Patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yu F.;  Yan L.;  Wang N.;  Yang S.;  Wang L.;  Tang Y.;  Gao G.;  Wang S.;  Ma C.;  Xie R.;  Wang F.;  Tan C.;  Zhu L.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang F.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency. The widely used reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method has limitations for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A total of 323 samples from 76 COVID-19 confirmed patients were analyzed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and RT-PCR based two target genes (ORF1ab and N). Nasal swabs, throat swabs, sputum, blood, and urine were collected. Clinical and imaging data were obtained for clinical staging. RESULTS: In 95 samples tested positive by both methods, the cycle threshold (Ct) of RT-PCR was highly correlated with the copy numbed of ddPCR (ORF1ab gene, R2 = 0.83; N gene, R2 = 0.87). 4 (4/161) negative and 41 (41/67) single-gene positive samples tested by RT-PCR were positive according to ddPCR with viral load ranging from 11.1 to 123.2 copies/test. Then the viral load of respiratory samples was compared and the average viral load in sputum (17429 ± 6920 copies/test) was found to be significantly higher than in throat swabs (2552 ± 1965 copies/test, p < 0.001) and nasal swabs (651 ± 501 copies/test, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the viral load in the early and progressive stages were significantly higher than that in the recovery stage (46800 ± 17272 vs 1252 ± 1027, p < 0.001) analyzed by sputum samples. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative monitoring of viral load in lower respiratory tract samples helps to evaluate disease progression, especially in cases of low viral load.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa345

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Papa Giovanni XXIII Bergamo Hospital at the time of the COVID-19 outbreak: letter from the warfront
AUTHOR NAMES
  Buoro S.;  Di Marco F.;  Rizzi M.;  Fabretti F.;  Lorini F.L.;  Cesa S.;  Fagiuoli S.
SOURCE
  International journal of laboratory hematology (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In early December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified as the agent responsible for the first pneumonia cases of unknown origin in Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei region in China. The virus has been identified as a novel enveloped RNA betacoronavirus2 , that has been promptly named SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The World Health Organization (WHO), on January 12, 2020 declared the COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. On March 11, the WHO made the assessment that COVID-19 can be characterized as a pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13207

RECORD 64
TITLE
  Spotlight on Jails: COVID-19 Mitigation Policies Needed Now
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wurcel A.G.;  Dauria E.;  Zaller N.;  Nijhawan A.;  Beckwith C.;  Nowotny K.;  Brinkley-Rubinstein L.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa346

RECORD 65
TITLE
  Risk of COVID-19 importation to the Pacific islands through global air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Craig A.T.;  Heywood A.E.;  Hall J.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 30 January 2020, WHO declared coronavirus (COVID-19) a global public health emergency. As of 12 March 2020, 125,048 confirmed COVID-19 cases in 118 countries had been reported. On 12 March 2020, the first case in the Pacific islands was reported in French Polynesia; no other Pacific island country or territory has reported cases. The purpose of our analysis is to show how travellers may introduce COVID-19 into the Pacific islands and discuss the role robust health systems play in protecting health and reducing transmission risk. We analyse travel- A nd Global Health Security Index-data using a scoring tool to produce quantitative estimates of COVID-19 importation risk, by departing and arriving country. Our analysis indicates that, as of 12 March 2020, the highest risk air routes by which COVID-19 may be imported into the Pacific islands are from east Asian countries (specifically, China, Korea and Japan) to north Pacific airports (likely Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands or, to a less extent, Palau); or from China, Japan, Singapore, the United States of America or France to south Pacific ports (likely, Fiji, Papua New Guinea French Polynesia, or New Caledonia). Other importation routes include from other east Asian countries to Guam, and from Australia, New Zealand and other European countries to the south Pacific. The tool provides a useful method for assessing COVID-19 importation risk and may be useful in other settings.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000710

RECORD 66
TITLE
  Phylogenetic analysis of the first four SARS-CoV-2 cases in Chile
AUTHOR NAMES
  Castillo A.E.;  Parra B.;  Tapia P.;  Acevedo A.;  Lagos J.;  Andrade W.;  Arata L.;  Leal G.;  Barra G.;  Tambley C.;  Tognarelli J.;  Bustos P.;  Ulloa S.;  Fasce R.;  Fernández J.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current pandemic caused by the new coronavirus is a worldwide public health concern. To aboard this emergency, and like never before, scientific groups around the world have been working in a fast and coordinated way in order to get the maximum of information about this virus when it has been almost three months since the first cases were detected in Wuhan province in China. The complete genome sequences of around 450 isolates are available, and studies about similarities and differences among them and with the close related viruses that caused similar epidemics in this century. In this work we studied the complete genome of the first four cases of the new coronavirus disease in Chile, from patients who traveled to Europe and Southeast Asia. Our findings reveal at least two different viral variants entries to Chilean territory, coming from Europe and Asia. We also sub-classified the isolates into variants according to punctual mutations in the genome. Our work contributes to the global information about transmission dynamics and the importance to take control measures to stop the spread of the infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25797

RECORD 67
TITLE
  Sars-cov-2 and coronavirus disease 2019: What we know so far
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rabi F.A.;  Al Zoubi M.S.;  Al-Nasser A.D.;  Kasasbeh G.A.;  Salameh D.M.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 231. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a cluster of fatal pneumonia cases presented in Wuhan, China. They were caused by a previously unknown coronavirus. All patients had been associated with the Wuhan Wholefood market, where seafood and live animals are sold. The virus spread rapidly and public health authorities in China initiated a containment effort. However, by that time, travelers had carried the virus to many countries, sparking memories of the previous coronavirus epidemics, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and causing widespread media attention and panic. Based on clinical criteria and available serological and molecular information, the new disease was called coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the novel coronavirus was called SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing its close relationship to the 2002 SARS virus (SARS-CoV). The scientific community raced to uncover the origin of the virus, understand the pathogenesis of the disease, develop treatment options, define the risk factors, and work on vaccine development. Here we present a summary of current knowledge regarding the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030231

RECORD 68
TITLE
  A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Singhal T.
SOURCE
  Indian Journal of Pediatrics (2020) 87:4 (281-286). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6

RECORD 69
TITLE
  A doubt of multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy: A preliminary overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giovanetti M.;  Angeletti S.;  Benvenuto D.;  Ciccozzi M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of the novel betacoronavirus, recently renamed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious concerns due to the virus’s rapid dissemination worldwide. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Italy from surveillance studies. The shortage of complete genomic sequences available impairs our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 introduction and establishment in the country. To better understand its dynamics in Italy, we analyzed complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolates, obtained directly from clinical samples. Our phylogenetic reconstructions suggest possible multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2. Continued genomic surveillance strategies are needed to improve monitoring and understanding of the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, which might help to attenuate public health impact of infectious diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25773

RECORD 70
TITLE
  COVID-19 treatment by repurposing drugs until the vaccine is in sight
AUTHOR NAMES
  Phadke M.;  Saunik S.
SOURCE
  Drug Development Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has created pandemic in the world as declared by WHO on March 12, 2020. It is a viral disease caused by SARS-CoV 2 virus and has affected large populations in over 120 countries. There is no specific treatment available and management is empirical. Until such time that an effective vaccine is available for COVID-19 viral infection, one can repurpose known therapeutic drug molecules such as angiotensin receptor 2 blocker, a commonly used antihypertensive drug, to control COVID-19 virus from gaining entry into the host cell by blocking the angiotensin receptor. Clinical trials should also be undertaken to use statins, which are lipid-lowering drugs but have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties to prevent acute lung injury in COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21666

RECORD 71
TITLE
  Use of in situ simulation to evaluate the operational readiness of a high-consequence infectious disease intensive care unit
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fregene T.E.;  Nadarajah P.;  Buckley J.F.;  Bigham S.;  Nangalia V.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreak of a coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) was a public health emergency of international concern. The WHO guidance states that patients with (COVID-19) should be managed by staff wearing appropriate personal protective equipment; however, working whilst wearing personal protective equipment is unfamiliar to many healthcare professionals. We ran high-fidelity, in-situ simulation of high-risk procedures on patients with COVID-19 in a negative-pressure side room on our intensive care unit (ICU). Our aim was to identify potential problems, test the robustness of our systems and inform modification of our standard operating procedures for any patients with COVID-19 admitted to our ICU. The simulations revealed several important latent risks and allowed us to put corrective measures in place before the admission of patients with COVID-19. We recommend that staff working in clinical areas expected to receive patients with COVID-19 conduct in-situ simulation in order to detect their own unique risks and aid in the creation of local guidelines of management of patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15048

RECORD 72
TITLE
  COVID-19: Zoonotic aspects
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ahmad T.;  Khan M.;  Haroon ;  Musa T.H.;  Nasir S.;  Hui J.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101607. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101607

RECORD 73
TITLE
  How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Anderson R.M.;  Heesterbeek H.;  Klinkenberg D.;  Hollingsworth T.D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (931-934). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5

RECORD 74
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19): The first two patients in the UK with person to person transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lillie P.J.;  Samson A.;  Li A.;  Adams K.;  Capstick R.;  Barlow G.D.;  Easom N.;  Hamilton E.;  Moss P.J.;  Evans A.;  Ivan M.;  PHE Incident Team ;  Taha Y.;  Duncan C.J.A.;  Schmid M.L.;  the Airborne HCID Network
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.020

RECORD 75
TITLE
  Mapping the incidence of the COVID-19 hotspot in Iran – Implications for Travellers
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arab-Mazar Z.;  Sah R.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Dhama K.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101630. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101630

RECORD 76
TITLE
  Offline: COVID-19 and the NHS—“a national scandal”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Horton R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1022). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30727-3

RECORD 77
TITLE
  Clinical course and mortality risk of severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Weiss P.;  Murdoch D.R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1014-1015). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30633-4

RECORD 78
TITLE
  Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) strain isolated in Nepal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sah R.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Jha R.;  Chu D.K.W.;  Gu H.;  Peiris M.;  Bastola A.;  Lal B.K.;  Ojha H.C.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Costello A.;  Morita K.;  Pandey B.D.;  Poon L.L.M.
SOURCE
  Microbiology Resource Announcements (2020) 9:11 Article Number: e00169-20. Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00169-20

RECORD 79
TITLE
  Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilder-Smith A.;  Chiew C.J.;  Lee V.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 resulted in more than 8000 cases and 800 deaths. SARS was eventually contained by means of syndromic surveillance, prompt isolation of patients, strict enforcement of quarantine of all contacts, and in some areas top-down enforcement of community quarantine. By interrupting all human-to-human transmission, SARS was effectively eradicated. By contrast, by Feb 28, 2020, within a matter of 2 months since the beginning of the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 82 000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported with more than 2800 deaths. Although there are striking similarities between SARS and COVID-19, the differences in the virus characteristics will ultimately determine whether the same measures for SARS will also be successful for COVID-19. COVID-19 differs from SARS in terms of infectious period, transmissibility, clinical severity, and extent of community spread. Even if traditional public health measures are not able to fully contain the outbreak of COVID-19, they will still be effective in reducing peak incidence and global deaths. Exportations to other countries need not result in rapid large-scale outbreaks, if countries have the political will to rapidly implement countermeasures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30129-8

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Letter from China: Covid-19 on the grapevine, on the internet, and in commerce
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mowbray H.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m643. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m643

RECORD 81
TITLE
  Treatment of COVID-19: Old tricks for new challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cunningham A.C.;  Goh H.P.;  Koh D.
SOURCE
  Critical Care (2020) 24:1 Article Number: 91. Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2818-6

RECORD 82
TITLE
  Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound findings in novel coronavirus disease-19 pnemoniae: a case report and potential applications during COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Buonsenso D.;  Piano A.;  Raffaelli F.;  Bonadia N.;  de Gaetano Donati K.;  Franceschi F.
SOURCE
  European review for medical and pharmacological sciences (2020) 24:5 (2776-2780). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease-19 (nCoV-19) infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and now involved the whole word. Several health workers have been infected in different countries. We report the case of a young man with documented nCoV-19 infection evaluated with lung ultrasound and discuss potential applications of lung ultrasound in this setting. Lung ultrasound allowed the identification of nCoV-19 infection at bed-side. Moreover, lung ultrasound can have several other advantages, such as reduced health worker exposition to infected patients, repeatability during follow-up, low-costs and easier application in low-resource settings.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202003_20549

RECORD 83
TITLE
  Emergency plan for inter-hospital transfer of newborns with SARS-CoV-2 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Z.;  Du L.-Z.;  Fu J.-F.;  Shu Q.;  Chen Z.-M.;  Shi L.-P.;  Wang W.;  Chen S.-H.;  Ma X.-L.;  Ye S.;  Sun W.;  Chen M.-Y.;  Zhu H.-H.;  Huang G.-L.;  Luo F.-X.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics (2020) 22:3 (226-230). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become the most serious public health issue. As the special population with immature immune function, newborns with COVID-19 have been reported. Newborns with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be transferred to designated hospitals for isolation treatment. An emergency transfer response plan for newborns with COVID-19 has been worked out. This plan puts forward the indications for neonatal COVID-19 transfer, organization management, protection strategies for medical staff, work procedures, and disinfection methods for transfer equipment, in order to provide guidance and suggestions for the inter-hospital transfer of suspected or confirmed neonatal COVID-19.

RECORD 84
TITLE
  Cardiac Involvement in a Patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Inciardi R.M.;  Lupi L.;  Zaccone G.;  Italia L.;  Raffo M.;  Tomasoni D.;  Cani D.S.;  Cerini M.;  Farina D.;  Gavazzi E.;  Maroldi R.;  Adamo M.;  Ammirati E.;  Sinagra G.;  Lombardi C.M.;  Metra M.
SOURCE
  JAMA Cardiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Virus infection has been widely described as one of the most common causes of myocarditis. However, less is known about the cardiac involvement as a complication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objective: To describe the presentation of acute myocardial inflammation in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who recovered from the influenzalike syndrome and developed fatigue and signs and symptoms of heart failure a week after upper respiratory tract symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participant: This case report describes an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who tested positive for COVID-19 and was admitted to the cardiac care unit in March 2020 for acute myopericarditis with systolic dysfunction, confirmed on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, the week after onset of fever and dry cough due to COVID-19. The patient did not show any respiratory involvement during the clinical course. Exposure: Cardiac involvement with COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection of cardiac involvement with an increase in levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T, echocardiography changes, and diffuse biventricular myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results: An otherwise healthy 53-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with severe fatigue. She described fever and dry cough the week before. She was afebrile but hypotensive; electrocardiography showed diffuse ST elevation, and elevated high-sensitivity troponin T and NT-proBNP levels were detected. Findings on chest radiography were normal. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary disease on coronary angiography. Based on the COVID-19 outbreak, a nasopharyngeal swab was performed, with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed increased wall thickness with diffuse biventricular hypokinesis, especially in the apical segments, and severe left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction of 35%). Short tau inversion recovery and T2-mapping sequences showed marked biventricular myocardial interstitial edema, and there was also diffuse late gadolinium enhancement involving the entire biventricular wall. There was a circumferential pericardial effusion that was most notable around the right cardiac chambers. These findings were all consistent with acute myopericarditis. She was treated with dobutamine, antiviral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir), steroids, chloroquine, and medical treatment for heart failure, with progressive clinical and instrumental stabilization. Conclusions and Relevance: This case highlights cardiac involvement as a complication associated with COVID-19, even without symptoms and signs of interstitial pneumonia..
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2020.1096

RECORD 85
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: Responding to a Rapidly Evolving Situation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rasmussen S.A.;  Jamieson D.J.
SOURCE
  Obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the world confronts coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an illness caused by yet another emerging pathogen (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), obstetric care providers are asking what this means for pregnant women. The global spread has been swift, and many key questions remain. The case-fatality rate for persons cared for in the United States and whether asymptomatic persons transmit the virus are examples of questions that need to be answered to inform public health control measures. There are also unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Although guidelines for pregnant women from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been rapidly developed based on the best available evidence, additional information is critically needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to temporarily separate infected mothers and their newborns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed. Some current recommendations are well supported, based largely on what we know from seasonal influenza: patients should avoid contact with ill persons, avoid touching their face, cover coughs and sneezes, wash hands frequently, disinfect contaminated surfaces, and stay home when sick. Prenatal clinics should ensure all pregnant women and their visitors are screened for fever and respiratory symptoms, and symptomatic women should be isolated from well women and required to wear a mask. As the situation with COVID-19 rapidly unfolds, it is critical that obstetricians keep up to date.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003873

RECORD 86
TITLE
  The value of mitigating epidemic peaks of COVID-19 for more effective public health responses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Villela D.A.M.
SOURCE
  Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical (2020) 53 (e20200135). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0135-2020

RECORD 87
TITLE
  The first COVID-19 case in Afghanistan acquired from Iran
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mousavi S.H.;  Shah J.;  Giang H.T.N.;  Al-Ahdal T.M.A.;  Zahid S.U.;  Temory F.;  Paikan F.M.;  Karimzadeh S.;  Huy N.T.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30231-0

RECORD 88
TITLE
  Strengthening China’s Public Health Response System: From SARS to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bouey J.
SOURCE
  American journal of public health (2020) (e1-e2). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Today, the world is experiencing a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus. COVID-19 is the third disease from a coronavirus to cause a global outbreak, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the second that emerged from China. During the 17 years between the SARS and the COVID-19 outbreaks, China has quadrupled its share of the world economy, lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty, and established a national health insurance system covering 95% of its 1.4 billion people. Will China’s public heath response to a coronavirus epidemic be different this time? (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print March 26, 2020: e1-e2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305654).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305654

RECORD 89
TITLE
  Is There an Association Between COVID-19 Mortality and the Renin-Angiotensin System-a Call for Epidemiologic Investigations
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hanff T.C.;  Harhay M.O.;  Brown T.S.;  Cohen J.B.;  Mohareb A.M.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. These disorders share underlying pathophysiology related to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that may be clinically insightful. In particular, activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, and this enzyme is used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to initiate the infection. Cardiovascular disease and pharmacologic RAS inhibition both increase ACE2 levels, which may increase the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 within the lung and heart. Conversely, mechanistic evidence from related coronaviruses suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may downregulate ACE2, leading to toxic overaccumulation of Angiotensin II that induces acute respiratory distress syndrome and fulminant myocarditis. RAS inhibition could mitigate this effect. With conflicting mechanistic evidence, we propose key clinical research priorities necessary to clarify the role of RAS inhibition in COVID-19 mortality that could be rapidly addressed by the international research community.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa329

RECORD 90
TITLE
  Europe’s migrant containment policies threaten the response to covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hargreaves S.;  Kumar B.N.;  McKee M.;  Jones L.;  Veizis A.
SOURCE
  BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (2020) 368 (m1213). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1213

RECORD 91
TITLE
  Clinical and CT features of early-stage patients with COVID-19: a retrospective analysis of imported cases in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang S.;  Shi Y.;  Lu H.;  Xu J.;  Li F.;  Qian Z.;  Hua X.;  Ding X.;  Song F.;  Shen J.;  Lu Y.;  Shan F.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  The European respiratory journal (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00407-2020

RECORD 92
TITLE
  Preliminary Recommendations for Surgical Practice of Neurosurgery Department in the Central Epidemic Area of 2019 Coronavirus Infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tan Y.-T.;  Wang J.-W.;  Zhao K.;  Han L.;  Zhang H.-Q.;  Niu H.-Q.;  Shu K.;  Lei T.
SOURCE
  Current medical science (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed significant threats to the public health and life in China. Unlike the other 6 identified coronaviruses, the SARS-Cov-2 has a high infectious rate, a long incubation period and a variety of manifestations. In the absence of effective treatments for the virus, it becomes extremely urgent to develop scientific and standardized proposals for prevention and control of virus transmission. Hereby we focused on the surgical practice in Neurosurgery Department, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, and drafted several recommendations based on the latest relevant guidelines and our experience. These recommendations have helped us until now to achieve ‘zero infection’ of doctors and nurses in our department, we would like to share them with other medical staff of neurosurgery to fight 2019-nCoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-020-2173-5

RECORD 93
TITLE
  Responding to COVID-19: How to Navigate a Public Health Emergency Legally and Ethically
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gostin L.O.;  Friedman E.A.;  Wetter S.A.
SOURCE
  The Hastings Center report (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Few novel or emerging infectious diseases have posed such vital ethical challenges so quickly and dramatically as the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization declared a public health emergency of international concern and recently classified COVID-19 as a worldwide pandemic. As of this writing, the epidemic has not yet peaked in the United States, but community transmission is widespread. President Trump declared a national emergency as fifty governors declared state emergencies. In the coming weeks, hospitals will become overrun, stretched to their capacities. When the health system becomes stretched beyond capacity, how can we ethically allocate scarce health goods and services? How can we ensure that marginalized populations can access the care they need? What ethical duties do we owe to vulnerable people separated from their families and communities? And how do we ethically and legally balance public health with civil liberties?
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hast.1090

RECORD 94
TITLE
  Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guan W.-J.;  Liang W.-H.;  Zhao Y.;  Liang H.-R.;  Chen Z.-S.;  Li Y.-M.;  Liu X.-Q.;  Chen R.-C.;  Tang C.-L.;  Wang T.;  Ou C.-Q.;  Li L.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Sang L.;  Wang W.;  Li J.-F.;  Li C.-C.;  Ou L.-M.;  Cheng B.;  Xiong S.;  Ni Z.-Y.;  Xiang J.;  Hu Y.;  Liu L.;  Shan H.;  Lei C.-L.;  Peng Y.-X.;  Wei L.;  Liu Y.;  Hu Y.-H.;  Peng P.;  Wang J.-M.;  Liu J.-Y.;  Chen Z.;  Li G.;  Zheng Z.-J.;  Qiu S.-Q.;  Luo J.;  Ye C.-J.;  Zhu S.-Y.;  Cheng L.-L.;  Ye F.;  Li S.-Y.;  Zheng J.-P.;  Zhang N.-F.;  Zhong N.-S.;  He J.-X.
SOURCE
  The European respiratory journal (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outbreak is evolving rapidly worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) by stratifying the comorbidity status. METHODS: We analysed the data from 1590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalised patients 575 hospitals in 31 province/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across mainland China between December 11th, 2019 and January 31st, 2020. We analyse the composite endpoints, which consisted of admission to intensive care unit, or invasive ventilation, or death. The risk of reaching to the composite endpoints was compared according to the presence and number of comorbidities. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.9 years. 686 patients (42.7%) were females. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached to the composite endpoints. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. The most prevalent comorbidity was hypertension (16.9%), followed by diabetes (8.2%). 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. After adjusting for age and smoking status, COPD [hazards ratio (HR) 2.681, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.424-5.048], diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60-7.64) were risk factors of reaching to the composite endpoints. The HR was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among laboratory-confirmed cases of Covid-19, patients with any comorbidity yielded poorer clinical outcomes than those without. A greater number of comorbidities also correlated with poorer clinical outcomes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00547-2020

RECORD 95
TITLE
  Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington
AUTHOR NAMES
  McMichael T.M.;  Currie D.W.;  Clark S.;  Pogosjans S.;  Kay M.;  Schwartz N.G.;  Lewis J.;  Baer A.;  Kawakami V.;  Lukoff M.D.;  Ferro J.;  Brostrom-Smith C.;  Rea T.D.;  Sayre M.R.;  Riedo F.X.;  Russell D.;  Hiatt B.;  Montgomery P.;  Rao A.K.;  Chow E.J.;  Tobolowsky F.;  Hughes M.J.;  Bardossy A.C.;  Oakley L.P.;  Jacobs J.R.;  Stone N.D.;  Reddy S.C.;  Jernigan J.A.;  Honein M.A.;  Clark T.A.;  Duchin J.S.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. METHODS: After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health-Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. RESULTS: As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005412

RECORD 96
TITLE
  Oral Health Management of Children during the Epidemic Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Zhou C.-C.;  Shu R.;  Zou J.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (151-154). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming a major public health event affecting China and even the whole world. During the epidemic period of corona virus disease, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children is very important for children’s oral and general health. In order to prevent the occurrence of cross-infection and epidemic spreading of COVID-19 during dental practice, the recommendations to parents include: not only training children to maintain hand hygiene at home, exercise appropriately, strengthen physical resistance, but also helping children develop good oral and diet habit such as effective brushing and flossing to avoid oral diseases and emergency. If non-emergency oral situation occur, parents could assist their child to take home based care such as rinsing to relieve the symptoms. When oral emergencies such as acute pulpitis, periapical periodontitis, dental trauma, oral and maxillofacial infections happen, parents and children should visit dental clinic in time with correct personal protection. During the epidemic period, children’s oral emergencies should be treated in accordance with current guidelines and control of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360101

RECORD 97
TITLE
  Preparedness and Lessons Learned from the Novel Coronavirus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gudi S.K.;  Tiwari K.K.
SOURCE
  The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine (2020) 11:2 (108-112). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  In a short span, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has captured global consciousness by significantly affecting the day-to-day life of humans and emerged as a public health emergency. Undoubtedly, it indicates that lessons learnt from the past epidemics of coronaviruses such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), had not enough and thus left us ill-prepared to deal with the challenges that COVID-19 pandemic is currently posing. Currently, as a global pandemic, COVID-19 poses major challenges and thus forcing the entire world to lockdown. However, the disease has prepared humankind in facing such outbreaks at present as well as in the future. Besides, it has also taught numerous lessons that are worth considering and implementing to make the world a better reality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijoem.2020.1977

RECORD 98
TITLE
  Biological Product Development Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yan C.-X.;  Li J.;  Shen X.;  Luo L.;  Li Y.;  Li M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (139-145). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the large infection population, broad transmissibility and high mortality, it is urgent to find out the efficient and specific methods to prevent and treat COVID-19. As biological products have broadly applied in the prevention and treatment of severe epidemic diseases, they are promising in blocking novel coronavirus infection. According to the research advances of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), we reviewed the potential application of biological products such as interferon, convalescent plasma, intestinal micro-ecological regulators, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, etc. , on prevention and treatment of COVID-19. May this review be helpful for conquering COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360506

RECORD 99
TITLE
  Clinical and immunologic features in severe and moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen G.;  Wu D.;  Guo W.;  Cao Y.;  Huang D.;  Wang H.;  Wang T.;  Zhang X.;  Chen H.;  Yu H.;  Zhang X.;  Zhang M.;  Wu S.;  Song J.;  Chen T.;  Han M.;  Li S.;  Luo X.;  Zhao J.;  Ning Q.
SOURCE
  The Journal of clinical investigation (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunologic features of severe and moderate COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunologic characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the Guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China. RESULTS: The median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough and fatigue. Compared to moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute number of T lymphocytes, CD4+T and CD8+T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5 and 89.0 × 106/L) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5 and 254.0 × 106/L). The expressions of IFN-γ by CD4+T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than moderate cases (22.8%). CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes particularly CD4+T and CD8+ T cells, resulting in decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production. These potential immunological markers may be of importance due to their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI137244

RECORD 100
TITLE
  Epidemiology of Covid-19. Reply
AUTHOR NAMES
  Swerdlow D.L.;  Finelli L.;  Lipsitch M.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020) 382. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2005157

RECORD 101
TITLE
  Undocumented U.S. Immigrants and Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Page K.R.;  Venkataramani M.;  Beyrer C.;  Polk S.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2005953

RECORD 102
TITLE
  Negligible risk of the COVID-19 resurgence caused by work resuming in China (outside Hubei): a statistical probability study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao K.;  Long C.;  Wang Y.;  Zeng T.;  Fu X.
SOURCE
  Journal of public health (Oxford, England) (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The COVID-19 outbreak in China appears to reach the late stage since late March 2020, and a stepwise restoration of economic operations is implemented. Risk assessment for such economic restoration is of significance. Here, we estimated the probability of COVID-19 resurgence caused by work resuming in typical provinces/cities and found that such probability is very limited (<5% for all the regions except Beijing). Our work may inform provincial governments to make risk level-based, differentiated control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa046

RECORD 103
TITLE
  Epidemiology, Treatment, and Epidemic Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: a Review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luan R.-S.;  Wang X.;  Sun X.;  Chen X.-S.;  Zhou T.;  Liu Q.-H.;  Lü X.;  Wu X.-P.;  Gu D.-Q.;  Tang M.-S.;  Cui H.-J.;  Shan X.-F.;  Ouyang J.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang W.;  Sichuan University Covid- E.R.G.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (131-138). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. SARS-CoV-2 may be originated from bats, and the patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of epidemic infection. The virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people at all ages are susceptible to this virus. The main clinical symptoms of the patients are fever and cough, accompanied with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Effective drugs have been not yet available thus far. In terms of the prevention and control strategies, vaccine development as the primary prevention should be accelerated. Regarding the secondary prevention, ongoing efforts of the infected patients and close contacts quarantine, mask wearing promotion, regular disinfection in public places should be continued. Meanwhile, rapid detection kit for serological monitoring of the virus in general population is expected so as to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment. In addition, public health education on this disease and prevention should be enhanced so as to mitigate panic and mobilize the public to jointly combat the epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360505

RECORD 104
TITLE
  The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Yang C.-H.;  Gutierrez B.;  Wu C.-H.;  Klein B.;  Pigott D.M.;  du Plessis L.;  Faria N.R.;  Li R.;  Hanage W.P.;  Brownstein J.S.;  Layan M.;  Vespignani A.;  Tian H.;  Dye C.;  Pybus O.G.;  Scarpino S.V.
SOURCE
  Science (New York, N.Y.) (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ongoing COVID-19 outbreak expanded rapidly throughout China. Major behavioral, clinical, and state interventions have been undertaken to mitigate the epidemic and prevent the persistence of the virus in human populations in China and worldwide. It remains unclear how these unprecedented interventions, including travel restrictions, affected COVID-19 spread in China. We use real-time mobility data from Wuhan and detailed case data including travel history to elucidate the role of case importation on transmission in cities across China and ascertain the impact of control measures. Early on, the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases in China was explained well by human mobility data. Following the implementation of control measures, this correlation dropped and growth rates became negative in most locations, although shifts in the demographics of reported cases were still indicative of local chains of transmission outside Wuhan. This study shows that the drastic control measures implemented in China substantially mitigated the spread of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb4218

RECORD 105
TITLE
  Risk assessment and early warning of imported COVID-19 in 21 cities, Guangdong province
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu J.X.;  Liu T.;  Xiao J.P.;  He G.H.;  Rong Z.H.;  Yin L.H.;  Wan D.H.;  Zeng W.L.;  Gong D.X.;  Guo L.C.;  Zhu Z.H.;  Zeng L.L.;  Kang M.;  Song T.;  Zhong H.J.;  He J.F.;  Sun L.M.;  Li Y.;  Ma W.J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (658-662). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To assess the imported risk of COVID-19 in Guangdong province and its cities, and conduct early warning. Methods: Data of reported COVID-19 cases and Baidu Migration Index of 21 cities in Guangdong province and other provinces of China as of February 25, 2020 were collected. The imported risk index of each city in Guangdong province were calculated, and then correlation analysis was performed between reported cases and the imported risk index to identify lag time. Finally, we classified the early warming levels of epidemic by imported risk index. Results: A total of 1 347 confirmed cases were reported in Guangdong province, and 90.0% of the cases were clustered in the Pearl River Delta region. The average daily imported risk index of Guangdong was 44.03. Among the imported risk sources of each city, the highest risk of almost all cities came from Hubei province, except for Zhanjiang from Hainan province. In addition, the neighboring provinces of Guangdong province also had a greater impact. The correlation between the imported risk index with a lag of 4 days and the daily reported cases was the strongest (correlation coefficient: 0.73). The early warning base on cumulative 4-day risk of each city showed that Dongguan, Shenzhen, Zhongshan, Guangzhou, Foshan and Huizhou have high imported risks in the next 4 days, with imported risk indexes of 38.85, 21.59, 11.67, 11.25, 6.19 and 5.92, and the highest risk still comes from Hubei province. Conclusions: Cities with a large number of migrants in Guangdong province have a higher risk of import. Hubei province and neighboring provinces in Guangdong province are the main source of the imported risk. Each city must strengthen the health management of migrants in high-risk provinces and reduce the imported risk of Guangdong province.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200226-00190

RECORD 106
TITLE
  Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lewnard J.A.;  Lo N.C.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30190-0

RECORD 107
TITLE
  Epidemiological analysis on 1 052 cases of COVID-19 in epidemic clusters
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gan H.;  Zhang Y.;  Yuan M.;  Wu X.Y.;  Liu Z.R.;  Liu M.;  Wu J.B.;  Xu S.J.;  Gong L.;  Xu H.L.;  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (E027). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters, and explore the influence of family factors and social factors such as group activities on the spread of the disease. Methods: The data of cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters from 19 January, 2020 to 25 February, 2020 were collected from the official platforms of 36 cities in 6 provinces in China. Descriptive statistical methods, χ(2) test and curve fitting were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the clustered cases. Results: By 25 February, 2020, the data of 1 052 cases in 366 epidemic clusters were collected. In these clustered cases, 86.9%(914/1 050) occurred in families. Among the 1 046 cases with gender information, 513 were males (49.0%) and 533 were females (51.0%). The cases were mainly young adults between 18 and 59 years old, accounting for 68.5% (711/1 038). In the 366 epidemic clusters , the clusters in which the first confirmed cases with the history of sojourn in Wuhan or Hubei accounted for 47.0%(172/366). From 19 January to 3 February, 2020, the first confirmed cases with Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for 66.5%. From 4 to 25 February, the first confirmed cases who had Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for only 18.2%. The median of interval between the first generation case onset and the second generation case onset was 5 (2-8) days. The median of onset- diagnosis interval of the initial cases was 6 (3-9) days, and the median of onset-diagnosis interval of the secondary cases was 5 (3-8) days. Conclusions: Epidemic clusters of COVID-19 were common in many cities outside Wuhan and Hubei. Close contact in family was one of the main causes for the spread of household transmission of the virus. After 4 February, the epidemic clusters were mainly caused by the first generation or second generation cases in local areas, and the time for diagnosis became shorter.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200301-00223

RECORD 108
TITLE
  COVID-19: “A Tale of Two Epidemics” March 20, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  James J.J.
SOURCE
  Disaster medicine and public health preparedness (2020) (1-3). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.58

RECORD 109
TITLE
  Translating COVID-19 Pandemic Surge Theory to Practice in the Emergency Department: How to Expand Structure
AUTHOR NAMES
  Paganini M.;  Conti A.;  Weinstein E.;  Della Corte F.;  Ragazzoni L.
SOURCE
  Disaster medicine and public health preparedness (2020) (1-30). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Multiple professional societies, nongovernment and government agencies have studied the science of sudden onset disaster mass casualty incidents to create and promote surge response guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented the health care system with challenges that have limited science to guide the staff, stuff and structure surge response.This study reviewed the available surge science literature specifically to guide an Emergency Department’s surge structural response using a translational science approach to answer the question: How does the concept of sudden onset mass casualty incident (MCI) surge capability apply to the process to expand COVID-19 Pandemic surge structure response?The available surge structural science literature was reviewed to determine the application to a pandemic response. The on-line ahead of print and print COVID-19 scientific publications, as well as grey, literature were studied to learn the best available COVID-19 surge structural response science. A checklist was created to guide the Emergency Department team’s COVID-19 surge structural response.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.57

RECORD 110
TITLE
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hageman J.R.
SOURCE
  Pediatric Annals (2020) 49:3 (e99-e100). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20200219-01

RECORD 111
TITLE
  A tug-of-war between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and host antiviral defence: lessons from other pathogenic viruses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fung S.-Y.;  Yuen K.-S.;  Ye Z.-W.;  Chan C.-P.;  Jin D.-Y.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (558-570). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The virus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Human infection with SARS-CoV-2 leads to a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic, mild, moderate to severe. The severe cases present with pneumonia, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The outbreak provides an opportunity for real-time tracking of an animal coronavirus that has just crossed species barrier to infect humans. The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection is largely determined by virus-host interaction. Here, we review the discovery, zoonotic origin, animal hosts, transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to its interplay with host antiviral defense. A comparison with SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, community-acquired human coronaviruses and other pathogenic viruses including human immunodeficiency viruses is made. We summarize current understanding of the induction of a proinflammatory cytokine storm by other highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, their adaptation to humans and their usurpation of the cell death programmes. Important questions concerning the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host antiviral defence, including asymptomatic and presymptomatic virus shedding, are also discussed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1736644

RECORD 112
TITLE
  Emerging WuHan (COVID-19) coronavirus: glycan shield and structure prediction of spike glycoprotein and its interaction with human CD26
AUTHOR NAMES
  Vankadari N.;  Wilce J.A.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (601-604). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of pneumonia-causing COVID-19 in China is an urgent global public health issue with an increase in mortality and morbidity. Here we report our modelled homo-trimer structure of COVID-19 spike glycoprotein in both closed (ligand-free) and open (ligand-bound) conformation, which is involved in host cell adhesion. We also predict the unique N- and O-linked glycosylation sites of spike glycoprotein that distinguish it from the SARS and underlines shielding and camouflage of COVID-19 from the host the defence system. Furthermore, our study also highlights the key finding that the S1 domain of COVID-19 spike glycoprotein potentially interacts with the human CD26, a key immunoregulatory factor for hijacking and virulence. These findings accentuate the unique features of COVID-19 and assist in the development of new therapeutics.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1739565

RECORD 113
TITLE
  Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao H.;  Chen J.-H.;  Xu Y.-F.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e21). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30090-0

RECORD 114
TITLE
  The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liem A.;  Wang C.;  Wariyanti Y.;  Latkin C.A.;  Hall B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e20). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30076-6

RECORD 115
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 116
TITLE
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)—An emerging global health threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arshad Ali S.;  Baloch M.;  Ahmed N.;  Arshad Ali A.;  Iqbal A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection and Public Health (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP), has affected the lives of 71,429 people globally. Originating in China, the disease has a rapid progression to other countries. Research suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which has a history of a pandemic in 2002. With evidence of nosocomial spread, a number of diligent measures are being employed to constrain its propagation. Hence, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curtail its impact on global health and economy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2020.02.033

RECORD 117
TITLE
  Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Yan L.-M.;  Wan L.;  Xiang T.-X.;  Le A.;  Liu J.-M.;  Peiris M.;  Poon L.L.M.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30232-2

RECORD 118
TITLE
  Covid-19: Are we getting the communications right?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowper A.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m919. Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m919

RECORD 119
TITLE
  Getting ready for the next pandemic COVID-19: Why we need to be more prepared and less scared
AUTHOR NAMES
  Contreras G.W.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (87-89). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.046

RECORD 120
TITLE
  Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tai W.;  He L.;  Zhang X.;  Pu J.;  Voronin D.;  Jiang S.;  Zhou Y.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Cellular & molecular immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4

RECORD 121
TITLE
  Public Mental Health Crisis during COVID-19 Pandemic, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dong L.;  Bouey J.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:7. Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus disease emerged in China in late 2019-early 2020 and spread rapidly. China has been implementing emergency psychological crisis interventions to reduce the negative psychosocial impact on public mental health, but challenges exist. Public mental health interventions should be formally integrated into public health preparedness and emergency response plans.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.200407

RECORD 122
TITLE
  Chronology of COVID-19 cases on the Diamond Princess cruise ship and ethical considerations: a report from Japan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nakazawa E.;  Ino H.;  Akabayashi A.
SOURCE
  Disaster medicine and public health preparedness (2020) (1-27). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  FACT: The Diamond Princess cruise ship has been anchored at the Yokohama port in Japan since February 3, 2020. A total of 691 cases of COVID-19 infection had been confirmed as of February 23. The government initially assumed that the infection was not spreading aboard and therefore indicated that any persons who either tested negative for the virus or were asymptomatic should immediately disembark. However, on February 5, the government set a 14-day health observation period because of the severity of the infection. Passengers confirmed to free from infection began disembarking on Day 15 of quarantine (February 19). FACTS TO BE EXAMINED: The effectiveness and validity of infection control, justification for the timing of inspections, and even the nature of COVID-19 itself are now all in question. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The ethical considerations related to cruise ship infection control include the reasonable justification for isolation, the psychological fragility and quality of life of the isolated passengers and crew members, the procedural justice inherent in a forced quarantine, and the optimization of control measures. PUBLIC HEALTH PREPAREDNESS: The international coordination framework and the global ramifications of such outbreaks should be reevaluated by the international community. Denying a ship’s entry based on local politics is incompatible with global justice. Events such as these require an international response and global regulations that seek to reduce disparities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2020.50

RECORD 123
TITLE
  The holy week 2020 and the beginning of COVID-19 epidemics in Latin America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Sah R.;  Paniz-Mondolfi A.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101633). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101633

RECORD 124
TITLE
  Rapid viral diagnosis and ambulatory management of suspected COVID-19 cases presenting at the infectious diseases referral hospital in Marseille, France, – January 31st to March 1st, 2020: A respiratory virus snapshot
AUTHOR NAMES
  Amrane S.;  Tissot-Dupont H.;  Doudier B.;  Eldin C.;  Hocquart M.;  Mailhe M.;  Dudouet P.;  Ormières E.;  Ailhaud L.;  Parola P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Brouqui P.;  Zandotti C.;  Ninove L.;  Luciani L.;  Boschi C.;  La Scola B.;  Raoult D.;  Million M.;  Colson P.;  Gautret P.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101632). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Rapid virological diagnosis is needed to limit the length of isolation for suspected COVID-19 cases. METHOD: We managed the first 280 patients suspected to have COVID-19 through a rapid care circuit and virological diagnosis in our infectious disease reference hospital in Marseille, France. Rapid viral detection was performed on sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: Over our study period, no SARS-CoV-2 was detected. Results were obtained within approximately three hours of the arrival of patient samples at the laboratory. Other viral infections were identified in 49% of the patients, with most common pathogens being influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus and common coronaviruses, notably HKU1 and NL63. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of COVID-19 is critical to isolate confirmed cases and prevent further transmission. Early rule-out of COVID-19 allows public health containment measures to be adjusted by reducing the time spent in isolation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101632

RECORD 125
TITLE
  Herd immunity – estimating the level required to halt the COVID-19 epidemics in affected countries
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kwok K.O.;  Lai F.;  Wei W.I.;  Wong S.Y.S.;  Tang J.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.027

RECORD 126
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: familial spread resulting in COVID-19 pneumonia in a pediatric patient
AUTHOR NAMES
  An P.;  Zhang M.
SOURCE
  Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2020.20157

RECORD 127
TITLE
  Management strategy of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia in the radiology department: a Chinese experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  An P.;  Ye Y.;  Chen M.;  Chen Y.;  Fan W.;  Wang Y.
SOURCE
  Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/dir.2020.20167

RECORD 128
TITLE
  Comparisons of nucleic acid conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 of different samples in ICU and non-ICU patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang Z.;  Zhang Y.;  Hang C.;  Zhang W.;  Ai J.;  Li S.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.013

RECORD 129
TITLE
  Clinical observation and management of COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li T.;  Lu H.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (687-690). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  Three leading infectious disease experts in China were invited to share their bedside observations in the management of COVID-19 patients. Professor Taisheng Li was sent to Wuhan to provide frontline medical care. He depicts the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, he observes the significant abnormality of coagulation function and proposes that the early intravenous immunoglobulin and low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation therapy are very important. Professor Hongzhou Lu, a leader in China to try various anti-viral drugs, expresses concern on the quality of the ongoing clinical trials as most trials are small in scale and repetitive in nature, and emphasizes the importance of the quick publication of clinical trial results. Regarding the traditional Chinese medicine, Professor Lu suggests to develop a creative evaluation system because of the complicated chemical compositions. Professor Wenhong Zhang is responsible for Shanghai’s overall clinical management of the COVID-19 cases. He introduces the team approach to manage COVID-19 patients. For severe or critically ill patients, in addition to the respiratory supportive treatment, timely multiorgan evaluation and treatment is very crucial. The medical decisions and interventions are carefully tailored to the unique characteristics of each patient.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1741327

RECORD 130
TITLE
  Securing the Safety Net and Protecting Public Health during a Pandemic: Medicaid’s Response to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bachireddy C.;  Chen C.;  Dar M.
SOURCE
  JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4272

RECORD 131
TITLE
  The different clinical characteristics of corona virus disease cases between children and their families in China – the character of children with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Su L.;  Ma X.;  Yu H.;  Zhang Z.;  Bian P.;  Han Y.;  Sun J.;  Liu Y.;  Yang C.;  Geng J.;  Zhang Z.;  Gai Z.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (707-713). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  This study aims to analyze the different clinical characteristics between children and their families infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Clinical data from nine children and their 14 families were collected, including general status, clinical, laboratory test, and imaging characteristics. All the children were detected positive result after their families onset. Three children had fever (22.2%) or cough (11.2%) symptoms and six (66.7%) children had no symptom. Among the 14 adult patients, the major symptoms included fever (57.1%), cough (35.7%), chest tightness/pain (21.4%), fatigue (21.4%) and sore throat (7.1%). Nearly 70% of the patients had normal (71.4%) or decreased (28.6%) white blood cell counts, and 50% (7/14) had lymphocytopenia. There were 10 adults (71.4%) showed abnormal imaging. The main manifestations were pulmonary consolidation (70%), nodular shadow (50%), and ground glass opacity (50%). Five discharged children were admitted again because their stool showed positive result in SARS-CoV-2 PCR. COVID-19 in children is mainly caused by family transmission, and their symptoms are mild and prognosis is better than adult. However, their PCR result in stool showed longer time than their families. Because of the mild or asymptomatic clinical process, it is difficult to recognize early for pediatrician and public health staff.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1744483

RECORD 132
TITLE
  COVID-19 containment: China provides important lessons for global response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang S.;  Wang Z.;  Chang R.;  Wang H.;  Xu C.;  Yu X.;  Tsamlag L.;  Dong Y.;  Wang H.;  Cai Y.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The world must act fast to contain wider international spread of the epidemic of COVID-19 now. The unprecedented public health efforts in China have contained the spread of this new virus. Measures taken in China are currently proven to reduce human-to-human transmission successfully. We summarized the effective intervention and prevention measures in the fields of public health response, clinical management, and research development in China, which may provide vital lessons for the global response. It is really important to take collaborative actions now to save more lives from the pandemic of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0766-9

RECORD 133
TITLE
  Epidemiological and Clinical Predictors of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Y.;  Koh V.;  Marimuthu K.;  Ng O.T.;  Young B.;  Vasoo S.;  Chan M.;  Lee V.J.M.;  De P.P.;  Barkham T.;  Lin R.T.P.;  Cook A.R.;  Leo Y.S.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Rapid identification of COVID-19 cases, which is crucial to outbreak containment efforts, is challenging due to the lack of pathognomonic symptoms and in settings with limited capacity for specialized nucleic acid-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involves subjects (7 to 98 years) presenting at the designated national outbreak screening centre and tertiary care hospital in Singapore for SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 26 to February 16, 2020. COVID-19 status was confirmed by PCR testing of sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs or throat swabs. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and exposure-risk variables ascertainable at presentation were analyzed to develop an algorithm for estimating the risk of COVID-19. Model development used Akaike’s information criterion in a stepwise fashion to build logistic regression models, which were then translated into prediction scores. Performance was measured using receiver operating characteristics curves, adjusting for over-confidence using leave-out-one cross validation. RESULTS: The study population included 788 subjects, of whom 54 (6.9%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive and 734 (93.1%) were SARS-CoV-2 negative. The median age was 34 years and 407 (51.7%) were female. Using leave-out-one cross validation, all the models incorporating clinical tests (Models 1, 2 and 3) performed well with areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.91, 0.88 and 0.88 respectively. In comparison, Model 4 had an AUC of 0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly ascertainable clinical and laboratory data could identify individuals at high risk of COVID-19 and enable prioritization of PCR-testing and containment efforts. Basic laboratory test results were crucial to prediction models.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa322

RECORD 134
TITLE
  Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu B.;  Gutierrez B.;  Mekaru S.;  Sewalk K.;  Goodwin L.;  Loskill A.;  Cohn E.L.;  Hswen Y.;  Hill S.C.;  Cobo M.M.;  Zarebski A.E.;  Li S.;  Wu C.-H.;  Hulland E.;  Morgan J.D.;  Wang L.;  O’Brien K.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Brownstein J.S.;  Pybus O.G.;  Pigott D.M.;  Kraemer M.U.G.
SOURCE
  Scientific data (2020) 7:1 (106). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Cases of a novel coronavirus were first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019 and have since spread across the world. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. To aid the analysis and tracking of the COVID-19 epidemic we collected and curated individual-level data from national, provincial, and municipal health reports, as well as additional information from online reports. All data are geo-coded and, where available, include symptoms, key dates (date of onset, admission, and confirmation), and travel history. The generation of detailed, real-time, and robust data for emerging disease outbreaks is important and can help to generate robust evidence that will support and inform public health decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0448-0

RECORD 135
TITLE
  Managing COVID-19 in Surgical Systems
AUTHOR NAMES
  Brindle M.;  Gawande A.
SOURCE
  Annals of surgery (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003923

RECORD 136
TITLE
  A midpoint perspective on the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsu L.Y.;  Chia P.Y.;  Vasoo S.
SOURCE
  Singapore medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) epidemic has spread to virtually every continent in the world. Despite Singapore’s efforts, sustained community transmission of the virus has continued. We herein describe several key experiences and lessons learnt during the early course of the outbreak. First, it is critical to evaluate the outbreak objectively based on its own characteristics and not those of past epidemics. Second, the great advancements in speed and power of science and international collaboration have been critical in providing knowledge about the virus and disease. Third, public risk communications and the need to combat false information and rumours are even more crucial in this age of social media and viral information spread. Lastly, outbreak control and mitigation goes beyond the healthcare sector. The many lessons learnt will serve as a blueprint for dealing with future pandemics, but a sustainable new normal is required for the immediate future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020036

RECORD 137
TITLE
  Protecting healthcare personnel from 2019-nCoV infection risks: lessons and suggestions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang Z.;  Liu S.;  Xiang M.;  Li S.;  Zhao D.;  Huang C.;  Chen S.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of a novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19, caused by the 2019-nCoV infection) in December 2019 is one of the most severe public health emergencies since the founding of People’s Republic of China in 1949. Healthcare personnel (HCP) nationwide are facing heavy workloads and high risk of infection, especially those who care for patients at the epicenter of the outbreak, Hubei Province. Sadly, as of February 20, 2020, over two thousand COVID-19 cases are confirmed among HCP from 476 hospitals nationwide, with nearly 90% of them from Hubei Province. Based on literature search and interviews with some HCP working at Wuhan, capital city of Hubei, we have summarized some of the effective measures taken to reduce infection among HCP, and also made suggestions for improving occupational safety during an infectious disease outbreak. The experience and lessons learned should be a valuable asset for international health community to contain the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic around the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0765-x

RECORD 138
TITLE
  Insights into the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (Sars-coV-2) in light of past human coronavirus outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ashour H.M.;  Elkhatib W.F.;  Rahman M.M.;  Elshabrawy H.A.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 186. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that have become a major public health concern since the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2002. The continuous evolution of coronaviruses was further highlighted with the emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) outbreak in 2012. Currently, the world is concerned about the 2019 novel CoV (SARS-CoV-2) that was initially identified in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. Patients presented with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness. The number of cases has been mounting since then. As of late February 2020, tens of thousands of cases and several thousand deaths have been reported in China alone, in addition to thousands of cases in other countries. Although the fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is currently lower than SARS-CoV, the virus seems to be highly contagious based on the number of infected cases to date. In this review, we discuss structure, genome organization, entry of CoVs into target cells, and provide insights into past and present outbreaks. The future of human CoV outbreaks will not only depend on how the viruses will evolve, but will also depend on how we develop efficient prevention and treatment strategies to deal with this continuous threat.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030186

RECORD 139
TITLE
  Reverse logistics network design for effective management of medical waste in epidemic outbreaks: Insights from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan (China)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yu H.;  Sun X.;  Solvang W.D.;  Zhao X.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1770. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of an epidemic disease may pose significant treats to human beings and may further lead to a global crisis. In order to control the spread of an epidemic, the effective management of rapidly increased medical waste through establishing a temporary reverse logistics system is of vital importance. However, no research has been conducted with the focus on the design of an epidemic reverse logistics network for dealing with medical waste during epidemic outbreaks, which, if improperly treated, may accelerate disease spread and pose a significant risk for both medical staffs and patients. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel multi-objective multi-period mixed integer program for reverse logistics network design in epidemic outbreaks, which aims at determining the best locations of temporary facilities and the transportation strategies for effective management of the exponentially increased medical waste within a very short period. The application of the model is illustrated with a case study based on the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Even though the uncertainty of the future COVID-19 spread tendency is very high at the time of this research, several general policy recommendations can still be obtained based on computational experiments and quantitative analyses. Among other insights, the results suggest installing temporary incinerators may be an effective solution for managing the tremendous increase of medical waste during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, but the location selection of these temporary incinerators is of significant importance. Due to the limitation on available data and knowledge at present stage, more real-world information are needed to assess the effectiveness of the current solution.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051770

RECORD 140
TITLE
  The COVID-19 outbreak and implications for the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympic Games
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gallego V.;  Nishiura H.;  Sah R.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101604. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101604

RECORD 141
TITLE
  Recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19: A case report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen D.;  Xu W.;  Lei Z.;  Huang Z.;  Liu J.;  Gao Z.;  Peng L.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (297-299). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 that began in Wuhan, China, has constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, with cases confirmed in multiple countries. Currently, patients are the primary source of infection. We report a confirmed case of COVID-19 whose oropharyngeal swab test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned positive in convalescence. This case highlights the importance of active surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for infectivity assessment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.003

RECORD 142
TITLE
  Estimation of COVID-19 outbreak size in Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tuite A.R.;  Ng V.;  Rees E.;  Fisman D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30227-9

RECORD 143
TITLE
  The resilience of the Spanish health system against the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Legido-Quigley H.;  Mateos-García J.T.;  Campos V.R.;  Gea-Sánchez M.;  Muntaner C.;  McKee M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Public Health (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30060-8

RECORD 144
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hoffmann M.;  Kleine-Weber H.;  Schroeder S.;  Krüger N.;  Herrler T.;  Erichsen S.;  Schiergens T.S.;  Herrler G.;  Wu N.-H.;  Nitsche A.;  Müller M.A.;  Drosten C.;  Pöhlmann S.
SOURCE
  Cell (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention. The emerging SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens public health. Hoffmann and coworkers show that SARS-CoV-2 infection depends on the host cell factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and can be blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. These findings might help to establish options for prevention and treatment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052

RECORD 145
TITLE
  Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wan Y.;  Shang J.;  Graham R.;  Baric R.S.;  Li F.
SOURCE
  Journal of virology (2020) 94:7. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged from Wuhan, China, causing symptoms in humans similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. Here, we analyzed the potential receptor usage by 2019-nCoV, based on the rich knowledge about SARS-CoV and the newly released sequence of 2019-nCoV. First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV’s capacity for human cell infection. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. These analyses provide insights into the receptor usage, cell entry, host cell infectivity and animal origin of 2019-nCoV and may help epidemic surveillance and preventive measures against 2019-nCoV.IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20

RECORD 146
TITLE
  A Well Infant with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with High Viral Load
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kam K.-Q.;  Yung C.F.;  Cui L.;  Lin Tzer Pin R.;  Mak T.M.;  Maiwald M.;  Li J.;  Chong C.Y.;  Nadua K.;  Tan N.W.H.;  Thoon K.C.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A well 6-month-old infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had persistently positive nasopharyngeal swabs to day 16 of admission. This case highlights the difficulties in establishing the true incidence of COVID-19 as asymptomatic individuals can excrete the virus. These patients may play important roles in human-to-human transmission in the community.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa201

RECORD 147
TITLE
  Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 by SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wei Y.Y.;  Lu Z.Z.;  Du Z.C.;  Zhang Z.J.;  Zhao Y.;  Shen S.P.;  Wang B.;  Hao Y.T.;  Chen F.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (470-475). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 epidemics. Methods: Based on SEIR dynamic model, considering the COVID-19 transmission mechanism, infection spectrum and prevention and control procedures, we developed SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model to fit the frequencies of laboratory confirmed cases obtained from the government official websites. The data from January 20, 2020 to February 7, 2020 were used to fit the model, while the left data between February 8-12 were used to evaluate the quality of forecasting. Results: According to the cumulative number of confirmed cases between January 29 to February 7, the fitting bias of SEIR(+ CAQ) model for overall China (except for cases of Hubei province), Hubei province (except for cases of Wuhan city) and Wuhan city was less than 5%. For the data of subsequent 5 days between February 8 to 12, which were not included in the model fitting, the prediction biases were less than 10%. Regardless of the cases diagnosed by clinical examines, the numbers of daily emerging cases of China (Hubei province not included), Hubei Province (Wuhan city not included) and Wuhan city reached the peak in the early February. Under the current strength of prevention and control, the total number of laboratory- confirmed cases in overall China will reach 80 417 till February 29, 2020, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model fits and forecasts the trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia well and provides evidence for decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200216-00106

RECORD 148
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease-2019: Is fever an adequate screening for the returning travelers?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bwire G.M.;  Paulo L.S.
SOURCE
  Tropical Medicine and Health (2020) 48:1 Article Number: 201. Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On Thursday, 30 January 2020, World Health Organization declared Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Since its identification in late December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, People’s Republic of China, the number of cases imported into other countries is increasing, and the epidemiological map is changing rapidly. On the other hand, body temperature screening (fever) is the major test performed at points of entry, i.e., airports, in the returning travelers in most of the countries with limited resources. However, the recent report on asymptomatic contact transmission of COVID-19 and travelers who passed the symptoms-based screening and tested positive for COVID-19 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) challenges this approach as body temperature screening may miss travelers incubating the disease or travelers concealing fever during travel. On this note, travel restrictions to and from high risk areas and/or 14 days quarantine of travelers coming from high risk areas are recommended to prevent possible importation of COVID-19. Currently, RT-PCR is a reliable test in detecting both symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00201-2

RECORD 149
TITLE
  What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lake M.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical medicine (London, England) (2020) 20:2 (124-127). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, health authorities in Wuhan, China, identified a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology linked to the city’s South China Seafood Market. Subsequent investigations revealed a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, as the causative agent now at the heart of a major outbreak. The rising case numbers have been accompanied by unprecedented public health action, including the wholesale isolation of Wuhan. Alongside this has been a robust scientific response, including early publication of the pathogen genome, and rapid development of highly specific diagnostics. This article will review the new knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 acute respiratory disease, and summarise its clinical features.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2019-coron

RECORD 150
TITLE
  New coronavirus outbreak: Framing questions for pandemic prevention
AUTHOR NAMES
  Layne S.P.;  Hyman J.M.;  Morens D.M.;  Taubenberger J.K.
SOURCE
  Science translational medicine (2020) 12:534. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We need to understand and quantify the dominant variables that govern the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, rather than relying exclusively on confirmed cases and their geospatial spread.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb1469

RECORD 151
TITLE
  Tabletop exercise to prepare institutions of higher education for an outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wendelboe A.M.;  Miller A.;  Drevets D.;  Salinas L.;  Miller E.J.;  Jackson D.;  Chou A.;  Raines J.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (183-184). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Preparing for public health emergencies is an ongoing process and involves a variety of approaches and tools. Tabletop exercises are one of the tools designed to simulate the emergence of a public health emergency and address some or all of the phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.1 They typically are designed to include participation of stakeholders from diverse and complementary backgrounds, including command, operations, logistics, planning, and finance.2 Effective tabletop exercises provide a plausible scenario that require cooperation and communication from these functional areas. Tabletops also require forward thinking and planning in a variety of scenarios. When a public health emergency occurs, decision makers may be overwhelmed with decisions that need their immediate attention. Tabletop exercises can provide a framework to help decision makers anticipate future challenges, which may provide the mental model encompassing knowledge and insights that inform both current and future decisions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0463

RECORD 152
TITLE
  Tabletop exercise to prepare institutions of higher education for an outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wendelboe A.M.;  Miller A.;  Drevets D.;  Salinas L.;  Miller E.J.;  Jackson D.;  Chou A.;  Raines J.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (S1-S20). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Complete Table Top Exercise Manual.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0464

RECORD 153
TITLE
  Retrospective analysis of the possibility of predicting the COVID-19 outbreak from Internet searches and social media data, China, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.;  Chen L.J.;  Chen X.;  Zhang M.;  Pang C.P.;  Chen H.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The peak of Internet searches and social media data about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred 10-14 days earlier than the peak of daily incidences in China. Internet searches and social media data had high correlation with daily incidences, with the maximum r > 0.89 in all correlations. The lag correlations also showed a maximum correlation at 8-12 days for laboratory-confirmed cases and 6-8 days for suspected cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000199

RECORD 154
TITLE
  2019-nCoV: new challenges from coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tian H.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54:3 (235-238). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, at the end of 2019 shaped tremendous challenges to China’s public health and clinical treatment. The virus belongs to the β genus Coronavirus in the family Corornaviridae, and is closely related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, causing severe symptoms of pneumonia. The virus is transmitted through droplets, close contact, and other means, and patients in the incubation period could potentially transmit the virus to other persons. According to current observations, 2019-nCoV is weaker than SARS in pathogenesis, but has stronger transmission competence; it’s mechanism of cross-species spread might be related with angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅱ (ACE2), which is consistent with the receptor SARS-CoV. After the outbreak of this disease, Chinese scientists invested a lot of energy to carry out research by developing rapid diagnostic reagents, identifying the characters of the pathogen, screening out clinical drugs that may inhibit the virus, and are rapidly developing vaccines. The emergence of 2019-nCoV reminds us once again of the importance of establishing a systematic coronavirus surveillance network. It also poses new challenges to prevention and control of the emerging epidemic and rapidly responses on scientific research.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.002

RECORD 155
TITLE
  Recommendations for general surgery clinical practice in 2019 coronavirus disease situation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tao K.X.;  Zhang B.X.;  Zhang P.;  Zhu P.;  Wang G.B.;  Chen X.P.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58:3 (170-177). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 coronavirus disease(COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease, has a long incubation period and a variety of clinical manifestations, which has a significant impact on public health and life. Afterwards, scientific and standardized work processing during the epidemic is of great significance for prevention and control. In order to implement the central government’s decision-making deployment and defeat the COVID-19 as soon as possible, we had focused on the key points in the clinical work of general surgery according to latest relevant guidelines, literature and experience in epidemic prevention. Finally, we drafted the prevention and control strategies and recommendations to make a reference for medical staff of general surgery to fight against COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0529-5815.2020.03.003

RECORD 156
TITLE
  Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121

RECORD 157
TITLE
  Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Kagaya K.;  Zarebski A.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 5 February 2020, in Yokohama, Japan, a cruise ship hosting 3,711 people underwent a 2-week quarantine after a former passenger was found with COVID-19 post-disembarking. As at 20 February, 634 persons on board tested positive for the causative virus. We conducted statistical modelling to derive the delay-adjusted asymptomatic proportion of infections, along with the infections’ timeline. The estimated asymptomatic proportion was 17.9% (95% credible interval (CrI): 15.5-20.2%). Most infections occurred before the quarantine start.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

RECORD 158
TITLE
  Coronavirus: the spread of misinformation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mian A.;  Khan S.
SOURCE
  BMC medicine (2020) 18:1 (89). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01556-3

RECORD 159
TITLE
  The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsu L.Y.;  Chia P.Y.;  Lim J.F.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020

RECORD 160
TITLE
  Impact of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the risk of maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 during natural birth
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Peng L.;  Siddique R.;  Nabi G.;  Nawsherwan ;  Xue M.;  Liu J.;  Han G.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Little is known about the maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 via vaginal route. In this study, we report the adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women infected with COVID-19 pneumonia and the risk of intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 via vaginal route. None of the three neonates were infected with COVID-19 delivered via natural birth. Only one neonate was delivered prematurely. No neonatal death and stillbirth were observed in pregnant women infected with COVID-19. Moreover, all of the neonates had normal birth weight, birth length, and normal Apgar score.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.84

RECORD 161
TITLE
  Policies on the use of respiratory protection for hospital health workers to protect from coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chughtai A.A.;  Seale H.;  Islam M.S.;  Owais M.;  Macintyre C.R.
SOURCE
  International journal of nursing studies (2020) 105 (103567). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103567

RECORD 162
TITLE
  Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Feng S.;  Shen C.;  Xia N.;  Song W.;  Fan M.;  Cowling B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Respiratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X

RECORD 163
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak: less stethoscope, more ultrasound
AUTHOR NAMES
  Buonsenso D.;  Pata D.;  Chiaretti A.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Respiratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30120-X

RECORD 164
TITLE
  COVID-19: Active measures to support community-dwelling older adults
AUTHOR NAMES
  K K.;  A K.;  Y F.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101638). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101638

RECORD 165
TITLE
  Aggregated mobility data could help fight COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Buckee C.O.;  Balsari S.;  Chan J.;  Crosas M.;  Dominici F.;  Gasser U.;  Grad Y.H.;  Grenfell B.;  Halloran M.E.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Lipsitch M.;  Metcalf C.J.E.;  Meyers L.A.;  Perkins T.A.;  Santillana M.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Viboud C.;  Wesolowski A.;  Schroeder A.
SOURCE
  Science (New York, N.Y.) (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8021

RECORD 166
TITLE
  Rapid Response to COVID-19: Health Informatics Support for Outbreak Management in an Academic Health System
AUTHOR NAMES
  Reeves J.J.;  Hollandsworth H.M.;  Torriani F.J.;  Taplitz R.;  Abeles S.;  Tai-Seale M.;  Millen M.;  Clay B.J.;  Longhurst C.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of technological support important for optimizing clinical management of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our health system has confirmed prior and current cases of COVID-19. An Incident Command Center was established early in the crisis and helped identify electronic health record (EHR) based tools to support clinical care. RESULTS: We outline the design and implementation of EHR based rapid screening processes, laboratory testing, clinical decision support, reporting tools, and patient-facing technology related to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: The EHR is a useful tool to enable rapid deployment of standardized processes. UC San Diego Health built multiple COVID-19-specific tools to support outbreak management, including scripted triaging, electronic check-in, standard ordering and documentation, secure messaging, real-time data analytics, and telemedicine capabilities. Challenges included the need to frequently adjust build to meet rapidly evolving requirements, communication and adoption, and coordinating the needs of multiple stakeholders while maintaining high-quality, pre-pandemic medical care. CONCLUSION: The EHR is an essential tool in supporting the clinical needs of a health system managing the COVID-19 pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocaa037

RECORD 167
TITLE
  The impact of covid-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li S.;  Wang Y.;  Xue J.;  Zhao N.;  Zhu T.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:6 Article Number: 2032. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease 2019) has significantly resulted in a large number of psychological consequences. The aim of this study is to explore the impacts of COVID-19 on people’s mental health, to assist policy makers to develop actionable policies, and help clinical practitioners (e.g., social workers, psychiatrists, and psychologists) provide timely services to affected populations. We sample and analyze the Weibo posts from 17,865 active Weibo users using the approach of Online Ecological Recognition (OER) based on several machine-learning predictive models. We calculated word frequency, scores of emotional indicators (e.g., anxiety, depression, indignation, and Oxford happiness) and cognitive indicators (e.g., social risk judgment and life satisfaction) from the collected data. The sentiment analysis and the paired sample t-test were performed to examine the differences in the same group before and after the declaration of COVID-19 on 20 January, 2020. The results showed that negative emotions (e.g., anxiety, depression and indignation) and sensitivity to social risks increased, while the scores of positive emotions (e.g., Oxford happiness) and life satisfaction decreased. People were concerned more about their health and family, while less about leisure and friends. The results contribute to the knowledge gaps of short-term individual changes in psychological conditions after the outbreak. It may provide references for policy makers to plan and fight against COVID-19 effectively by improving stability of popular feelings and urgently prepare clinical practitioners to deliver corresponding therapy foundations for the risk groups and affected people.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062032

RECORD 168
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus disease outbreak and molecular genetic characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jeong Y.S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Bacteriology and Virology (2020) 50:1 (1-8). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks that emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, have led to a formidable number of confirmed cases that resulted in >5,700 deaths globally, including 143 countries in all 6 continents. The World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern with a very high level of global risk assessment. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of COVID-19, has >79% nucleotide sequence homology to SARS-CoV; therefore, both belong to the genus betacoronavirus and subgenus sarbecovirus. The S1 domains of the two appeared to share the cellular receptor ACE2, but revealed a much higher S1-ACE2 binding affinity. As seen in many other human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 also shows respiratory infection, but the basic reproductive number (R0) in transmission and the clinical latency are quite dissimilar from those of SARS-or MERS-CoVs. Many scientists infer that the time point of cross-barrier transfer from bats to mediate animals or to humans should be a rather recent event based on the full-length genome analyses obtained from the very first patients. Copy-choice polymerization, which often leads to a significant genome recombination rate in most coronaviruses, predicts the continued emergence of novel coronaviruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4167/jbv.2020.50.1.001

RECORD 169
TITLE
  Dynamic basic reproduction number based evaluation for current prevention and control of COVID-19 outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang L.L.;  Shen S.P.;  Yu P.;  Wei Y.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (466-469). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To evaluate the current status of the prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China, establish a predictive model to evaluate the effects of the current prevention and control strategies, and provide scientific information for decision- making departments. Methods: Based on the epidemic data of COVID-19 openly accessed from national health authorities, we estimated the dynamic basic reproduction number R(0)(t) to evaluate the effects of the current COVID-19 prevention and control strategies in all the provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) as well as in Wuhan and the changes in infectivity of COVID-19 over time. Results: For the stability of the results, 24 provinces (municipality) with more than 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included in the analysis. At the beginning of the outbreak, the R(0)(t) showed unstable trend with big variances. As the strengthening of the prevention and control strategies, R(0)(t) began to show a downward trend in late January, and became stable in February. By the time of data analysis, 18 provinces (municipality) (75%) had the R(0)(t)s less than 1. The results could be used for the decision making to free population floating conditionally. Conclusions: Dynamic R(0)(t) is useful in the evaluation of the change in infectivity of COVID-19, the prevention and control strategies for the COVID-19 outbreak have shown preliminary effects, if continues, it is expected to control the COVID-19 outbreak in China in near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200209-00080

RECORD 170
TITLE
  Early epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 28 cases of coronavirus disease in South Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kong I.;  Park Y.;  Woo Y.;  Lee J.;  Cha J.;  Choi J.;  Kim Y.;  Kim J.;  Park S.;  Yum M.;  Kim T.;  Jo J.;  Kim M.;  Lee D.;  Kim J.;  Park S.;  Bahk H.;  Yu J.;  Kwon J.;  Kim H.;  Shin N.;  Lee S.;  In H.;  Jung J.;  Cho S.;  Jeon B.;  Kim D.;  Jin G.;  Kim S.;  Kim S.;  Kim Y.;  Kim E.;  Kim B.I.;  Kim H.;  Lee H.;  Jin Y.;  Kim J.;  Kim H.;  Ryu B.;  Shin S.;  Shin E.;  Lee J.;  Lee S.;  Jang Y.;  Choi E.;  Hyun J.;  Ko D.;  Seo G.;  Kwon S.;  Park E.;  Choi S.;  Hwang S.;  Lee S.;  Kang B.;  Park J.;  Lee D.;  Jo S.;  Choi S.;  Lee J.;  Cho S.;  Park J.;  Kim J.;  Lee E.;  Kim J.;  Kim S.;  Kim U.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (8-14). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea was reported in January 2020, with 28 confirmed cases reported as of February 14th, 2020. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all 28 cases were analyzed in response to this disease. Methods: The epidemiological characteristics and early clinical features of the 28 patients from Korea with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed using COVID-19 reporting and surveillance data and the epidemiological investigation reports prepared by the rapid response team. Results: There were 16 patients that entered Korea from foreign countries: Wuhan, China (11 patients), Zhuhai, China, (1 patient), Singapore (2 patients), Japan (1 patient), and Thailand (1 patient). The early symptoms were fever, sore throat, cough or sputum production, chills, and muscle ache. Three patients were asymptomatic, however, 18 developed pneumonia. Of the 28 cases, 16 were index cases imported from abroad, with 10 cases of secondary infection originating in Korea, and the route of transmission still under investigation for 2 patients. The 10 patients with secondary infection were infected from contact with family members or acquaintances of primary patients, and the suspected sites of transmission were mostly at home. Conclusion: COVID-19 in Korea was spread by 16 infected individuals traveling from other countries, leading to second-generation cases. The initial symptoms were mostly minor, but the disease was infectious at this stage, resulting from close contact, particularly at home. Establishing an early detection strategy for COVID-19 is crucial for managing the transmission of the disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.03

RECORD 171
TITLE
  Early estimation of the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in mainland China: A data-driven analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang S.;  Cao P.;  Du P.;  Wu Z.;  Zhuang Z.;  Yang L.;  Yu X.;  Zhou Q.;  Feng X.;  Wang X.;  Li W.;  Liu E.;  Chen J.;  Chen Y.;  He D.
SOURCE
  Annals of Translational Medicine (2020) 8:4. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2], named COVID-19, hit a major city of China, Wuhan in December 2019 and subsequently spread to other provinces/regions of China and overseas. Several studies have been done to estimate the basic reproduction number in the early phase of this outbreak, yet there are no reliable estimates of case fatality rate (CFR) for COVID-19 to date. Methods: In this study, we used a purely data-driven statistical method to estimate the CFR in the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Daily numbers of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths were collected from January 10 to February 3, 2020 and divided into three clusters: Wuhan city, other cities of Hubei province, and other provinces of mainland China. Simple linear regression model was applied to estimate the CFR from each cluster. Results: We estimated that CFR during the first weeks of the epidemic ranges from 0.15% (95% CI: 0.120.18%) in mainland China excluding Hubei through 1.41% (95% CI: 1.381.45%) in Hubei province excluding the city of Wuhan to 5.25% (95% CI: 4.985.51%) in Wuhan. Conclusions: Our early estimates suggest that the CFR of COVID-19 is lower than the previous coronavirus epidemics caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.66

RECORD 172
TITLE
  Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Adhikari S.P.;  Meng S.;  Wu Y.-J.;  Mao Y.-P.;  Ye R.-X.;  Wang Q.-Z.;  Sun C.;  Sylvia S.;  Rozelle S.;  Raat H.;  Zhou H.
SOURCE
  Infectious Diseases of Poverty (2020) 9:1 Article Number: 29. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O’Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors’ affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. Results: Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus’ origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Conclusions: There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x

RECORD 173
TITLE
  Managing Cancer Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Agility and Collaboration Toward a Common Goal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ueda M.;  Martins R.;  Hendrie P.C.;  McDonnell T.;  Crews J.R.;  Wong T.L.;  McCreery B.;  Jagels B.;  Crane A.;  Byrd D.R.;  Pergam S.A.;  Davidson N.E.;  Liu C.;  Stewart F.M.
SOURCE
  Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN (2020) (1-4). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States was reported on January 20, 2020, in Snohomish County, Washington. At the epicenter of COVID-19 in the United States, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and University of Washington are at the forefront of delivering care to patients with cancer during this public health crisis. This Special Feature highlights the unique circumstances and challenges of cancer treatment amidst this global pandemic, and the importance of organizational structure, preparation, agility, and a shared vision for continuing to provide cancer treatment to patients in the face of uncertainty and rapid change.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7560

RECORD 174
TITLE
  What Does the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mean for Families?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Thompson L.A.;  Rasmussen S.A.
SOURCE
  JAMA Pediatrics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0828

RECORD 175
TITLE
  COVID-19 and the consequences of isolating the elderly
AUTHOR NAMES
  Armitage R.;  Nellums L.B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30061-X

RECORD 176
TITLE
  Cardiovascular Considerations for Patients, Health Care Workers, and Health Systems During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Driggin E.;  Madhavan M.V.;  Bikdeli B.;  Chuich T.;  Laracy J.;  Bondi-Zoccai G.;  Brown T.S.;  Nigoghossian C.;  Zidar D.A.;  Haythe J.;  Brodie D.;  Beckman J.A.;  Kirtane A.J.;  Stone G.W.;  Krumholz H.M.;  Parikh S.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that has significant implications for the cardiovascular care of patients. First, those with COVID-19 and preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) have an increased risk of severe disease and death. Second, infection has been associated with multiple direct and indirect cardiovascular complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmias and venous thromboembolism. Third, therapies under investigation for COVID-19 may have cardiovascular side effects. Fourth, the response to COVID-19 can compromise the rapid triage of non-COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular conditions. Finally, the provision of cardiovascular care may place health care workers in a position of vulnerability as they become host or vectors of virus transmission. We hereby review the peer-reviewed and preprint literature pertaining to cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19 and highlight gaps in knowledge that require further study pertinent to patients, health care workers, and health systems.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.03.031

RECORD 177
TITLE
  Systematic review of COVID-19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ludvigsson J.F.
SOURCE
  Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognoses in children are rare. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the Medline and EMBASE databases between 1 January and 18 March 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognoses than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15270

RECORD 178
TITLE
  COVID-19, cytokines and immunosuppression: what can we learn from severe acute respiratory syndrome?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sarzi-Puttini P.;  Giorgi V.;  Sirotti S.;  Marotto D.;  Ardizzone S.;  Rizzardini G.;  Antinori S.;  Galli M.
SOURCE
  Clinical and experimental rheumatology (2020) 38:2 (337-342). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A severe outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in China in December 2019, and spread so rapidly that more than 200,000 cases have so far been reported worldwide; on January 30, 2020, the WHO declared it the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The two previously reported coronavirus epidemics (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS] and Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]) share similar pathogenetic, epidemiological and clinical features as COVID-19. As little is currently known about SARS-CoV-2, it is likely that lessons learned from these major epidemics can be applied to the new pandemic, including the use of novel immunosuppressive drugs.

RECORD 179
TITLE
  A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang L.-S.;  Wang Y.-R.;  Ye D.-W.;  Liu Q.-Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105948). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the ongoing outbreak as a global public health emergency. Currently, the research on novel coronavirus is still in the primary stage. Based on the current published evidence, we systematically summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of knowledge surrounding COVID-19. This review in the hope of helping the public effectively recognize and deal with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and providing a reference for future studies.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948

RECORD 180
TITLE
  Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Emanuel E.J.;  Persad G.;  Upshur R.;  Thome B.;  Parker M.;  Glickman A.;  Zhang C.;  Boyle C.;  Smith M.;  Phillips J.P.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsb2005114

RECORD 181
TITLE
  Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mandal S.;  Bhatnagar T.;  Arinaminpathy N.;  Agarwal A.;  Chowdhury A.;  Murhekar M.;  Gangakhedkar R.R.;  Sarkar S.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background & objectives: :Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised urgent questions about containment and mitigation, particularly in countries where the virus has not yet established human-to-human transmission. The objectives of this study were to find out if it was possible to prevent, or delay, the local outbreaks of COVID-19 through restrictions on travel from abroad and if the virus has already established in-country transmission, to what extent would its impact be mitigated through quarantine of symptomatic patients?” Methods: :These questions were addressed in the context of India, using simple mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. While there remained important uncertainties in the natural history of COVID-19, using hypothetical epidemic curves, some key findings were illustrated that appeared insensitive to model assumptions, as well as highlighting critical data gaps. Results: :It was assumed that symptomatic quarantine would identify and quarantine 50 per cent of symptomatic individuals within three days of developing symptoms. In an optimistic scenario of the basic reproduction number (R00) being 1.5, and asymptomatic infections lacking any infectiousness, such measures would reduce the cumulative incidence by 62 per cent. In the pessimistic scenario of R0=4, and asymptomatic infections being half as infectious as symptomatic, this projected impact falls to two per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: :Port-of-entry-based entry screening of travellers with suggestive clinical features and from COVID-19-affected countries, would achieve modest delays in the introduction of the virus into the community. Acting alone, however, such measures would be insufficient to delay the outbreak by weeks or longer. Once the virus establishes transmission within the community, quarantine of symptomatics may have a meaningful impact on disease burden. Model projections are subject to substantial uncertainty and can be further refined as more is understood about the natural history of infection of this novel virus. As a public health measure, health system and community preparedness would be critical to control any impending spread of COVID-19 in the country.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_504_20

RECORD 182
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: the harms of exaggerated information and non-evidence-based measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ioannidis J.P.A.
SOURCE
  European journal of clinical investigation (2020) (e13223). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1 is certainly cause for concern. Proper communication and optimal decision-making is an ongoing challenge, as data evolve. The challenge is compounded, however, by exaggerated information. This can lead to inappropriate actions. It is important to differentiate promptly the true epidemic from an epidemic of false claims and potentially harmful actions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13223

RECORD 183
TITLE
  Lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy amongst symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India: Protocol for restricted public health emergency use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bhatnagar T.;  Murhekar M.V.;  Soneja M.;  Gupta N.;  Giri S.;  Wig N.;  Gangakhedkar R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of February 29, 2020, more than 85,000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from China and 53 other countries with 2,924 deaths. On January 30, 2020, the first laboratory-confirmed case of COVID was reported from Kerala, India. In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups – age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons. Patients will be monitored to document clinical (hospital length of stay and mortality at 14, 28 and 90 days), laboratory (presence of viral RNA in serial throat swab samples) and safety (adverse events and serious adverse events) outcomes. Treatment outcomes amongst initial cases would be useful in providing guidance about the clinical management of patients with COVID-19. If found useful in managing initial SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, further evaluation using a randomized control trial design is warranted to guide future therapeutic use of this combination.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_20

RECORD 184
TITLE
  Correction to: COVID-19: a novel coronavirus and a novel challenge for critical care (Intensive Care Medicine, (2020), 10.1007/s00134-020-05955-1)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arabi Y.M.;  Murthy S.;  Webb S.
SOURCE
  Intensive Care Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  the original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. there was an error in table one: in the last row, second column the part “still being defined to” should be crossed out. the correct table 1 can be found below. we apologize for the mistake.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06009-2

RECORD 185
TITLE
  Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.;  Yang Y.;  Ren L.
SOURCE
  Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2020) 82 Article Number: 104285. Date of Publication: 1 Aug 2020
ABSTRACT
  The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. Here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including Paguma larvata, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Civet, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Rhinolophus sinicus, and was in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. However, genome and ORF1a homology show that the virus is not the same coronavirus as the coronavirus derived from these five animals, whereas the virus has the highest homology with Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104285

RECORD 186
TITLE
  COVID-19, a worldwide public health emergency
AUTHOR NAMES
  Palacios Cruz M.;  Santos E.;  Velázquez Cervantes M.A.;  León Juárez M.
SOURCE
  Revista Clinica Espanola (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new coronavirus outbreak emerged on the 31st of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, causing commotion among the medical community and the rest of the world. This new species of coronavirus has been termed 2019-nCoV and has caused a considerable number of cases of infection and deaths in China and, to a growing degree, beyond China, becoming a worldwide public health emergency. 2019-nCoV has high homology to other pathogenic coronaviruses, such as those originating from bat-related zoonosis (SARS-CoV), which caused approximately 646 deaths in China at the start of the decade. The mortality rate for 2019-nCoV is not as high (approximately 2-3%), but its rapid propagation has resulted in the activation of protocols to stop its spread. This pathogen has the potential to become a pandemic. It is therefore vital to follow the personal care recommendations issued by the World Health Organisation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rce.2020.03.001

RECORD 187
TITLE
  COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun J.;  He W.-T.;  Wang L.;  Lai A.;  Ji X.;  Zhai X.;  Li G.;  Suchard M.A.;  Tian J.;  Zhou J.;  Veit M.;  Su S.
SOURCE
  Trends in Molecular Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan turned into a public health emergency of international concern. With no antiviral drugs nor vaccines, and the presence of carriers without obvious symptoms, traditional public health intervention measures are significantly less effective. Here, we report the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. We propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008

RECORD 188
TITLE
  Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is currently an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China. Although there are still several unanswered questions about this infection, we evaluate the potential for international dissemination of this disease via commercial air travel should the outbreak continue.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa008

RECORD 189
TITLE
  Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa011

RECORD 190
TITLE
  Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilson M.E.;  Chen L.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

RECORD 191
TITLE
  Laboratory readiness and response for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in expert laboratories in 30 EU/EEA countries, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Reusken C.B.E.M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Haagmans B.;  Meijer A.;  Corman V.M.;  Papa A.;  Charrel R.;  Drosten C.;  Koopmans M.;  Leitmeyer K.;  On Behalf Of Evd-LabNet And Erli-Net
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Timely detection of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection cases is crucial to interrupt the spread of this virus. We assessed the required expertise and capacity for molecular detection of 2019-nCoV in specialised laboratories in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Thirty-eight laboratories in 24 EU/EEA countries had diagnostic tests available by 29 January 2020. A coverage of all EU/EEA countries was expected by mid-February. Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000082

RECORD 192
TITLE
  The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Gayle A.A.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Rocklöv J.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa021

RECORD 193
TITLE
  Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilder-Smith A.;  Freedman D.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa020

RECORD 194
TITLE
  Quantifying the association between domestic travel and the exportation of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases from Wuhan, China in 2020: a correlational analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao S.;  Zhuang Z.;  Cao P.;  Ran J.;  Gao D.;  Lou Y.;  Yang L.;  Cai Y.;  Wang W.;  He D.;  Wang M.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa022

RECORD 195
TITLE
  COVID-19: another infectious disease emerging at the animal-human interface
AUTHOR NAMES
  Murdoch D.R.;  French N.P.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (12-15). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 196
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dilcher M.;  Werno A.;  Jennings L.C.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (6-11). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 197
TITLE
  Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The importance of recognising possible early ocular manifestation and using protective eyewear
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li J.-P.O.;  Lam D.S.C.;  Chen Y.;  Ting D.S.W.
SOURCE
  British Journal of Ophthalmology (2020) 104:3 (297-298). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-315994

RECORD 198
TITLE
  Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (18-19). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w

RECORD 199
TITLE
  Letter to the editor: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Colson P.;  La Scola B.;  Esteves-Vieira V.;  Ninove L.;  Zandotti C.;  Jimeno M.-T.;  Gazin C.;  Bedotto M.;  Filosa V.;  Giraud-Gatineau A.;  Chaudet H.;  Brouqui P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000171

RECORD 200
TITLE
  The race to unravel the biggest coronavirus outbreak in the United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maxmen A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (181-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00676-3

RECORD 201
TITLE
  Using public health law to contain the spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Griffith R.
SOURCE
  British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) (2020) 29:5 (326-327). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, considers what powers are available to ministers, health and local authorities to minimise the spread of the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.5.326

RECORD 202
TITLE
  Potential global pandemics: the role of the WHO and other public health bodies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Glasper A.
SOURCE
  British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) (2020) 29:5 (322-323). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In light of the emergence of the new coronavirus in China, Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the response strategies adopted by international and national public health agencies.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.5.322

RECORD 203
TITLE
  The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.-R.;  Cao Q.-D.;  Hong Z.-S.;  Tan Y.-Y.;  Chen S.-D.;  Jin H.-J.;  Tan K.-S.;  Wang D.-Y.;  Yan Y.
SOURCE
  Military Medical Research (2020) 7:1 (11). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

RECORD 204
TITLE
  We Need Strong Public Health Care to Contain the Global Corona Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  De Ceukelaire W.;  Bodini C.
SOURCE
  International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation (2020) (20731420916725). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020731420916725

RECORD 205
TITLE
  Safety Considerations in the Laboratory Testing of Specimens Suspected or Known to Contain the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Iwen P.C.;  Stiles K.L.;  Pentella M.A.
SOURCE
  American journal of clinical pathology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa047

RECORD 206
TITLE
  Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Diaz J.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Intravenous infusions of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in experimental animals increase the numbers of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors in the cardiopulmonary circulation. ACE2 receptors serve as binding sites for SARS-CoV-2 virions in the lungs. Patients who take ACEIs and ARBS may be at increased risk of severe disease outcomes due to SARS-CoV-2 infections.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa041

RECORD 207
TITLE
  Challenges and countermeasures on Chinese malaria elimination programme during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu G.D.;  Cao J.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control (2020) 32:1 (7-9). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been extensively epidemic in China, which not only seriously threatens the safety and health of Chinese people, but also challenges the management of other infectious diseases. Currently, there are still approximately three thousand malaria cases imported into China every year. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients’lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. This paper analyzes the challenges of the COVID-19 for Chinese malaria elimination programme, and proposes the countermeasures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, so as to provide the reference for healthcare professionals.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2020036

RECORD 208
TITLE
  2019-nCoV: The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool Applied to a Novel Emerging Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koenig K.L.;  Beÿ C.K.;  McDonald E.C.
SOURCE
  The western journal of emergency medicine (2020) 21:2 (184-190). Date of Publication: 31 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an emerging infectious disease closely related to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV that was first reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. As of January 2020, cases of 2019-nCoV are continuing to be reported in other Eastern Asian countries as well as in the United States, Europe, Australia, and numerous other countries. An unusually high volume of domestic and international travel corresponding to the beginning of the 2020 Chinese New Year complicated initial identification and containment of infected persons. Due to the rapidly rising number of cases and reported deaths, all countries should be considered at risk of imported 2019-nCoV. Therefore, it is essential for prehospital, clinic, and emergency department personnel to be able to rapidly assess 2019-nCoV risk and take immediate actions if indicated. The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool, originally conceived for the initial detection and management of Ebola virus and later adjusted for other infectious agents, can be adapted for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I Tool for use in the initial detection and management of patients under investigation for 2019-nCoV. After initial assessment for symptoms and epidemiological risk factors, including travel to affected areas and exposure to confirmed 2019-nCoV patients within 14 days, patients are classified in a risk-stratified system. Upon confirmation of a suspected 2019-nCoV case, affected persons must immediately be placed in airborne infection isolation and the appropriate public health agencies notified. This modified 3I Tool will assist emergency and primary care clinicians, as well as out-of-hospital providers, in effectively managing persons with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2020.1.46760

RECORD 209
TITLE
  Can angiotensin receptor-blocking drugs perhaps be harmful in the COVID-19 pandemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Esler M.;  Esler D.
SOURCE
  Journal of hypertension (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002450

RECORD 210
TITLE
  On a knife’s edge of a COVID-19 pandemic: is containment still possible?
AUTHOR NAMES
  MacIntyre C.R.
SOURCE
  Public health research & practice (2020) 30:1. Date of Publication: 10 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.17061/phrp3012000

RECORD 211
TITLE
  Transmission potential and severity of COVID-19 in South Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shim E.;  Tariq A.;  Choi W.;  Lee Y.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: Since the first case of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) identified on Jan 20, 2020 in South Korea, the number of cases rapidly increased, resulting in 6,284 cases including 42 deaths as of March 6, 2020. To examine the growth rate of the outbreak, we aimed to present the first study to report the reproduction number of COVID-19 in South Korea. METHODS: The daily confirmed cases of COVID-19 in South Korea were extracted from publicly available sources. By using the empirical reporting delay distribution and simulating the generalized growth model, we estimated the effective reproduction number based on the discretized probability distribution of the generation interval. RESULTS: We identified four major clusters and estimated the reproduction number at 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6). In addition, the intrinsic growth rate was estimated at 0.6 (95% CI: 0.6, 0.7) and the scaling of growth parameter was estimated at 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7, 0.8), indicating sub-exponential growth dynamics of COVID-19. The crude case fatality rate is higher among males (1.1%) compared to females (0.4%) and increases with older age. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate early sustained transmission of COVID-19 in South Korea and support the implementation of social distancing measures to rapidly control the outbreak.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.031

RECORD 212
TITLE
  Evidence informing the UK’s COVID-19 public health response must be transparent
AUTHOR NAMES
  Alwan N.A.;  Bhopal R.;  Burgess R.A.;  Colburn T.;  Cuevas L.E.;  Smith G.D.;  Egger M.;  Eldridge S.;  Gallo V.;  Gilthorpe M.S.;  Greenhalgh T.;  Griffiths C.;  Hunter P.R.;  Jaffar S.;  Jepson R.;  Low N.;  Martineau A.;  McCoy D.;  Orcutt M.;  Pankhania B.;  Pikhart H.;  Pollock A.;  Scally G.;  Smith J.;  Sridhar D.;  Taylor S.;  Tennant P.W.G.;  Themistocleous Y.;  Wilson A.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020) 395:10229 (1036-1037). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30667-X

RECORD 213
TITLE
  COVID-19: a fast evolving pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Whitworth J.
SOURCE
  Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2020). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa025

RECORD 214
TITLE
  Public health measures to slow community spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowling B.J.;  Aiello A.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa123

RECORD 215
TITLE
  Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Z.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang Y.;  Huang Z.;  Song B.
SOURCE
  European radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, first reported in Wuhan, China, has rapidly swept around the world just within a month, causing global public health emergency. In diagnosis, chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations can supplement parts of limitations of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the experience in the frontline, we aim to review the typical and relatively atypical CT manifestations with representative COVID-19 cases at our hospital, and hope to strengthen the recognition of these features with radiologists and help them make a quick and accurate diagnosis.Key Points • Ground glass opacities, consolidation, reticular pattern, and crazy paving pattern are typical CT manifestations of COVID-19. • Emerging atypical CT manifestations, including airway changes, pleural changes, fibrosis, nodules, etc., were demonstrated in COVID-19 patients. • CT manifestations may associate with the progression and prognosis of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06801-0

RECORD 216
TITLE
  Strategies to Inform Allocation of Stockpiled Ventilators to Healthcare Facilities During a Pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koonin L.M.;  Pillai S.;  Kahn E.B.;  Moulia D.;  Patel A.
SOURCE
  Health security (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  During a severe pandemic, especially one causing respiratory illness, many people may require mechanical ventilation. Depending on the extent of the outbreak, there may be insufficient capacity to provide ventilator support to all of those in need. As part of a larger conceptual framework for determining need for and allocation of ventilators during a public health emergency, this article focuses on the strategies to assist state and local planners to allocate stockpiled ventilators to healthcare facilities during a pandemic, accounting for critical factors in facilities’ ability to make use of additional ventilators. These strategies include actions both in the pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic stages. As a part of pandemic preparedness, public health officials should identify and query healthcare facilities in their jurisdiction that currently care for critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation to determine existing inventory of these devices and facilities’ ability to absorb additional ventilators. Facilities must have sufficient staff, space, equipment, and supplies to utilize allocated ventilators adequately. At the time of an event, jurisdictions will need to verify and update information on facilities’ capacity prior to making allocation decisions. Allocation of scarce life-saving resources during a pandemic should consider ethical principles to inform state and local plans for allocation of ventilators. In addition to ethical principles, decisions should be informed by assessment of need, determination of facilities’ ability to use additional ventilators, and facilities’ capacity to ensure access to ventilators for vulnerable populations (eg, rural, inner city, and uninsured and underinsured individuals) or high-risk populations that may be more susceptible to illness.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hs.2020.0028

RECORD 217
TITLE
  Is there a role for lung ultrasound during the COVID-19 pandemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Soldati G.;  Smargiassi A.;  Inchingolo R.;  Buonsenso D.;  Perrone T.;  Briganti D.F.;  Perlini S.;  Torri E.;  Mariani A.;  Mossolani E.E.;  Tursi F.;  Mento F.;  Demi L.
SOURCE
  Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15284

RECORD 218
TITLE
  Covid-19 and the Stiff Upper Lip – The Pandemic Response in the United Kingdom
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hunter D.J.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2005755

RECORD 219
TITLE
  Review and Prospect of Pathological Features of Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.J.;  Du S.H.;  Yue X.;  Chen C.X.
SOURCE
  Fa yi xue za zhi (2020) 36:1 (16-20). Date of Publication: 25 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Abstract: Since 2003, coronavirus has caused multiple major public health events that resulted in global epidemics such as, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Especially since COVID-19 has outbroken in Wuhan, Hubei, in December 2019, coronavirus has had a significant impact on people’s health and lives. But so far, the pathological diagnosis of COVID-19 has been relatively deficient: it is still confined to the pathological findings of punctured organs, and the majority of medical workers have poor awareness of its pathological characteristics. The COVID-19, as same as SARS and MERS, is caused by coronaviruses and can cause viral pneumonia. They have certain similarities. This article comprehensively reviews the pathological features observed in the autopsies of the aforementioned three diseases, in order to provide reference to the analysis of pathological changes of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.01.004

RECORD 220
TITLE
  Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kapata N.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Ntoumi F.;  Raji T.;  Chanda-Kapata P.;  Mwaba P.;  Mukonka V.;  Bates M.;  Tembo J.;  Corman V.;  Mfinanga S.;  Asogun D.;  Elton L.;  Arruda L.B.;  Thomason M.J.;  Mboera L.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Haider N.;  Simons D.;  Hollmann L.;  Lule S.A.;  Veas F.;  Abdel Hamid M.M.;  Dar O.;  Edwards S.;  Vairo F.;  McHugh T.D.;  Drosten C.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (233-236). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.049

RECORD 221
TITLE
  The cancellation of mass gatherings (MGs)? Decision making in the time of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ahmed Q.A.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101631. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Our recommendation, as experts who have monitored health hazards at the Hajj for over 15 years, especially if the situation with COVID-19 continues to escalate globally is that Hajj 2020 will be at risk of being suspended and a means for Muslims to fulfill their rights in the future either personally or even by proxy need to be announced. The same holds true for the Summer 2020 Olympics in Japan and for many other MGs and large gatherings. Decisions in the time of COVID-19 will be closely followed and will be a blueprint for other mass gatherings.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101631

RECORD 222
TITLE
  Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Cardona-Ospina J.A.;  Gutiérrez-Ocampo E.;  Villamizar-Peña R.;  Holguin-Rivera Y.;  Escalera-Antezana J.P.;  Alvarado-Arnez L.E.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Franco-Paredes C.;  Henao-Martinez A.F.;  Paniz-Mondolfi A.;  Lagos-Grisales G.J.;  Ramírez-Vallejo E.;  Suárez J.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Villamil-Gómez W.E.;  Balbin-Ramon G.J.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Harapan H.;  Dhama K.;  Nishiura H.;  Kataoka H.;  Ahmad T.;  Sah R.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101623. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5–92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8–74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9–80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0–30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7–51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1–9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2–21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623

RECORD 223
TITLE
  Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lu H.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (69-71). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01020

RECORD 224
TITLE
  Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.200131e

RECORD 225
TITLE
  Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ki M.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and health (2020) 42 (e2020007). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020007

RECORD 226
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Z.;  Chen X.;  Lu Y.;  Chen F.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (64-68). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. No effective antiviral treatment has been verified thus far. We report here the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four patients with mild or severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra®), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. After treatment, three patients gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms, two of whom were confirmed 2019-nCoV negative and discharged, and one of whom was virus negative at the first test. The remaining patient with severe pneumonia had shown signs of improvement by the cutoff date for data collection. Results obtained in the current study may provide clues for treatment of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01030

RECORD 227
TITLE
  Epidemiological research priorities for public health control of the ongoing global novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowling B.J.;  Leung G.M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000110

RECORD 228
TITLE
  Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Backer J.A.;  Klinkenberg D.;  Wallinga J.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is causing an outbreak of viral pneumonia that started in Wuhan, China. Using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases that were detected outside Wuhan in the early outbreak phase, we estimate the mean incubation period to be 6.4 days (95% credible interval: 5.6-7.7), ranging from 2.1 to 11.1 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentile). These values should help inform 2019-nCoV case definitions and appropriate quarantine durations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062

RECORD 229
TITLE
  Challenges to the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies: reflections on the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang X.;  Zhang X.;  He J.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (3-8). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission announced an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), China is now at a critical period in the control of the epidemic. The Chinese Government has been taking a series of rapid, comprehensive, and effective prevention and control measures. As the pandemic has developed, a fact has become apparent: there is a serious dearth of emergency medical supplies, and especially an extreme shortage of personal protective equipment such as masks and medical protective clothing. This is one of the major factors affecting the progress of epidemic prevention and control. Although China has made great efforts to strengthen the ability to quickly respond to public health emergencies since the SARS outbreak in 2003 and it has clarified requirements for emergency supplies through legislation, the emergency reserve supplies program has not been effectively implemented, and there are also deficiencies in the types, quantity, and availability of emergency medical supplies. A sound system of emergency reserve supplies is crucial to the management of public health emergencies. Based on international experiences with pandemic control, the world should emphasize improving the system of emergency reserve medical supplies in the process of establishing and improving public health emergency response systems, and it should promote the establishment of international cooperative programs to jointly deal with public health emergencies of international concern in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01043

RECORD 230
TITLE
  Latest updates on COVID-19 from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2002131

RECORD 231
TITLE
  COVID-19: Real-time dissemination of scientific information to fight a public health emergency of international concern
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song P.;  Karako T.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01056

RECORD 232
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): A guide for UK GPS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Razai M.S.;  Doerholt K.;  Ladhani S.;  Oakeshott P.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m800. Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m800

RECORD 233
TITLE
  Audio interview: What clinicians need to know in diagnosing and treating covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rubin E.J.;  Baden L.R.;  Morrissey S.
SOURCE
  New England Journal of Medicine (2020) 382:10 (E19). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejme2004244

RECORD 234
TITLE
  Early transmission patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan to Thailand, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Okada P.;  Buathong R.;  Phuygun S.;  Thanadachakul T.;  Parnmen S.;  Wongboot W.;  Waicharoen S.;  Wacharapluesadee S.;  Uttayamakul S.;  Vachiraphan A.;  Chittaganpitch M.;  Mekha N.;  Janejai N.;  Iamsirithaworn S.;  Lee R.T.;  Maurer-Stroh S.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan, China to Thailand. Both were independent introductions on separate flights, discovered with thermoscanners and confirmed with RT-PCR and genome sequencing. Both cases do not seem directly linked to the Huanan Seafood Market in Hubei but the viral genomes are identical to four other sequences from Wuhan, suggesting early spread within the city already in the first week of January.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000097

RECORD 235
TITLE
  Public health round-up
SOURCE
  Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2020) 98:3 (155-156). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.010320

RECORD 236
TITLE
  Effectiveness for the response to CoviD-19: The MERS outbreak containment procedures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cho H.-W.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.01

RECORD 237
TITLE
  Identification of coronavirus isolated from a patient in Korea with covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kim J.-M.;  Chung Y.-S.;  Jo H.J.;  Lee N.-J.;  Kim M.S.;  Woo S.H.;  Park S.;  Kim J.W.;  Kim H.M.;  Han M.-G.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (3-7). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Following reports of patients with unexplained pneumonia at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the causative agent was identified as coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and the 2019 novel coronavirus disease was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. Putative patients with COVID-19 have been identified in South Korea, and attempts have been made to isolate the pathogen from these patients. Methods: Upper and lower respiratory tract secretion samples from putative patients with COVID-19 were inoculated onto cells to isolate the virus. Full genome sequencing and electron microscopy were used to identify the virus. Results: The virus replicated in Vero cells and cytopathic effects were observed. Full genome sequencing showed that the virus genome exhibited sequence homology of more than 99.9% with SARS-CoV-2 which was isolated from patients from other countries, for instance China. Sequence homology of SARS-CoV-2 with SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV was 77.5% and 50%, respectively. Coronavirus-specific morphology was observed by electron microscopy in virus-infected Vero cells. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from putative patients with unexplained pneumonia and intermittent coughing and fever. The isolated virus was named BetaCoV/Korea/KCDC03/2020.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.02

RECORD 238
TITLE
  Contact transmission of Covid-19 in South Korea: Novel investigation techniques for tracing contacts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park O.;  Park Y.J.;  Park S.Y.;  Kim Y.-M.;  Kim J.;  Lee J.;  Park E.;  Kim D.;  Jeon B.-H.;  Ryu B.;  Ko D.;  Kim E.;  Kim H.;  Lee H.;  Gwack J.;  Jo J.;  Lee J.H.;  Hyun J.;  Kim J.;  Park J.K.;  Lee S.;  Kim S.S.;  Shin S.H.;  Choi S.W.;  Kim T.;  Kim U.-N.;  Woo Y.;  Jin Y.;  Jang Y.S.;  Park Y.;  Yum M.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (60-63). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the epidemiological investigation of an infectious disease, investigating, classifying, tracking, and managing contacts by identifying the patient’s route are important for preventing further transmission of the disease. However, omissions and errors in previous activities can occur when the investigation is performed through only a proxy interview with the patient. To overcome these limitations, methods that can objectively verify the patient’s claims (medical facility records, Global Positioning System, card transactions, and closed-circuit television) were used for the recent ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 contact investigations in South Korea.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.09

RECORD 239
TITLE
  What further should be done to control COVID-19 outbreaks in addition to cases isolation and contact tracing measures?
AUTHOR NAMES
  He Z.
SOURCE
  BMC Medicine (2020) 18:1 Article Number: 80. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01551-8

RECORD 240
TITLE
  Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Johnson H.C.;  Gossner C.M.;  Colzani E.;  Kinsman J.;  Alexakis L.;  Beauté J.;  Würz A.;  Tsolova S.;  Bundle N.;  Ekdahl K.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Two months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the possibility of established and widespread community transmission in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) is becoming more likely. We provide scenarios for use in preparedness for a possible widespread epidemic. The EU/EEA is moving towards the ‘limited sustained transmission’ phase. We propose actions to prepare for potential mitigation phases and coordinate efforts to protect the health of citizens.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000202

RECORD 241
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 242
TITLE
  Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Konrad R.;  Eberle U.;  Dangel A.;  Treis B.;  Berger A.;  Bengs K.;  Fingerle V.;  Liebl B.;  Ackermann N.;  Sing A.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The need for timely establishment of diagnostic assays arose when Germany was confronted with the first travel-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Europe. We describe our laboratory experiences during a large contact tracing investigation, comparing previously published real-time RT-PCR assays in different PCR systems and a commercial kit. We found that assay performance using the same primers and probes with different PCR systems varied and the commercial kit performed well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000173

RECORD 243
TITLE
  COVID-19: Not a Simple Public Health Emergency
AUTHOR NAMES
  Stratton S.J.
SOURCE
  Prehospital and disaster medicine (2020) 35:2 (119). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X2000031X

RECORD 244
TITLE
  Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kamel Boulos M.N.;  Geraghty E.M.
SOURCE
  International journal of health geographics (2020) 19:1 (8). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a new virus (initially called ‘Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV’ and later renamed to SARS-CoV-2) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (coronavirus disease COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread to other parts of China and other countries around the world, despite China’s massive efforts to contain the disease within Hubei. As with the original SARS-CoV epidemic of 2002/2003 and with seasonal influenza, geographic information systems and methods, including, among other application possibilities, online real-or near-real-time mapping of disease cases and of social media reactions to disease spread, predictive risk mapping using population travel data, and tracing and mapping super-spreader trajectories and contacts across space and time, are proving indispensable for timely and effective epidemic monitoring and response. This paper offers pointers to, and describes, a range of practical online/mobile GIS and mapping dashboards and applications for tracking the 2019/2020 coronavirus epidemic and associated events as they unfold around the world. Some of these dashboards and applications are receiving data updates in near-real-time (at the time of writing), and one of them is meant for individual users (in China) to check if the app user has had any close contact with a person confirmed or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the recent past. We also discuss additional ways GIS can support the fight against infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-020-00202-8

RECORD 245
TITLE
  Politicians: please work together to minimise the spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Murdoch D.;  Addidle M.;  Andersson H.-S.;  Arnold B.;  Balm M.;  Benschop J.;  Betty B.;  Birch M.;  Bloomfield M.;  Brunton C.;  Burns A.;  Chambers S.;  Cook L.;  Dalton S.;  Duncan H.;  Elvy J.;  Everts R.;  Freeman J.;  French N.;  Grimwade K.;  Hammer D.;  Hayman D.;  Holland D.;  Hudson B.;  Huggan P.;  Ikram R.;  Jack S.;  Kelly M.;  Lamont I.;  Maze M.;  McAuliffe G.;  McBride S.;  Metcalf S.;  Morpeth S.;  Morris A.;  Murton S.;  Pink R.;  Pithie A.;  Pitout M.;  Priest P.;  Raymond N.;  Read K.;  Ritchie S.;  Rogers M.;  Schroeder P.;  Taylor S.;  Taylor J.;  Thomas M.;  Upton A.;  Ussher J.;  Werno A.;  Wiles S.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1511 (7-8). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020

RECORD 246
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 247
TITLE
  COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Barry M.;  Al Amri M.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of epidemiology and global health (2020) 10:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified as the etiologic agent currently named SARS-CoV-2. Most cases are in Mainland China with international spread to 25 countries. The novelty of the virus, the rapid national and international spread, and the lack of therapeutic and preventative strategies have led the WHO International Health Regulation emergency committee to declare the disease as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. As it relates to countries with the ongoing MERS-CoV community cases and hospital acquired infections, there will be a huge challenge for HCWs to deal with both coronaviruses, especially with the lack of standardized and approved point of care testing. This challenge will now be faced by the whole global health community dealing with COVID-19 since both coronaviruses have similar presentation. Those patients should now be tested for both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 simultaneously, and with the continuing wide international spread of SARS-CoV-2, the travel history to China in the last 14 days will be of less significance.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200218.003

RECORD 248
TITLE
  Applications of google search trends for risk communication in infectious disease management: A case study of COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Husnayain A.;  Fuad A.;  Su E.C.-Y.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: An emerging outbreak of COVID-19 has been detected in at least 26 countries worldwide. Given this pandemic situation, robust risk communication is urgently needed particularly in affected countries. Therefore, this study explored the potential use of Google Trends (GT) to monitor public restlessness toward COVID-19 epidemic infection in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrieved GT data for the specific locations of Taiwan nationwide and subregions using defined search terms related to coronavirus, handwashing, and face masks. RESULTS: Searches related to COVID-19 and face masks in Taiwan increased rapidly, following the announcements of Taiwan’ first imported case and reached its peak as local cases were reported. However, searches for handwashing were gradually increased in period of face masks shortage. Moreover, high to moderate correlations between Google relative search volume (RSV) and COVID-19 cases were found in Taipei (lag-3), New Taipei (lag-2), Taoyuan (lag-2), Tainan (lag-1), Taichung (lag0), and Kaohsiung (lag0). CONCLUSION: In response to the ongoing outbreak, our results demonstrated that GT could potentially define the proper timing and location for practicing appropriate risk communication strategies to the affected population.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.021

RECORD 249
TITLE
  Skin damage and the risk of infection among healthcare workers managing coronavirus disease-2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lan J.;  Song Z.;  Miao X.;  Li H.;  Li Y.;  Dong L.;  Yang J.;  An X.;  Zhang Y.;  Yang L.;  Zhou N.;  Yang L.;  Li J.;  Cao J.;  Wang J.;  Tao J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.014

RECORD 250
TITLE
  Rapidly increasing cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the European Union/European Economic Area and the United Kingdom, 1 January to 15 March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kinross P.;  Suetens C.;  Gomes Dias J.;  Alexakis L.;  Wijermans A.;  Colzani E.;  Monnet D.L.;  European Centre For Disease Prevention And Control Ecdc Public Health Emergency Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:11. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases is showing similar trends in European Union/European Economic Area countries and the United Kingdom confirming that, while at a different stage depending on the country, the COVID-19 pandemic is progressing rapidly in all countries. Based on the experience from Italy, countries, hospitals and intensive care units should increase their preparedness for a surge of patients with COVID-19 who will require healthcare, and in particular intensive care.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.11.2000285

RECORD 251
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: the harms of exaggerated information and non-evidence-based measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ioannidis J.P.A.
SOURCE
  European journal of clinical investigation (2020) (e13222). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic1 is certainly cause for concern. Proper communication and optimal decision-making is an ongoing challenge, as data evolve. The challenge is compounded, however, by exaggerated information. This can lead to inappropriate actions. It is important to differentiate promptly the true epidemic from an epidemic of false claims and potentially harmful actions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13222

RECORD 252
TITLE
  Identifying and Interrupting Superspreading Events-Implications for Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Frieden T.R.;  Lee C.T.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  It appears inevitable that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 will continue to spread. Although we still have limited information on the epidemiology of this virus, there have been multiple reports of superspreading events (SSEs), which are associated with both explosive growth early in an outbreak and sustained transmission in later stages. Although SSEs appear to be difficult to predict and therefore difficult to prevent, core public health actions can prevent and reduce the number and impact of SSEs. To prevent and control of SSEs, speed is essential. Prevention and mitigation of SSEs depends, first and foremost, on quickly recognizing and understanding these events, particularly within healthcare settings. Better understanding transmission dynamics associated with SSEs, identifying and mitigating high-risk settings, strict adherence to healthcare infection prevention and control measures, and timely implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions can help prevent and control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, as well as future infectious disease outbreaks.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200495

RECORD 253
TITLE
  How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Asmundson G.J.G.;  Taylor S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2020) 71 Article Number: 102211. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102211

RECORD 254
TITLE
  Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Liu Y.H.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Wang Y.-H.;  Hsueh S.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.;  Ko W.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

RECORD 255
TITLE
  Can China’s COVID-19 strategy work elsewhere?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kupferschmidt K.;  Cohen J.
SOURCE
  Science (2020) 367:6482 (1061-1062). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6482.1062

RECORD 256
TITLE
  A commentary on “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shah S.G.S.;  Farrow A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Surgery (2020) 76 (128-129). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.03.001

RECORD 257
TITLE
  COVID-19 – the role of mass gatherings
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ebrahim S.H.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101617. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Mass gathering (MG) medicine emerged against the backdrop of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) when the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) hosted the largest annual mass gathering of over 3 million pilgrims from 180 plus countries. However, the events surrounding the latest threat to global health, the PHEIC COVID-19, may be sufficient to highlight the role of mass gatherings, mass migration, and other forms of dense gatherings of people on the emergence, sustenance, and transmission of novel pathogens. The COVID-19 spread illustrates the role of MGs in exacerbation of the scope of pandemics. Cancellation or suspension of MGs would be critical to pandemic mitigation. It is unlikely that medical countermeasures are available during the early phase of pandemics. Therefore, mitigation of its impact, rather than containment and control becomes a priority during pandemics. As the most systematically studied MG-related respiratory disease data come from KSA, the cancellation of Umrah by the KSA authorities, prior to emergence of cases, provide the best opportunity to develop mathematical models to quantify event cancellations related mitigation of COVID-19 transmission in KSA and to the home countries of pilgrims. COVID-19 has already provided examples of both clearly planned event cancellations such as the Umrah suspension in KSA, and where outbreaks and events were continued.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101617

RECORD 258
TITLE
  Spike protein recognition of mammalian ACE2 predicts the host range and an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luan J.;  Lu Y.;  Jin X.;  Zhang L.
SOURCE
  Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  SARS-CoV-2 causes the recent global COVID-19 public health emergency. ACE2 is the receptor for both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. To predict the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed the key residues of ACE2 for recognizing S protein. We found that most of the selected mammals including pets (dog and cat), pangolin and Circetidae mammals remained the most of key residues for association with S protein from SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. The interaction interface between cat/dog/pangolin/Chinese hamster ACE2 and SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 S protein was simulated through homology modeling. We identified that N82 in ACE2 showed a closer contact with SARS-CoV-2 S protein than M82 in human ACE2. Our finding will provide important insights into the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and a new strategy to design an optimized ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.03.047

RECORD 259
TITLE
  Mass gathering events and reducing further global spread of COVID-19: a political and public health dilemma
AUTHOR NAMES
  McCloskey B.;  Zumla A.;  Ippolito G.;  Blumberg L.;  Arbon P.;  Cicero A.;  Endericks T.;  Lim P.L.;  Borodina M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30681-4

RECORD 260
TITLE
  Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yen M.-Y.;  Schwartz J.;  Chen S.-Y.;  King C.-C.;  Yang G.-Y.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan’s 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector – the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.011

RECORD 261
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus COVID-19: an overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.;  Desai A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:2 Supplement 2 (1-21). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Prior to the global outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 were the only coronaviruses known to infect humans. Following the SARS outbreak, 5 additional coronaviruses have been discovered in humans, most recently the novel coronavirus COVID-19, believed to have originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV and MERSCoV are particularly pathogenic in humans and are associated with high mortality. In this review, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the recently discovered COVID-19 are reviewed, with a focus on best practices and the public health implications.

RECORD 262
TITLE
  Impact of international travel and border control measures on the global spread of the novel 2019 coronavirus outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wells C.R.;  Sah P.;  Moghadas S.M.;  Pandey A.;  Shoukat A.;  Wang Y.;  Wang Z.;  Meyers L.A.;  Singer B.H.;  Galvani A.P.
SOURCE
  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in mainland China has rapidly spread across the globe. Within 2 mo since the outbreak was first reported on December 31, 2019, a total of 566 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS CoV-2) cases have been confirmed in 26 other countries. Travel restrictions and border control measures have been enforced in China and other countries to limit the spread of the outbreak. We estimate the impact of these control measures and investigate the role of the airport travel network on the global spread of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that the daily risk of exporting at least a single SARS CoV-2 case from mainland China via international travel exceeded 95% on January 13, 2020. We found that 779 cases (95% CI: 632 to 967) would have been exported by February 15, 2020 without any border or travel restrictions and that the travel lockdowns enforced by the Chinese government averted 70.5% (95% CI: 68.8 to 72.0%) of these cases. In addition, during the first three and a half weeks of implementation, the travel restrictions decreased the daily rate of exportation by 81.3% (95% CI: 80.5 to 82.1%), on average. At this early stage of the epidemic, reduction in the rate of exportation could delay the importation of cases into cities unaffected by the COVID-19 outbreak, buying time to coordinate an appropriate public health response.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002616117

RECORD 263
TITLE
  Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.;  Qi T.;  Liu L.;  Ling Y.;  Qian Z.;  Li T.;  Li F.;  Xu Q.;  Zhang Y.;  Xu S.;  Song Z.;  Zeng Y.;  Shen Y.;  Shi Y.;  Zhu T.;  Lu H.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P<0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P<0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR]=1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR=0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004

RECORD 264
TITLE
  New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Devaux C.A.;  Rolain J.-M.;  Colson P.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105938). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938

RECORD 265
TITLE
  The effectiveness of quarantine and isolation determine the trend of the COVID-19 epidemics in the final phase of the current outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang B.;  Xia F.;  Tang S.;  Bragazzi N.L.;  Li Q.;  Sun X.;  Liang J.;  Xiao Y.;  Wu J.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: Since January 23rd 2020, stringent measures for controlling the novel coronavirus epidemics have been gradually enforced and strengthened in mainland China. The detection and diagnosis have been improved as well. However, the daily reported cases staying in a high level make the epidemics trend prediction difficult. METHODS: Since the traditional SEIR model does not evaluate the effectiveness of control strategies, a novel model in line with the current epidemics process and control measures was proposed, utilizing multisource datasets including cumulative number of reported, death, quarantined and suspected cases. RESULTS: Results show that the trend of the epidemics mainly depends on quarantined and suspected cases. The predicted cumulative numbers of quarantined and suspected cases nearly reached static states and their inflection points have already been achieved, with the epidemics peak coming soon. The estimated effective reproduction numbers using model-free and model-based methods are decreasing, as well as new infections, while new reported cases are increasing. Most infected cases have been quarantined or put in suspected class, which has been ignored in existing models. CONCLUSIONS: The uncertainty analyses reveal that the epidemics is still uncertain and it is important to continue enhancing the quarantine and isolation strategy and improving the detection rate in mainland China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.018

RECORD 266
TITLE
  Preliminary estimation of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in Iran: A modelling analysis based on overseas cases and air travel data
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhuang Z.;  Zhao S.;  Lin Q.;  Cao P.;  Lou Y.;  Yang L.;  He D.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of 1 March 2020, Iran has reported 987 COVID-19 cases and including 54 associated deaths. At least six neighboring countries (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Afghanistan and Pakistan) have reported imported COVID-19 cases from Iran. We used air travel data and the cases from Iran to other Middle East countries and estimated 16533 (95% CI: 5925, 35538) COVID-19 cases in Iran by 25 February, before UAE and other Gulf Cooperation Council countries suspended inbound and outbound flights from Iran.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.019

RECORD 267
TITLE
  Estimation of the asymptomatic ratio of novel coronavirus infections (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nishiura H.;  Kobayashi T.;  Suzuki A.;  Jung S.-M.;  Hayashi K.;  Kinoshita R.;  Yang Y.;  Yuan B.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Linton N.M.;  Miyama T.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.020

RECORD 268
TITLE
  An Analysis of 38 Pregnant Women with COVID-19, Their Newborn Infants, and Maternal-Fetal Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Maternal Coronavirus Infections and Pregnancy Outcomes
AUTHOR NAMES
  Schwartz D.A.
SOURCE
  Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of a novel coronavirus, termed SARS-CoV-2, and the potentially life-threating respiratory disease that it can produce, COVID-19, has rapidly spread across the globe creating a massive public health problem. Previous epidemics of many emerging viral infections have typically resulted in poor obstetrical outcomes including maternal morbidity and mortality, maternal-fetal transmission of the virus, and perinatal infections and death. This communication reviews the effects of two previous coronavirus infections – severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) caused by MERS-CoV – on pregnancy outcomes. In addition, it analyzes literature describing 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 and their newborns in China to assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the mothers and infants including clinical, laboratory and virologic data, and the transmissibility of the virus from mother to fetus. This analysis reveals that unlike coronavirus infections of pregnant women caused by SARS and MERS, in these 38 pregnant women COVID-19 did not lead to maternal deaths. Importantly, and similar to pregnancies with SARS and MERS, there were no confirmed cases of intrauterine transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mothers with COVID-19 to their fetuses. All neonatal specimens tested, including in some cases placentas, were negative by rt-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. At this point in the global pandemic of COVID-19 infection there is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 undergoes intrauterine or transplacental transmission from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Analysis of additional cases is necessary to determine if this remains true.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0901-SA

RECORD 269
TITLE
  The positive impact of lockdown in Wuhan on containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lau H.;  Khosrawipour V.;  Kocbach P.;  Mikolajczyk A.;  Schubert J.;  Bania J.;  Khosrawipour T.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: With its epicenter in Wuhan, China, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Consequently, many countries have implemented flight restrictions to China. China itself has imposed a lockdown of the population of Wuhan as well as the entire Hubei province. However, whether these two enormous measures have led to significant changes in the spread of COVID-19 cases remains unclear. METHODS: We analyzed available data on the development of confirmed domestic and international COVID-19 cases before and after lockdown measures. We evaluated the correlation of domestic air traffic to the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and determined the growth curves of COVID-19 cases within China before and after lockdown as well as after changes in COVID-19 diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Our findings indicate a significant increase in doubling time from 2 days (95% Confidence Interval, CI): 1.9-2.6), to 4 days (95% CI: 3.5-4.3), after imposing lockdown. A further increase is detected after changing diagnostic and testing methodology to 19.3 (95% CI: 15.1-26.3), respectively. Moreover, the correlation between domestic air traffic and COVID-19 spread became weaker following lockdown (before lockdown: r = 0.98, p < 0.05 vs. after lockdown: r = 0.91, p = NS). CONCLUSIONS: A significantly decreased growth rate and increased doubling time of cases was observed, which is most likely due to Chinese lockdown measures. A more stringent confinement of people in high risk areas seem to have a potential to slow down the spread of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa037

RECORD 270
TITLE
  Correlation between travellers departing from Wuhan before the Spring Festival and subsequent spread of COVID-19 to all provinces in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhong P.;  Guo S.;  Chen T.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We found a strong correlation between travel volumes departing from Wuhan, Hubei Province before the Spring Festival and the extent of amplification of the outbreak of COVID-19 in China in 2020, with 100 top cities. Almost 70% of exportations were within cities in Hubei province.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa036

RECORD 271
TITLE
  Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang C.;  Pan R.;  Wan X.;  Tan Y.;  Xu L.;  Ho C.S.;  Ho R.C.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1729. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729

RECORD 272
TITLE
  A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus—A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao T.-T.;  Qian J.-D.;  Zhu W.-Y.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the past few decades, coronaviruses have risen as a global threat to public health. Currently, the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from Wuhan caused a worldwide panic. There are no specific antiviral therapies for COVID-19. However, there are agents that were used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. We could learn from SARS and MERS. Lopinavir (LPV) is an effective agent that inhibits the protease activity of coronavirus. In this review, we discuss the literature on the efficacy of LPV in vitro and in vivo, especially in patients with SARS and MERS, so that we might clarify the potential for the use of LPV in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25729

RECORD 273
TITLE
  Trust is a key factor in the willingness of health professionals to work during the COVID-19 outbreak: Experience from the H1N1 pandemic in Japan 2009
AUTHOR NAMES
  Imai H.
SOURCE
  Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12995

RECORD 274
TITLE
  Transmission dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak and effectiveness of government interventions: A data-driven analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang Y.;  Nie Y.;  Penny M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Using the parameterized susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model, we simulated the spread dynamics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak and impact of different control measures, conducted the sensitivity analysis to identify the key factor, plotted the trend curve of effective reproductive number (R), and performed data fitting after the simulation. By simulation and data fitting, the model showed the peak existing confirmed cases of 59 769 arriving on 15 February 2020, with the coefficient of determination close to 1 and the fitting bias 3.02%, suggesting high precision of the data-fitting results. More rigorous government control policies were associated with a slower increase in the infected population. Isolation and protective procedures would be less effective as more cases accrue, so the optimization of the treatment plan and the development of specific drugs would be of more importance. There was an upward trend of R in the beginning, followed by a downward trend, a temporary rebound, and another continuous decline. The feature of high infectiousness for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) led to an upward trend, and government measures contributed to the temporary rebound and declines. The declines of R could be exploited as strong evidence for the effectiveness of the interventions. Evidence from the four-phase stringent measures showed that it was significant to ensure early detection, early isolation, early treatment, adequate medical supplies, patients’ being admitted to designated hospitals, and comprehensive therapeutic strategy. Collaborative efforts are required to combat the novel coronavirus, focusing on both persistent strict domestic interventions and vigilance against exogenous imported cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25750

RECORD 275
TITLE
  Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Z.;  Xiao X.;  Wei X.;  Li J.;  Yang J.;  Tan H.;  Zhu J.;  Zhang Q.;  Wu J.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  From the beginning of 2002 and 2012, severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) crossed the species barriers to infect humans, causing thousands of infections and hundreds of deaths, respectively. Currently, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has become the cause of the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was discovered. Until 18 February 2020, there were 72 533 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 10 644 severe cases) and 1872 deaths in China. SARS-CoV-2 is spreading among the public and causing substantial burden due to its human-to-human transmission. However, the intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear. Finding the possible intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is imperative to prevent further spread of the epidemic. In this study, we used systematic comparison and analysis to predict the interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of coronavirus spike protein and the host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The interaction between the key amino acids of S protein RBD and ACE2 indicated that, other than pangolins and snakes, as previously suggested, turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii, Chelonia mydas, and Pelodiscus sinensis) may act as the potential intermediate hosts transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to humans.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25726

RECORD 276
TITLE
  Analyzing the epidemiological outbreak of COVID-19: A visual exploratory data analysis approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dey S.K.;  Rahman M.M.;  Siddiqi U.R.;  Howlader A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is an obvious concern globally regarding the fact about the emerging coronavirus 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as a worldwide public health threat. As the outbreak of COVID-19 causes by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) progresses within China and beyond, rapidly available epidemiological data are needed to guide strategies for situational awareness and intervention. The recent outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the importance of analyzing the epidemiological data of this novel virus and predicting their risks of infecting people all around the globe. In this study, we present an effort to compile and analyze epidemiological outbreak information on COVID-19 based on the several open datasets on 2019-nCoV provided by the Johns Hopkins University, World Health Organization, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Commission, and DXY. An exploratory data analysis with visualizations has been made to understand the number of different cases reported (confirmed, death, and recovered) in different provinces of China and outside of China. Overall, at the outset of an outbreak like this, it is highly important to readily provide information to begin the evaluation necessary to understand the risks and begin containment activities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25743

RECORD 277
TITLE
  Preparing for a COVID-19 pandemic: a review of operating room outbreak response measures in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wong J.;  Goh Q.Y.;  Tan Z.;  Lie S.A.;  Tay Y.C.;  Ng S.Y.;  Soh C.R.
SOURCE
  Canadian Journal of Anesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has been designated a public health emergency of international concern. To prepare for a pandemic, hospitals need a strategy to manage their space, staff, and supplies so that optimum care is provided to patients. In addition, infection prevention measures need to be implemented to reduce in-hospital transmission. In the operating room, these preparations involve multiple stakeholders and can present a significant challenge. Here, we describe the outbreak response measures of the anesthetic department staffing the largest (1,700-bed) academic tertiary level acute care hospital in Singapore (Singapore General Hospital) and a smaller regional hospital (Sengkang General Hospital). These include engineering controls such as identification and preparation of an isolation operating room, administrative measures such as modification of workflow and processes, introduction of personal protective equipment for staff, and formulation of clinical guidelines for anesthetic management. Simulation was valuable in evaluating the feasibility of new operating room set-ups or workflow. We also discuss how the hierarchy of controls can be used as a framework to plan the necessary measures during each phase of a pandemic, and review the evidence for the measures taken. These containment measures are necessary to optimize the quality of care provided to COVID-19 patients and to reduce the risk of viral transmission to other patients or healthcare workers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-020-01620-9

RECORD 278
TITLE
  Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Roosa K.;  Lee Y.;  Luo R.;  Kirpich A.;  Rothenberg R.;  Hyman J.M.;  Yan P.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (256-263). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The initial cluster of severe pneumonia cases that triggered the COVID-19 epidemic was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. While early cases of the disease were linked to a wet market, human-to-human transmission has driven the rapid spread of the virus throughout China. The Chinese government has implemented containment strategies of city-wide lockdowns, screening at airports and train stations, and isolation of suspected patients; however, the cumulative case count keeps growing every day. The ongoing outbreak presents a challenge for modelers, as limited data are available on the early growth trajectory, and the epidemiological characteristics of the novel coronavirus are yet to be fully elucidated. We use phenomenological models that have been validated during previous outbreaks to generate and assess short-term forecasts of the cumulative number of confirmed reported cases in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic, and for the overall trajectory in China, excluding the province of Hubei. We collect daily reported cumulative confirmed cases for the 2019-nCoV outbreak for each Chinese province from the National Health Commission of China. Here, we provide 5, 10, and 15 day forecasts for five consecutive days, February 5th through February 9th, with quantified uncertainty based on a generalized logistic growth model, the Richards growth model, and a sub-epidemic wave model. Our most recent forecasts reported here, based on data up until February 9, 2020, largely agree across the three models presented and suggest an average range of 7409–7496 additional confirmed cases in Hubei and 1128–1929 additional cases in other provinces within the next five days. Models also predict an average total cumulative case count between 37,415 and 38,028 in Hubei and 11,588–13,499 in other provinces by February 24, 2020. Mean estimates and uncertainty bounds for both Hubei and other provinces have remained relatively stable in the last three reporting dates (February 7th – 9th). We also observe that each of the models predicts that the epidemic has reached saturation in both Hubei and other provinces. Our findings suggest that the containment strategies implemented in China are successfully reducing transmission and that the epidemic growth has slowed in recent days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.002

RECORD 279
TITLE
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Shih T.-P.;  Ko W.-C.;  Tang H.-J.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) 55:3 Article Number: 105924. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924

RECORD 280
TITLE
  COVID-19: the gendered impacts of the outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wenham C.;  Smith J.;  Morgan R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (846-848). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30526-2

RECORD 281
TITLE
  Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Legido-Quigley H.;  Asgari N.;  Teo Y.Y.;  Leung G.M.;  Oshitani H.;  Fukuda K.;  Cook A.R.;  Hsu L.Y.;  Shibuya K.;  Heymann D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (848-850). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30551-1

RECORD 282
TITLE
  COVID-19 and Italy: what next?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Remuzzi A.;  Remuzzi G.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has already taken on pandemic proportions, affecting over 100 countries in a matter of weeks. A global response to prepare health systems worldwide is imperative. Although containment measures in China have reduced new cases by more than 90%, this reduction is not the case elsewhere, and Italy has been particularly affected. There is now grave concern regarding the Italian national health system’s capacity to effectively respond to the needs of patients who are infected and require intensive care for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The percentage of patients in intensive care reported daily in Italy between March 1 and March 11, 2020, has consistently been between 9% and 11% of patients who are actively infected. The number of patients infected since Feb 21 in Italy closely follows an exponential trend. If this trend continues for 1 more week, there will be 30 000 infected patients. Intensive care units will then be at maximum capacity; up to 4000 hospital beds will be needed by mid-April, 2020. Our analysis might help political leaders and health authorities to allocate enough resources, including personnel, beds, and intensive care facilities, to manage the situation in the next few days and weeks. If the Italian outbreak follows a similar trend as in Hubei province, China, the number of newly infected patients could start to decrease within 3–4 days, departing from the exponential trend. However, this cannot currently be predicted because of differences between social distancing measures and the capacity to quickly build dedicated facilities in China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30627-9

RECORD 283
TITLE
  First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ghinai I.;  McPherson T.D.;  Hunter J.C.;  Kirking H.L.;  Christiansen D.;  Joshi K.;  Rubin R.;  Morales-Estrada S.;  Black S.R.;  Pacilli M.;  Fricchione M.J.;  Chugh R.K.;  Walblay K.A.;  Ahmed N.S.;  Stoecker W.C.;  Hasan N.F.;  Burdsall D.P.;  Reese H.E.;  Wallace M.;  Wang C.;  Moeller D.;  Korpics J.;  Novosad S.A.;  Benowitz I.;  Jacobs M.W.;  Dasari V.S.;  Patel M.T.;  Kauerauf J.;  Charles E.M.;  Ezike N.O.;  Chu V.;  Midgley C.M.;  Rolfes M.A.;  Gerber S.I.;  Lu X.;  Lindstrom S.;  Verani J.R.;  Layden J.E.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first detected in China in December, 2019. In January, 2020, state, local, and federal public health agencies investigated the first case of COVID-19 in Illinois, USA. Methods: Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were defined as those with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Contacts were people with exposure to a patient with COVID-19 on or after the patient’s symptom onset date. Contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days following their last exposure. Contacts who developed fever, cough, or shortness of breath became persons under investigation and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. A convenience sample of 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel contacts were also tested. Findings: Patient 1—a woman in her 60s—returned from China in mid-January, 2020. One week later, she was hospitalised with pneumonia and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Her husband (Patient 2) did not travel but had frequent close contact with his wife. He was admitted 8 days later and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 372 contacts of both cases were identified; 347 underwent active symptom monitoring, including 152 community contacts and 195 health-care personnel. Of monitored contacts, 43 became persons under investigation, in addition to Patient 2. These 43 persons under investigation and all 32 asymptomatic health-care personnel tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Interpretation: Person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred between two people with prolonged, unprotected exposure while Patient 1 was symptomatic. Despite active symptom monitoring and testing of symptomatic and some asymptomatic contacts, no further transmission was detected. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30607-3

RECORD 284
TITLE
  Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hellewell J.;  Abbott S.;  Gimma A.;  Bosse N.I.;  Jarvis C.I.;  Russell T.W.;  Munday J.D.;  Kucharski A.J.;  Edmunds W.J.;  Sun F.;  Flasche S.;  Quilty B.J.;  Davies N.;  Liu Y.;  Clifford S.;  Klepac P.;  Jit M.;  Diamond C.;  Gibbs H.;  van Zandvoort K.;  Funk S.;  Eggo R.M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Global Health (2020) 8:4 (e488-e496). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Isolation of cases and contact tracing is used to control outbreaks of infectious diseases, and has been used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether this strategy will achieve control depends on characteristics of both the pathogen and the response. Here we use a mathematical model to assess if isolation and contact tracing are able to control onwards transmission from imported cases of COVID-19. Methods: We developed a stochastic transmission model, parameterised to the COVID-19 outbreak. We used the model to quantify the potential effectiveness of contact tracing and isolation of cases at controlling a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-like pathogen. We considered scenarios that varied in the number of initial cases, the basic reproduction number (R0), the delay from symptom onset to isolation, the probability that contacts were traced, the proportion of transmission that occurred before symptom onset, and the proportion of subclinical infections. We assumed isolation prevented all further transmission in the model. Outbreaks were deemed controlled if transmission ended within 12 weeks or before 5000 cases in total. We measured the success of controlling outbreaks using isolation and contact tracing, and quantified the weekly maximum number of cases traced to measure feasibility of public health effort. Findings: Simulated outbreaks starting with five initial cases, an R0 of 1·5, and 0% transmission before symptom onset could be controlled even with low contact tracing probability; however, the probability of controlling an outbreak decreased with the number of initial cases, when R0 was 2·5 or 3·5 and with more transmission before symptom onset. Across different initial numbers of cases, the majority of scenarios with an R0 of 1·5 were controllable with less than 50% of contacts successfully traced. To control the majority of outbreaks, for R0 of 2·5 more than 70% of contacts had to be traced, and for an R0 of 3·5 more than 90% of contacts had to be traced. The delay between symptom onset and isolation had the largest role in determining whether an outbreak was controllable when R0 was 1·5. For R0 values of 2·5 or 3·5, if there were 40 initial cases, contact tracing and isolation were only potentially feasible when less than 1% of transmission occurred before symptom onset. Interpretation: In most scenarios, highly effective contact tracing and case isolation is enough to control a new outbreak of COVID-19 within 3 months. The probability of control decreases with long delays from symptom onset to isolation, fewer cases ascertained by contact tracing, and increasing transmission before symptoms. This model can be modified to reflect updated transmission characteristics and more specific definitions of outbreak control to assess the potential success of local response efforts. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Global Challenges Research Fund, and Health Data Research UK.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30074-7

RECORD 285
TITLE
  Deciphering the power of isolation in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Niud Y.;  Xu F.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Global Health (2020) 8:4 (e452-e453). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30085-1

RECORD 286
TITLE
  COVID-19: delay, mitigate, and communicate
AUTHOR NAMES
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30128-4

RECORD 287
TITLE
  Preventing a covid-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Watkins J.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: 368m810. Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m810

RECORD 288
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guan W.-J.;  Ni Z.-Y.;  Hu Y.;  Liang W.-H.;  Ou C.-Q.;  He J.-X.;  Liu L.;  Shan H.;  Lei C.-L.;  Hui D.S.C.;  Du B.;  Li L.-J.;  Zeng G.;  Yuen K.-Y.;  Chen R.-C.;  Tang C.-L.;  Wang T.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Xiang J.;  Li S.-Y.;  Wang J.-L.;  Liang Z.-J.;  Peng Y.-X.;  Wei L.;  Liu Y.;  Hu Y.-H.;  Peng P.;  Wang J.-M.;  Liu J.-Y.;  Chen Z.;  Li G.;  Zheng Z.-J.;  Qiu S.-Q.;  Luo J.;  Ye C.-J.;  Zhu S.-Y.;  Zhong N.-S.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032

RECORD 289
TITLE
  Essentials for Radiologists on COVID-19: An Update-Radiology Scientific Expert Panel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kanne J.P.;  Little B.P.;  Chung J.H.;  Elicker B.M.;  Ketai L.H.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200527). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200527

RECORD 290
TITLE
  Analysis on epidemic situation and spatiotemporal changes of COVID-19 in Anhui
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu M.;  Xu H.L.;  Yuan M.;  Liu Z.R.;  Wu X.Y.;  Zhang Y.;  Ma L.Y.;  Gong L.;  Gan H.;  Zong W.W.;  Tao S.M.;  Liu Q.;  Du Y.N.;  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E019). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We used the epidemic data of COVID-19 published on the official website of the municipal health commission in Anhui province. We mapped the spatiotemporal changes of confirmed cases, fitted the epidemic situation by the population growth curve at different stages and took statistical description and analysis of the epidemic situation in Anhui province. It was found that the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 156/100 000 by February 18, 2020 and the trend of COVID-19 epidemic declined after February 7, changing from J curve to S curve. The actual number of new cases began to decrease from February 2 to February 4 due to the time of case report and actual onset delayed by 3 to 5 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200221-00150

RECORD 291
TITLE
  Saudi Arabia`s measures to curb the COVID-19 outbreak: temporary suspension of the Umrah pilgrimage
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ebrahim S.H.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa029

RECORD 292
TITLE
  Nepal’s First Case of COVID-19 and public health response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shrestha R.;  Shrestha S.;  Khanal P.;  Bhuvan K.C.
SOURCE
  Tree physiology (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpaa024

RECORD 293
TITLE
  COVID-19 Pandemic: global epidemiological trends and China’s subsequent preparedness and responses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.;  Huang Y.M.;  Huang J.;  Jin Y.Z.;  Jiang W.;  Liu P.L.;  Liu F.J.;  Ma J.X.;  Ma J.Y.;  Wang Y.;  Xie Z.;  Yin H.;  Zhao C.S.;  Zhou S.D.;  Zhang J.;  Zheng Z.J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (643-648). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of COVID-19 has spread quickly across 114 countries/territories/areas in six continents worldwide and has been announced as a pandemic by WHO. This study analyzed global COVID-19 epidemiological trends, examined impact of the pandemic on global health security, diplomacy, and social environment in China, and provided short- and long-term strategic policy recommendations for China’s subsequent preparedness and responses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200301-00222

RECORD 294
TITLE
  Protecting Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Coronavirus Outbreak -Lessons from Taiwan’s SARS response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Schwartz J.;  King C.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  During major epidemic outbreaks, demand for health care workers grows even as the extreme pressures they face cause declining availability. We draw on Taiwan’s SARS experience to argue that a modified form of Traffic Control Bundling protects health care worker safety and by extension strengthens overall COVID-19 epidemic control.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa255

RECORD 295
TITLE
  China’s local governments are combating COVID-19 with unprecedented responses – from a Wenzhou governance perspective
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gong F.;  Xiong Y.;  Xiao J.;  Lin L.;  Liu X.;  Wang D.;  Li X.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The COVID-19 caused by a novel strain of Coronavirus has been spreading rapidly since its onset in Wuhan, the capital city of central China’s Hubei Province, in December 2019. It is highly communicable through human-to-human transmission. China has been making unprecedented efforts in treating the confirmed cases, identifying and isolating their close contacts and suspected cases to control the source of infection and cut the route of transmission. China’s devotion in handling this epidemic has effectively and efficiently curbed communication domestically and across the border. Representative measures adopted by Wenzhou, the worst hit city out of Hubei Province, are examined to elucidate those massive undertakings with the aim of enhancing international understanding and building global rapport in fighting this evolving epidemic situation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0755-z

RECORD 296
TITLE
  Interrupting transmission of COVID-19: lessons from containment efforts in Singapore
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee V.J.;  Chiew C.J.;  Khong W.X.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Despite multiple importations resulting in local chains of transmission, Singapore has been able to control the COVID-19 outbreak without major disruption to daily living. In this article, we describe the combination of measures taken by Singapore to contain COVID-19 and share some early lessons learnt from the experience.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa039

RECORD 297
TITLE
  The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Casadevall A.;  Pirofski L.-A.
SOURCE
  The Journal of clinical investigation (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138003

RECORD 298
TITLE
  A Novel Approach for a Novel Pathogen: using a home assessment team to evaluate patients for 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bryson-Cahn C.;  Duchin J.;  Makarewicz V.A.;  Kay M.;  Rietberg K.;  Napolitano N.;  Kamangu C.;  Dellit T.H.;  Lynch J.B.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Thousands of people in the United States have required testing for SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation for a special pathogen is resource intensive. We report an innovative approach to home assessment that, in collaboration with public health, enables safe evaluation and specimen collection outside the healthcare setting, avoiding unnecessary exposures and resource utilization.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa256

RECORD 299
TITLE
  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 from Patient with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Harcourt J.;  Tamin A.;  Lu X.;  Kamili S.;  Sakthivel S.K.;  Murray J.;  Queen K.;  Tao Y.;  Paden C.R.;  Zhang J.;  Li Y.;  Uehara A.;  Wang H.;  Goldsmith C.;  Bullock H.A.;  Wang L.;  Whitaker B.;  Lynch B.;  Gautam R.;  Schindewolf C.;  Lokugamage K.G.;  Scharton D.;  Plante J.A.;  Mirchandani D.;  Widen S.G.;  Narayanan K.;  Makino S.;  Ksiazek T.G.;  Plante K.S.;  Weaver S.C.;  Lindstrom S.;  Tong S.;  Menachery V.D.;  Thornburg N.J.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200516

RECORD 300
TITLE
  How Should U.S. Hospitals Prepare for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chopra V.;  Toner E.;  Waldhorn R.;  Washer L.
SOURCE
  Annals of internal medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-0907

RECORD 301
TITLE
  A report of clinical diagnosis and treatment of 9 cases of coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Q.;  Quan B.;  Li X.;  Gao G.;  Zheng W.;  Zhang J.;  Zhang Z.;  Liu C.;  Li L.;  Wang C.;  Zhang G.;  Li J.;  Dai Y.;  Yang J.;  Han W.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the important public health issue in the world. More than 78,000 cases were confirmed around the world. The main clinical manifestations were respiratory symptoms and occasional gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there is no unified standard for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. In retrospective analysis, we report nine cases of COVID-19, describe the history of contact, clinical manifestations, the course of diagnosis and clinical treatment before, during and after treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25755

RECORD 302
TITLE
  How Is the World Responding to the 2019 Coronavirus Disease Compared with the 2014 West African Ebola Epidemic? The Importance of China as a Player in the Global Economy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maffioli E.M.
SOURCE
  The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This article describes similarities and differences in the response of governments and the international community to the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic. It expresses the opinion that the speed and scale of the response to the 2019 COVID-19 are affected by the important role that China plays in the global economy. By contrast, insufficient and less timely action was initially undertaken in West African countries during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. It concludes by stating why preparedness for and response to all disease outbreaks, also in countries of lower economic importance, should become a priority in the global health agenda.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0135

RECORD 303
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and Future Challenges for Dental and Oral Medicine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Meng L.;  Hua F.;  Bian Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of dental research (2020) (22034520914246). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), originating in Wuhan, China, has become a major public health challenge for not only China but also countries around the world. The World Health Organization announced that the outbreaks of the novel coronavirus have constituted a public health emergency of international concern. As of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 has been recognized in 34 countries, with a total of 80,239 laboratory-confirmed cases and 2,700 deaths. Infection control measures are necessary to prevent the virus from further spreading and to help control the epidemic situation. Due to the characteristics of dental settings, the risk of cross infection can be high between patients and dental practitioners. For dental practices and hospitals in areas that are (potentially) affected with COVID-19, strict and effective infection control protocols are urgently needed. This article, based on our experience and relevant guidelines and research, introduces essential knowledge about COVID-19 and nosocomial infection in dental settings and provides recommended management protocols for dental practitioners and students in (potentially) affected areas.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022034520914246

RECORD 304
TITLE
  A comparative study on the clinical features of COVID-19 pneumonia to other pneumonias
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao D.;  Yao F.;  Wang L.;  Zheng L.;  Gao Y.;  Ye J.;  Guo F.;  Zhao H.;  Gao R.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has raised world concern since it emerged in Wuhan Hubei China in December, 2019. The infection may result into severe pneumonia with clusters illness onsets. Its impacts on public health make it paramount to clarify the clinical features with other pneumonias. METHODS: Nineteen 2019-nCoV pneumonia (NCOVID-19) and fifteen other pneumonia patients (NON-NCOVID-19) in out of Hubei places were involved in this study. Both NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19 patients were confirmed to be infected in throat swabs or/and sputa with or without 2019-nCoV by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed the demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features from those patients, and compared the difference between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. RESULTS: All patients had a history of exposure to confirmed case of 2019-nCoV or travel to Hubei before illness. The median duration, respectively, was 8 (IQR:6~11) and 5 (IQR:4~11) days from exposure to onset in NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The clinical symptoms were similar between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. Fifteen (78.95%) NCOVID-19 but 4 (26.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement while 17 (89.47%) NCOVID-19 but 1 (6.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity of chest CT images. Compared to NON-NCOVID-19, NCOVID-19 present remarkably more abnormal laboratory tests including AST, ALT, γ-GT, LDH and α-HBDH. CONCLUSION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused similar onsets to other pneumonias. CT scan may be a reliable test for screening NCOVID-19 cases. Liver function damage is more frequent in NCOVID-19 than NON-NCOVID-19 patients. LDH and α-HBDH may be considerable markers for evaluation of NCOVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa247

RECORD 305
TITLE
  Identification of COVID-19 Can be Quicker through Artificial Intelligence framework using a Mobile Phone-Based Survey in the Populations when Cities/Towns Are under Quarantine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rao A.S.R.S.;  Vazquez J.A.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We are proposing to use machine learning algorithms to be able to improve possible case identifications of COVID-19 more quicker when we use a mobile phone-based web survey. This will also reduce the spread in the susceptible populations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.61

RECORD 306
TITLE
  Limiting spread of COVID-19 from cruise ships – lessons to be learnt from Japan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sawano T.;  Ozaki A.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Tanimoto T.;  Sah R.
SOURCE
  QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians (2020). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa092

RECORD 307
TITLE
  Estimating Risk for Death from 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, China, January-February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, when the first case of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in the city of Wuhan in the Hubei Province of China, the epidemic has generated tens of thousands of cases throughout China. As of February 28, 2020, the cumulative number of reported deaths in China was 2,858. We estimated the time-delay adjusted risk for death from COVID-19 in Wuhan, as well as for China excluding Wuhan, to assess the severity of the epidemic in the country. Our estimates of the risk for death in Wuhan reached values as high as 12% in the epicenter of the epidemic and ≈1% in other, more mildly affected areas. The elevated death risk estimates are probably associated with a breakdown of the healthcare system, indicating that enhanced public health interventions, including social distancing and movement restrictions, should be implemented to bring the COVID-19 epidemic under control.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200233

RECORD 308
TITLE
  From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  El Zowalaty M.E.;  Järhult J.D.
SOURCE
  One Health (2020) 9 Article Number: 100124. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Human coronaviruses continue to pose a threat to human health. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. This recent emergence of a previously unknown coronavirus in China leads to huge impacts on humans globally. Covid-19 is a challenge to global public health. Here, we discuss the COVID-19 outbreak in a one health context, highlighting the need for the implementation of one health measures and practices to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemic viruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100124

RECORD 309
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rasmussen S.A.;  Smulian J.C.;  Lednicky J.A.;  Wen T.S.;  Jamieson D.J.
SOURCE
  American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease with a rapid increase in cases and deaths since its first identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) might provide insights into COVID-19’s effects during pregnancy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.017

RECORD 310
TITLE
  The importance of strengthening the ability of fundamental disease prevention and control system from the perspective of the epidemic situation of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang M.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E020). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 has been in epidemic for nearly two months. The prevention and control measures have achieved remarkable results. From the response and disposal process of this epidemic, it is exposed that fundamental disease prevention and control system are insufficient in human resources and ability of laboratory testing. It is suggested that the disease control institutions should strengthen the construction of these aspects in future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200220-00149

RECORD 311
TITLE
  Occupational risks for COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koh D.
SOURCE
  Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) (2020) 70:1 (3-5). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqaa036

RECORD 312
TITLE
  The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak – A Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khot W.Y.;  Nadkar M.Y.
SOURCE
  The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (2020) 68:3 (67-71). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 Novel Corona virus infection (COVID 19) is an ongoing public health emergency of international significance. There are significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, investigation tools and management. In this article, we review the available evidence about this disease. Every decade has witnessed the evolution of a new coronavirus epidemic since the last three decades. The varying transmission patterns, namely, nosocomial transmission and spread through mildly symptomatic cases is an area of concern. There is a spectrum of clinical features from mild to severe life threatening disease with major complications like severe pneumonia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury and septic shock. Presence of bilateral ground glass opacity and consolidation on imaging in appropriate clinical background should raise a suspicion about COVID 19. Poor prognostic factors include Multilobular infiltration on chest imaging, Lymphopenia, Bacterial co-infection, Smoking history, Chronic medical conditions like Hypertension and age >60 years (MuLBSTA score). Diagnosis is confirmed with PCR based testing of appropriate respiratory samples. Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation. Role of steroids is still inconclusive. Standard infection control and prevention techniques should be followed. Vigilant screening of suspected cases and their contacts is important. Isolation of symptomatic cases and home quarantine of asymptomatic contacts is recommended. To conclude, controlling this highly transmissible disease requires international co-ordination.

RECORD 313
TITLE
  Annals On Call – Understanding the Spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Centor R.M.;  Fisman D.N.
SOURCE
  Annals of internal medicine (2020) (OC1). Date of Publication: 10 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/A20-0001

RECORD 314
TITLE
  Healing the schism between public health and medicine, promoting the integration of prevention and treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E024). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ‘Healing the Schism: Epidemiology, Medicine, and the Public’s Health’ by professor Kerr L. White’s be published has a history of nearly 30 years. Since then, although scholars have appealed to incorporating public health and clinical medicine education, and breaking down separations between public health and clinical workforce in China, the effect is yet not so obvious. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has opened a public class on the treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases for the Chinese citizens. Consequently, the Chinese people have higher expectations on the modernization of public health governance, and the social atmosphere of incorporating preventive medicine and clinical medical education is establishing. In future, when combating with novel infectious diseases and public health emergencies, the response capacity of public health system and treatment capacity of clinical system will be significantly improved, while the situation on insufficient integration of prevention and treatment is bound to be reversed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200304-00246

RECORD 315
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu Z.;  Song C.;  Xu C.;  Jin G.;  Chen Y.;  Xu X.;  Ma H.;  Chen W.;  Lin Y.;  Zheng Y.;  Wang J.;  Hu Z.;  Yi Y.;  Shen H.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Previous studies have showed clinical characteristics of patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the evidence of person-to-person transmission. Limited data are available for asymptomatic infections. This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of 24 cases with asymptomatic infection screened from close contacts and to show the transmission potential of asymptomatic COVID-19 virus carriers. Epidemiological investigations were conducted among all close contacts of COVID-19 patients (or suspected patients) in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, from Jan 28 to Feb 9, 2020, both in clinic and in community. Asymptomatic carriers were laboratory-confirmed positive for the COVID-19 virus by testing the nucleic acid of the pharyngeal swab samples. Their clinical records, laboratory assessments, and chest CT scans were reviewed. As a result, none of the 24 asymptomatic cases presented any obvious symptoms while nucleic acid screening. Five cases (20.8%) developed symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, etc.) during hospitalization. Twelve (50.0%) cases showed typical CT images of ground-glass chest and 5 (20.8%) presented stripe shadowing in the lungs. The remaining 7 (29.2%) cases showed normal CT image and had no symptoms during hospitalization. These 7 cases were younger (median age: 14.0 years; P=0.012) than the rest. None of the 24 cases developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died. The median communicable period, defined as the interval from the first day of positive nucleic acid tests to the first day of continuous negative tests, was 9.5 days (up to 21 days among the 24 asymptomatic cases). Through epidemiological investigation, we observed a typical asymptomatic transmission to the cohabiting family members, which even caused severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Overall, the asymptomatic carriers identified from close contacts were prone to be mildly ill during hospitalization. However, the communicable period could be up to three weeks and the communicated patients could develop severe illness. These results highlighted the importance of close contact tracing and longitudinally surveillance via virus nucleic acid tests. Further isolation recommendation and continuous nucleic acid tests may also be recommended to the patients discharged.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1661-4

RECORD 316
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Marchand-Senécal X.;  Kozak R.;  Mubareka S.;  Salt N.;  Gubbay J.B.;  Eshaghi A.;  Allen V.;  Li Y.;  Bastien N.;  Gilmour M.;  Ozaldin O.;  Leis J.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report diagnosis and management of the first laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in Toronto, Canada. No healthcare-associated transmission occurred. In the face of a potential pandemic of COVID-19, we suggest sustainable and scalable control measures developed based on lessons learned from SARS.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa227

RECORD 317
TITLE
  Serial interval in determining the estimation of reproduction number of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao S.;  Cao P.;  Gao D.;  Zhuang Z.;  Cai Y.;  Ran J.;  Chong M.K.C.;  Wang K.;  Lou Y.;  Wang W.;  Yang L.;  He D.;  Wang M.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa033

RECORD 318
TITLE
  The call for a rapid response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peters R.
SOURCE
  BioPharm International (2020) 33:2 (6). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020

RECORD 319
TITLE
  Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.;  Wang Z.;  Dong Y.;  Chang R.;  Xu C.;  Yu X.;  Zhang S.;  Tsamlag L.;  Shang M.;  Huang J.;  Wang Y.;  Xu G.;  Shen T.;  Zhang X.;  Cai Y.
SOURCE
  Cell Discovery (2020) 6:1 Article Number: 10. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated R0 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. An infectious disease dynamics SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Removed) model was applied to estimate the epidemic trend in Wuhan, China under two assumptions of Rt. In the first assumption, Rt was assumed to maintain over 1. The estimated number of infections would continue to increase throughout February without any indication of dropping with Rt = 1.9, 2.6, or 3.1. The number of infections would reach 11,044, 70,258, and 227,989, respectively, by 29 February 2020. In the second assumption, Rt was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (Rt = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (Rt = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. Several phases were divided by the dates when various levels of prevention and control measures were taken in effect in Wuhan. The estimated number of infections would reach the peak in late February, which is 58,077–84,520 or 55,869–81,393. Whether or not the peak of the number of infections would occur in February 2020 may be an important index for evaluating the sufficiency of the current measures taken in China. Regardless of the occurrence of the peak, the currently strict measures in Wuhan should be continuously implemented and necessary strict public health measures should be applied in other locations in China with high number of COVID-19 cases, in order to reduce Rt to an ideal level and control the infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0148-0

RECORD 320
TITLE
  The response of Milan’s Emergency Medical System to the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spina S.;  Marrazzo F.;  Migliari M.;  Stucchi R.;  Sforza A.;  Fumagalli R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (e49-e50). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30493-1

RECORD 321
TITLE
  The Incubation Period of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lauer S.A.;  Grantz K.H.;  Bi Q.;  Jones F.K.;  Zheng Q.;  Meredith H.R.;  Azman A.S.;  Reich N.G.;  Lessler J.
SOURCE
  Annals of internal medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 10 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. There is limited support for many of its key epidemiologic features, including the incubation period for clinical disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), which has important implications for surveillance and control activities. Objective: To estimate the length of the incubation period of COVID-19 and describe its public health implications. Design: Pooled analysis of confirmed COVID-19 cases reported between 4 January 2020 and 24 February 2020. Setting: News reports and press releases from 50 provinces, regions, and countries outside Wuhan, Hubei province, China. Participants: Persons with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection outside Hubei province, China. Measurements: Patient demographic characteristics and dates and times of possible exposure, symptom onset, fever onset, and hospitalization. Results: There were 181 confirmed cases with identifiable exposure and symptom onset windows to estimate the incubation period of COVID-19. The median incubation period was estimated to be 5.1 days (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.8 days), and 97.5% of those who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days (CI, 8.2 to 15.6 days) of infection. These estimates imply that, under conservative assumptions, 101 out of every 10 000 cases (99th percentile, 482) will develop symptoms after 14 days of active monitoring or quarantine. Limitation: Publicly reported cases may overrepresent severe cases, the incubation period for which may differ from that of mild cases. Conclusion: This work provides additional evidence for a median incubation period for COVID-19 of approximately 5 days, similar to SARS. Our results support current proposals for the length of quarantine or active monitoring of persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2, although longer monitoring periods might be justified in extreme cases. Primary Funding Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-0504

RECORD 322
TITLE
  Potential factors influencing repeated SARS outbreaks in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Z.;  Thilakavathy K.;  Kumar S.S.;  He G.;  Liu S.V.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1633. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or-released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051633

RECORD 323
TITLE
  An outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a new coronavirus: what we know so far
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng A.C.;  Williamson D.A.
SOURCE
  Medical Journal of Australia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50530

RECORD 324
TITLE
  COVID-19: a novel coronavirus and a novel challenge for critical care
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arabi Y.M.;  Murthy S.;  Webb S.
SOURCE
  Intensive Care Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05955-1

RECORD 325
TITLE
  Li Wenliang, a face to the frontline healthcare worker. The first doctor to notify the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2, (COVID-19), outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Petersen E.;  Hui D.;  Hamer D.H.;  Blumberg L.;  Madoff L.C.;  Pollack M.;  Lee S.S.;  McLellan S.;  Memish Z.;  Praharaj I.;  Wasserman S.;  Ntoumi F.;  Azhar E.I.;  Mchugh T.D.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.;  Koopmans M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (205-207). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.052

RECORD 326
TITLE
  A conceptual model for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China with individual reaction and governmental action
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin Q.;  Zhao S.;  Gao D.;  Lou Y.;  Yang S.;  Musa S.S.;  Wang M.H.;  Cai Y.;  Wang W.;  Yang L.;  He D.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (211-216). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, emerged in Wuhan, China in the end of 2019, has claimed more than 2600 lives as of 24 February 2020 and posed a huge threat to global public health. The Chinese government has implemented control measures including setting up special hospitals and travel restriction to mitigate the spread. We propose conceptual models for the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan with the consideration of individual behavioural reaction and governmental actions, e.g., holiday extension, travel restriction, hospitalisation and quarantine. We employe the estimates of these two key components from the 1918 influenza pandemic in London, United Kingdom, incorporated zoonotic introductions and the emigration, and then compute future trends and the reporting ratio. The model is concise in structure, and it successfully captures the course of the COVID-19 outbreak, and thus sheds light on understanding the trends of the outbreak.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.058

RECORD 327
TITLE
  COVID-19: preparing for superspreader potential among Umrah pilgrims to Saudi Arabia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ebrahim S.H.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (e48). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30466-9

RECORD 328
TITLE
  A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cortegiani A.;  Ingoglia G.;  Ippolito M.;  Giarratano A.;  Einav S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Critical Care (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern. As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical treatment, although it is much needed for patient contracting the severe form of the disease. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and three trial Registries were searched for studies on the use of chloroquine in patients with COVID-19. Results: We included six articles (one narrative letter, one in-vitro study, one editorial, expert consensus paper, two national guideline documents) and 23 ongoing clinical trials in China. Chloroquine seems to be effective in limiting the replication of SARS-CoV-2 (virus causing COVID-19) in vitro. Conclusions: There is rationale, pre-clinical evidence of effectiveness and evidence of safety from long-time clinical use for other indications to justify clinical research on chloroquine in patients with COVID-19. However, clinical use should either adhere to the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions (MEURI) framework or be ethically approved as a trial as stated by the World Health Organization. Safety data and data from high-quality clinical trials are urgently needed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005

RECORD 329
TITLE
  Covid-19: A digital epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chiolero A.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m516. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m764

RECORD 330
TITLE
  Passengers’ destinations from China: Low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haider N.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Simons D.;  Osman A.Y.;  Ntoumi F.;  Zumla A.;  Kock R.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and Infection (2020) Article Number: e41. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV [SARS-COV-2]) was detected in humans during the last week of December 2019 at Wuhan city in China, and caused 24 554 cases in 27 countries and territories as of 5 February 2020. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV through human passenger air flight from four major cities of China (Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) to the passengers’ destination countries. We extracted the weekly simulated passengers’ end destination data for the period of 1-31 January 2020 from FLIRT, an online air travel dataset that uses information from 800 airlines to show the direct flight and passengers’ end destination. We estimated a risk index of 2019-nCoV transmission based on the number of travellers to destination countries, weighted by the number of confirmed cases of the departed city reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). We ranked each country based on the risk index in four quantiles (4th quantile being the highest risk and 1st quantile being the lowest risk). During the period, 388 287 passengers were destined for 1297 airports in 168 countries or territories across the world. The risk index of 2019-nCoV among the countries had a very high correlation with the WHO-reported confirmed cases (0.97). According to our risk score classification, of the countries that reported at least one Coronavirus-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) case as of 5 February 2020, 24 countries were in the 4th quantile of the risk index, two in the 3rd quantile, one in the 2nd quantile and none in the 1st quantile. Outside China, countries with a higher risk of 2019-nCoV transmission are Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Canada and the USA, all of which reported at least one case. In pan-Europe, UK, France, Russia, Germany and Italy; in North America, USA and Canada; in Oceania, Australia had high risk, all of them reported at least one case. In Africa and South America, the risk of transmission is very low with Ethiopia, South Africa, Egypt, Mauritius and Brazil showing a similar risk of transmission compared to the risk of any of the countries where at least one case is detected. The risk of transmission on 31 January 2020 was very high in neighbouring Asian countries, followed by Europe (UK, France, Russia and Germany), Oceania (Australia) and North America (USA and Canada). Increased public health response including early case recognition, isolation of identified case, contract tracing and targeted airport screening, public awareness and vigilance of health workers will help mitigate the force of further spread to naïve countries.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000424

RECORD 331
TITLE
  Trump claims public health warnings on covid-19 are a conspiracy against him
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dyer O.
SOURCE
  BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (2020) 368 (m941). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m941

RECORD 332
TITLE
  The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chinazzi M.;  Davis J.T.;  Ajelli M.;  Gioannini C.;  Litvinova M.;  Merler S.;  Pastore Y Piontti A.;  Mu K.;  Rossi L.;  Sun K.;  Viboud C.;  Xiong X.;  Yu H.;  Halloran M.E.;  Longini I.M.;  Vespignani A.
SOURCE
  Science (New York, N.Y.) (2020). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Motivated by the rapid spread of COVID-19 in Mainland China, we use a global metapopulation disease transmission model to project the impact of travel limitations on the national and international spread of the epidemic. The model is calibrated based on internationally reported cases, and shows that at the start of the travel ban from Wuhan on 23 January 2020, most Chinese cities had already received many infected travelers. The travel quarantine of Wuhan delayed the overall epidemic progression by only 3 to 5 days in Mainland China, but has a more marked effect at the international scale, where case importations were reduced by nearly 80% until mid February. Modeling results also indicate that sustained 90% travel restrictions to and from Mainland China only modestly affect the epidemic trajectory unless combined with a 50% or higher reduction of transmission in the community.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aba9757

RECORD 333
TITLE
  Advances on presymptomatic or asymptomatic carrier transmission of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao W.J.;  Li L.M.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41 (485-488). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is rapidly spreading. Patients in incubation period and healthy carriers are possible sources for transmission. However, such sources of infection cannot be effectively identified due to the symptoms absent. The research evidence is very lacking so far, although there are a few studies suggesting that presymptomatic or asymptomatic carrier may cause COVID-19 transmission. Nearly half of the literature is in the state of preprint without peer review. The question of “the degree to which presymptomatic or asymptomatic infections can transmit” is not fully understood. There is an urgent need to screen infected carriers in larger close contacts or in the general population, and assess their risk for transmission.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200228-00207

RECORD 334
TITLE
  The preliminary analysis on the characteristics of the cluster for the Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang H.Y.;  Xu J.;  Li Y.;  Liang X.;  Jin Y.F.;  Chen S.Y.;  Zhang R.G.;  Zhang W.D.;  Duan G.C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41 (623-628). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a new emerging infection disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread in 27 countries and regions. The clusters of many cases were reported with the epidemic progresses. We collected currently available information for 377 COVID-19 clusters (1 719 cases), excluded the hospital clusters and Hubei cases, during the period from January 1, 2020 to February 20, 2020. There were 297 family clusters (79%), case median 4; 39 clusters of dining (10%), case median 5; 23 clusters of shopping malls or supermarkets (6%), case median 13; 12 clusters of work units (3%), case median 6, and 6 clusters of transportation. We selected 325 cases to estimate the incubation period and found its range is 1 to 20 days, median was 7 days, and mode was 4 days. The analysis of the epidemic situation in a department store in China indicates that there is a possibility of patients as the source of infection during the incubation period of the epidemic. From February 5, 2020 to February 21, 2020, 634 persons were infected in the Diamond Princess Liner. All persons are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. The older, patients during the incubation period and the worse environment may be the cause of the cases rising. The progress of the two typical outbreaks clearly demonstrates the spread of the early cases in Wuhan. Whatever happens, screening and isolating close contacts remains essential except for clinical treatment during the epidemic. Especially for the healthy people in the epidemic area, isolation is the key.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200223-00153

RECORD 335
TITLE
  Screening and management of asymptomatic infection of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu Z.B.;  Ci C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E025). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  To date, the controlling of outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered into a critical period in China. Recently, work resumption and public place is planning to open outside of Hubei, suggesting an uncertain and complex development of the epidemic in the next stage. Few days ago, we conducted a study on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of asymptomatic infections of COVID-19, and found them might be the infection source. We believe that the findings are critical for developing public health intervention strategies for controlling COVID-19 infection in the future. Screening among the high-risk population and improving the sensitivity of measurement may contribute to the detection and management of asymptomatic infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200229-00220

RECORD 336
TITLE
  Effectiveness of glucocorticoid therapy in patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia: protocol of a randomized controlled trial
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou Y.-H.;  Qin Y.-Y.;  Lu Y.-Q.;  Sun F.;  Yang S.;  Harypursat V.;  Tang S.-Q.;  Huang Y.-Q.;  He X.-Q.;  Zeng Y.-M.;  Li Y.;  Xu X.-L.;  Zhao T.;  Chen Y.-K.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus outbreak emerged in Wuhan, China, and its causative organism has been subsequently designated the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The virus has since rapidly spread to all provinces and autonomous regions of China, and to countries outside of China. Patients who become infected with 2019-nCoV may initially develop mild upper respiratory tract symptoms. However, a significant fraction of these patients goes on to subsequently develop serious lower respiratory disease. The effectiveness of adjunctive glucocorticoid therapy uses in the management of 2019-nCoV infected patients with severe lower respiratory tract infections is not clear, and warrants further investigation. METHODS: The present study will be conducted as an open-labelled, randomised controlled trial. We will enrol 48 subjects from Chongqing Public Health Medical Center. Each eligible subject will be assigned to an intervention group (methylprednisolone via intravenous injection at a dose of 1-2mg/kg/day for 3 days) or a control group (no glucocorticoid use) randomly, at a 1:1 ratio. Subjects in both groups will be invited for 28 days of follow-up which will be scheduled at 4 consecutive visit points. We will use the clinical improvement rate as our primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints include the timing of clinical improvement after intervention, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of hospitalization, overall incidence of adverse events, as well as rate of adverse events at each visit, and mortality at 2 and 4 weeks. DISCUSSION: The present coronavirus outbreak is the third serious global coronavirus outbreak in the past two decades. Oral and parenteral glucocorticoids have been used in the management of severe respiratory symptoms in coronavirus-infected patients in the past. However, there remains no definitive evidence in the literature for or against the utilization of systemic glucocorticoids in seriously ill patients with coronavirus-related severe respiratory disease, or indeed in other types of severe respiratory disease. In this study, we hope to discover evidence either supporting or opposing the systemic therapeutic administration of glucocorticoids in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ChiCTR2000029386, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=48777.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000791

RECORD 337
TITLE
  Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Calisher C.;  Carroll D.;  Colwell R.;  Corley R.B.;  Daszak P.;  Drosten C.;  Enjuanes L.;  Farrar J.;  Field H.;  Golding J.;  Gorbalenya A.;  Haagmans B.;  Hughes J.M.;  Karesh W.B.;  Keusch G.T.;  Lam S.K.;  Lubroth J.;  Mackenzie J.S.;  Madoff L.;  Mazet J.;  Palese P.;  Perlman S.;  Poon L.;  Roizman B.;  Saif L.;  Subbarao K.;  Turner M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (e42-e43). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30418-9

RECORD 338
TITLE
  Strategies shift as coronavirus pandemic looms: The virus seems unstoppable, but mitigating its speed and impact is possible
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cohen J.;  Kupferschmidt K.
SOURCE
  Science (2020) 367:6481 (962-963). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6481.962

RECORD 339
TITLE
  Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the diamond Princess Cruises Ship, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (264-270). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of COVID-19 developed aboard the Princess Cruises Ship during January–February 2020. Using mathematical modeling and time-series incidence data describing the trajectory of the outbreak among passengers and crew members, we characterize how the transmission potential varied over the course of the outbreak. Our estimate of the mean reproduction number in the confined setting reached values as high as ~11, which is higher than mean estimates reported from community-level transmission dynamics in China and Singapore (approximate range: 1.1–7). Our findings suggest that Rt decreased substantially compared to values during the early phase after the Japanese government implemented an enhanced quarantine control. Most recent estimates of Rt reached values largely below the epidemic threshold, indicating that a secondary outbreak of the novel coronavirus was unlikely to occur aboard the Diamond Princess Ship.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.003

RECORD 340
TITLE
  COVID-19 in Latin America: The implications of the first confirmed case in Brazil
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Gallego V.;  Escalera-Antezana J.P.;  Méndez C.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Franco-Paredes C.;  Suárez J.A.;  Rodriguez-Enciso H.D.;  Balbin-Ramon G.J.;  Savio-Larriera E.;  Risquez A.;  Cimerman S.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101613. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101613

RECORD 341
TITLE
  Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Al-Tawfiq J.A.;  Al-Homoud A.H.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101615. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101615

RECORD 342
TITLE
  Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shen M.;  Zhou Y.;  Ye J.;  Abdullah AL-maskri A.A.;  Kang Y.;  Zeng S.;  Cai S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent pneumonia outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Chinais posing a great threat to global public health. Therefore, rapid and a accurate identification of pathogenic viruses plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments, saving people’s lives and preventing epidemics. It is important to establish a quick standard diagnostic test for the detection of the infectious disease (COVID-19) to prevent subsequent secondary spread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as a gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections with high sensitivity and specificity. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is considered to be a highly promising candidate method due to its fundamental advantage in quick procedure time at constant temperature without thermocycler operation. A variety of improved or new approaches also have been developed. This review summarizes the currently available detection methods for coronavirus nucleic acid. It is anticipated that this will assist researchers and clinicians in developing better techniques for timely and effective detection of coronavirus infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.02.010

RECORD 343
TITLE
  Covid-19: US health department staff sent to meet citizens returning from China weren’t protected, claims whistleblower
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dyer O.
SOURCE
  BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (2020) 368 (m833). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m833

RECORD 344
TITLE
  Solidarity with China as it holds the global front line during COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin L.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa027

RECORD 345
TITLE
  Epidemic trend of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu Z.B.;  Zhong C.K.;  Zhang K.X.;  Dong C.;  Peng H.;  Xu T.;  Wang A.L.;  Guo Z.R.;  Zhang Y.H.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E022). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: In order to master the epidemic trend of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluate the effect of prevention and control, we evaluate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 in mainland China, Hubei province, Wuhan city and other provinces outside Hubei from January 16 to February 14, 2020. Methods: We collected the daily number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases by nucleic acid detection reported by the National Health Commission from January 16, 2020 to February 14, 2020. The analysis includes the epidemic curve of the new confirmed cases, multiple of the new confirmed cases for period-over-period, multiple of the new confirmed cases for fixed-base, and the period-over-period growth rate of the new confirmed cases. Results: From January 16 to February 14, 2020, the cumulative number of new confirmed cases of COVID-19 in mainland China was 50 031, including 37 930 in Hubei province, 22 883 in Wuhan city and 12 101 in other provinces outside Hubei. The peak of the number of new confirmed cases in other provinces outside Hubei was from January 31 to February 4, 2020, and the peak of new confirmed cases in Wuhan city and Hubei province was from February 5 to February 9, 2020. The number of new confirmed cases in other provinces outside Hubei showed a significant decline (23% compared with the peak) from February 5 to February 9, 2020, while the number of new confirmed cases in Wuhan city (30% compared with the peak) and Hubei Province (37% compared with the peak) decreased significantly from February 10 to February 14, 2020. Conclusion: The epidemic prevention and control measures taken by the state and governments at all levels have shown very significant effects, effectively curbing the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200222-00163

RECORD 346
TITLE
  Prediction modeling with data fusion and prevention strategy analysis for the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang S.Y.;  Xiao Y.N.;  Peng Z.H.;  Shen H.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (480-484). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan has spread rapidly due to population movement during the Spring Festival holidays. Since January 23rd, 2020, the strategies of containment and contact tracing followed by quarantine and isolation has been implemented extensively in mainland China, and the rates of detection and confirmation have been continuously increased, which have effectively suppressed the rapid spread of the epidemic. In the early stage of the outbreak of COVID-19, it is of great practical significance to analyze the transmission risk of the epidemic and evaluate the effectiveness and timeliness of prevention and control strategies by using mathematical models and combining with a small amount of real-time updated multi-source data. On the basis of our previous research, we systematically introduce how to establish the transmission dynamic models in line with current Chinese prevention and control strategies step by step, according to the different epidemic stages and the improvement of the data. By summarized our modelling and assessing ideas, the model formulations vary from autonomous to non-autonomous dynamic systems, the risk assessment index changes from the basic regeneration number to the effective regeneration number, and the epidemic development and assessment evolve from the early SEIHR transmission model-based dynamics to the recent dynamics which are mainly associated with the variation of the isolated and suspected population sizes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200216-00107

RECORD 347
TITLE
  Relation Between Chest CT Findings and Clinical Conditions of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Multicenter Study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao W.;  Zhong Z.;  Xie X.;  Yu Q.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2020) (1-6). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE. The increasing number of cases of confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China is striking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between chest CT findings and the clinical conditions of COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Data on 101 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia were retrospectively collected from four institutions in Hunan, China. Basic clinical characteristics and detailed imaging features were evaluated and compared between two groups on the basis of clinical status: nonemergency (mild or common disease) and emergency (severe or fatal disease). RESULTS. Patients 21-50 years old accounted for most (70.2%) of the cohort, and five (5.0%) patients had disease associated with a family outbreak. Most patients (78.2%) had fever as the onset symptom. Most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia had typical imaging features, such as ground-glass opacities (GGO) (87 [86.1%]) or mixed GGO and consolidation (65 [64.4%]), vascular enlargement in the lesion (72 [71.3%]), and traction bronchiectasis (53 [52.5%]). Lesions present on CT images were more likely to have a peripheral distribution (88 [87.1%]) and bilateral involvement (83 [82.2%]) and be lower lung predominant (55 [54.5%]) and multifocal (55 [54.5%]). Patients in the emergency group were older than those in the non-emergency group. Architectural distortion, traction bronchiectasis, and CT involvement score aided in evaluation of the severity and extent of the disease. CONCLUSION. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia have typical imaging features that can be helpful in early screening of highly suspected cases and in evaluation of the severity and extent of disease. Most patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have GGO or mixed GGO and consolidation and vascular enlargement in the lesion. Lesions are more likely to have peripheral distribution and bilateral involvement and be lower lung predominant and multifocal. CT involvement score can help in evaluation of the severity and extent of the disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22976

RECORD 348
TITLE
  Potential false-positive rate among the ‘asymptomatic infected individuals’ in close contacts of COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhuang G.H.;  Shen M.W.;  Zeng L.X.;  Mi B.B.;  Chen F.Y.;  Liu W.J.;  Pei L.L.;  Qi X.;  Li C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (485-488). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: As the prevention and control of COVID-19continues to advance, the active nucleic acid test screening in the close contacts of the patients has been carrying out in many parts of China. However, the false-positive rate of positive results in the screening has not been reported up to now. But to clearify the false-positive rate during screening is important in COVID-19 control and prevention. Methods: Point values and reasonable ranges of the indicators which impact the false-positive rate of positive results were estimated based on the information available to us at present. The false-positive rate of positive results in the active screening was deduced, and univariate and multivariate-probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to understand the robustness of the findings. Results: When the infection rate of the close contacts and the sensitivity and specificity of reported results were taken as the point estimates, the positive predictive value of the active screening was only 19.67%, in contrast, the false-positive rate of positive results was 80.33%. The multivariate-probabilistic sensitivity analysis results supported the base-case findings, with a 75% probability for the false-positive rate of positive results over 47%. Conclusions: In the close contacts of COVID-19 patients, nearly half or even more of the ‘asymptomatic infected individuals’ reported in the active nucleic acid test screening might be false positives.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200221-00144

RECORD 349
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: A New Threat to Public Health
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kumar S.;  Poonam ;  Rathi B.
SOURCE
  Current topics in medicinal chemistry (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620999200305144319

RECORD 350
TITLE
  Data sharing for novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Moorthy V.;  Restrepo A.M.H.;  Preziosi M.-P.;  Swaminathan S.
SOURCE
  Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2020) 98:3 (150). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.251561

RECORD 351
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 112 cardiovascular disease patients infected by 2019-nCoV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peng Y.D.;  Meng K.;  Guan H.Q.;  Leng L.;  Zhu R.R.;  Wang B.Y.;  He M.A.;  Cheng L.X.;  Huang K.;  Zeng Q.T.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi (2020) 48 (E004). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV patients combined with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 112 COVID-19 patients with CVD admitted to the western district of Union Hospital in Wuhan, from January 20, 2020 to February 15, 2020. They were divided into critical group (ICU, n=16) and general group (n=96) according to the severity of the disease and patients were followed up to the clinical endpoint. The observation indicators included total blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), arterial blood gas analysis, myocardial injury markers, coagulation function, liver and kidney function, electrolyte, procalcitonin (PCT), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), blood lipid, pulmonary CT and pathogen detection. Results: Compared with the general group, the lymphocyte count (0.74×10(9) (0.34×10(9), 0.94×10(9))/L vs. 0.99×10(9) (0.71×10(9), 1.29×10(9))/L, P=0.03) was extremely lower in the critical group, CRP (106.98 (81.57, 135.76) mg/L vs. 34.34 (9.55,76.54) mg/L, P<0.001) and PCT (0.20 (0.15,0.48) μg/L vs. 0.11 (0.06,0.20)μg/L, P<0.001) were significantly higher in the critical group. The BMI of the critical group was significantly higher than that of the general group (25.5 (23.0, 27.5) kg/m(2) vs. 22.0 (20.0, 24.0) kg/m(2), P=0.003). Patients were further divided into non-survivor group (17, 15.18%) group and survivor group (95, 84.82%). Among the non-survivors, there were 88.24% (15/17) patients with BMI> 25 kg/m(2), which was significantly higher than that of survivors (18.95% (18/95), P<0.001). Compared with the survived patients, oxygenation index (130 (102, 415) vs. 434 (410, 444), P<0.001) was significantly lower and lactic acid (1.70 (1.30, 3.00) mmol/L vs. 1.20 (1.10, 1.60) mmol/L, P<0.001) was significantly higher in the non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the proportion of ACEI/ARB medication between the critical group and the general group or between non-survivors and survivors (all P>0.05). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients combined with CVD are associated with a higher risk of mortality. Critical patients are characterized with lower lymphocyte counts. Higher BMI are more often seen in critical patients and non-survivor. ACEI/ARB use does not affect the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 combined with CVD. Aggravating causes of death include fulminant inflammation, lactic acid accumulation and thrombotic events.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112148-20200220-00105

RECORD 352
TITLE
  Analysis on the epidemic factors for the Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang H.Y.;  Duan G.C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E021). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , an emerging infection disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread in the mainland China. The epidemic factors on the basis of knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 were discussed in this paper. This puts a lot of pressure on clinical resources and care. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel corona virus, the onset of COVID-19 is slow, and the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear and may lead to multiple organ damage. These put a lot of pressure on clinical resources and care. Source of infection including the patients, asymptomatic carrier and patients in the incubation period are contagious. It is difficult to control source of infection. Routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission are diversified and the main routes of transmission for COVID-19 are droplet transmission and close contact transmission. All population have susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Social factors such population movements and aggregation accelerated the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The Chinese government’s adopted measures are positive and effective, and are accepted by the expert group from the World Health Organization. However, it will be a long-term hard work in the future to seriously summarize and think deeply to achieve public health security in China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200227-00196

RECORD 353
TITLE
  Estimating the basic reproduction number of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  You X.Y.;  Wang Y.J.;  Peng L.P.;  Du Z.C.;  Gilmour S.;  Yoneoka D.;  Gu J.;  Hao C.;  Hao Y.T.;  Li J.H.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (476-479). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: The number of confirmed and suspected cases of the COVID-19 in Hubei province is still increasing. However, the estimations of the basic reproduction number of COVID-19 varied greatly across studies. The objectives of this study are 1) to estimate the basic reproduction number (R(0)) of COVID-19 reflecting the infectiousness of the virus and 2) to assess the effectiveness of a range of controlling intervention. Method: The reported number of daily confirmed cases from January 17 to February 8, 2020 in Hubei province were collected and used for model fit. Four methods, the exponential growth (EG), maximum likelihood estimation (ML), sequential Bayesian method (SB) and time dependent reproduction numbers (TD), were applied to estimate the R(0). Result: Among the four methods, the EG method fitted the data best. The estimated R(0) was 3.49 (95% CI: 3.42-3.58) by using EG method. The R(0) was estimated to be 2.95 (95%CI: 2.86-3.03) after taking control measures. Conclusion: In the early stage of the epidemic, it is appropriate to estimate R(0) using the EG method. Meanwhile, timely and effective control measures were warranted to further reduce the spread of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200210-00086

RECORD 354
TITLE
  Priorities for the US Health Community Responding to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Adalja A.A.;  Toner E.;  Inglesby T.V.
SOURCE
  JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.3413

RECORD 355
TITLE
  Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak – United States, February 24, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jernigan D.B.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:8 (216-219). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and has spread throughout China and to 31 other countries and territories, including the United States (1). As of February 23, 2020, there were 76,936 reported cases in mainland China and 1,875 cases in locations outside mainland China (1). There have been 2,462 associated deaths worldwide; no deaths have been reported in the United States. Fourteen cases have been diagnosed in the United States, and an additional 39 cases have occurred among repatriated persons from high-risk settings, for a current total of 53 cases within the United States. This report summarizes the aggressive measures (2,3) that CDC, state and local health departments, multiple other federal agencies, and other partners are implementing to slow and try to contain transmission of COVID-19 in the United States. These measures require the identification of cases and contacts of persons with COVID-19 in the United States and the recommended assessment, monitoring, and care of travelers arriving from areas with substantial COVID-19 transmission. Although these measures might not prevent widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare state and local health departments, health care systems, businesses, educational organizations, and the general public in the event that widespread transmission occurs; and 3) better characterize COVID-19 to guide public health recommendations and the development and deployment of medical countermeasures, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. U.S. public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely, and CDC is coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other global partners. Interim guidance is available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/index.html. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC, state and local health departments, health care providers, and communities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6908e1

RECORD 356
TITLE
  Do not violate the International Health Regulations during the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Habibi R.;  Burci G.L.;  de Campos T.C.;  Chirwa D.;  Cinà M.;  Dagron S.;  Eccleston-Turner M.;  Forman L.;  Gostin L.O.;  Meier B.M.;  Negri S.;  Ooms G.;  Sekalala S.;  Taylor A.;  Yamin A.E.;  Hoffman S.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10225 (664-666). Date of Publication: 29 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30373-1

RECORD 357
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rocklöv J.;  Sjödin H.;  Wilder-Smith A.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Cruise ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces with relative homogeneous mixing. On 3 February, 2020, an outbreak of COVID-19 on cruise ship Diamond Princess was reported with 10 initial cases, following an index case on board around 21-25 January. By 4 February, public health measures such as removal and isolation of ill passengers and quarantine of non-ill passengers were implemented. By 20 February, 619 of 3,700 passengers and crew (17%) were tested positive. METHODS: We estimated the basic reproduction number from the initial period of the outbreak using (SEIR) models. We calibrated the models with transient functions of countermeasures to incidence data. We additionally estimated a counterfactual scenario in absence of countermeasures, and established a model stratified by crew and guests to study the impact of differential contact rates among the groups. We also compared scenarios of an earlier versus later evacuation of the ship. RESULTS: The basic reproduction rate was initially 4 times higher on-board compared to the ${R}_0$ in the epicentre in Wuhan, but the countermeasures lowered it substantially. Based on the modeled initial ${R}_0$ of 14.8, we estimated that without any interventions within the time period of 21 January to 19 February, 2920 out of the 3700 (79%) would have been infected. Isolation and quarantine therefore prevented 2307 cases, and lowered the ${R}_0$ to 1.78. We showed that an early evacuation of all passengers on 3 February would have been associated with 76 infected persons in their incubation time. CONCLUSIONS: The cruise ship conditions clearly amplified an already highly transmissible disease. The public health measures prevented more than 2000 additional cases compared to no interventions. However, evacuating all passengers and crew early on in the outbreak would have prevented many more passengers and crew from infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa030

RECORD 358
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of Imported Cases of COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province: A Multicenter Descriptive Study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu J.;  Liu J.;  Zhao X.;  Liu C.;  Wang W.;  Wang D.;  Xu W.;  Zhang C.;  Yu J.;  Jiang B.;  Cao H.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of imported coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with WHO interim guidance in three Grade ⅢA hospitals of Jiangsu from Jan 22 to Feb 14, 2020. Real time RT-PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients infected with COVID-19, 41 patients were female, with a median age of 46.1 years. Except for 3 severe patients, the rest of the 77 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. 9 patients were unconfirmed until a third-time nucleic acid test. 38 cases had a history of chronic diseases. The main clinical manifestations of the patients were fever and cough, which accounted for 63 cases (78.75%) and 51 cases (-63.75%) respectively. Only 3 patients (3.75%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 55 patients (-68.75%) showed abnormal, 25 cases (31.25%) had no abnormal density shadow in the parenchyma of both lungs. Up to now, 21 cases were discharged from the hospital, and no patient died. The average length of stay for discharged patients was 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the cases in Wuhan, the cases in Jiangsu exhibited mild or moderate symptoms and no obvious gender susceptivity. The proportion of patients having liver dysfunction and abnormal CT imaging was relatively lower than that of Wuhan. Notably, infected patients may be falsely excluded based on two consecutively negative respiratory pathogenic nucleic acid test results.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa199

RECORD 359
TITLE
  A Chinese Case of COVID-19 Did Not Show Infectivity During the Incubation Period: Based on an Epidemiological Survey
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bae J.-M.
SOURCE
  Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi (2020). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Controversy remains over whether the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) virus may have infectivity during the incubation period before the onset of symptoms. The author had the opportunity to examine the infectivity of COVID-19 during the incubation period by conducting an epidemiological survey on a confirmed patient who had visited Jeju Island during the incubation period. The epidemiological findings support the claim that the COVID-19 virus does not have infectivity during the incubation period.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.048

RECORD 360
TITLE
  Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ling Y.;  Xu S.-B.;  Lin Y.-X.;  Tian D.;  Zhu Z.-Q.;  Dai F.-H.;  Wu F.;  Song Z.-G.;  Huang W.;  Chen J.;  Hu B.-J.;  Wang S.;  Mao E.-Q.;  Zhu L.;  Zhang W.-H.;  Lu H.-Z.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A patient’s infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients’ oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients’ inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients’ stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients’ urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients’ stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients’ stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000774

RECORD 361
TITLE
  Distribution of the COVID-19 epidemic and correlation with population emigration from wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Z.-L.;  Zhang Q.;  Lu Y.;  Guo Z.-M.;  Zhang X.;  Zhang W.-J.;  Guo C.;  Liao C.-H.;  Li Q.-L.;  Han X.-H.;  Lu J.-H.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The ongoing new coronavirus pneumonia (Corona Virus Disease 2019, COVID-19) outbreak is spreading in China, but it has not yet reached its peak. Five million people emigrated from Wuhan before lockdown, potentially representing a source of virus infection. Determining case distribution and its correlation with population emigration from Wuhan in the early stage of the epidemic is of great importance for early warning and for the prevention of future outbreaks. METHODS: The official case report on the COVID-19 epidemic was collected as of January 30, 2020. Time and location information on COVID-19 cases was extracted and analyzed using ArcGIS and WinBUGS software. Data on population migration from Wuhan city and Hubei province were extracted from Baidu Qianxi, and their correlation with the number of cases was analyzed. RESULTS: The COVID-19 confirmed and death cases in Hubei province accounted for 59.91% (5806/9692) and 95.77% (204/213) of the total cases in China respectively. Hot spot provinces included Sichuan and Yunnan, which are adjacent to Hubei. The time risk of Hubei province on the following day was 1.960 times that on the previous day. The number of cases in some cities was relatively low, but the time risk appeared to be continuously rising. The correlation coefficient between the provincial number of cases and emigration from Wuhan was up to 0.943. The lockdown of 17 cities in Hubei province and the implementation of nationwide control measures efficiently prevented an exponential growth in the number of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The population that emigrated from Wuhan was the main infection source in other cities and provinces. Some cities with a low number of cases showed a rapid increase in case load. Owing to the upcoming Spring Festival return wave, understanding the risk trends in different regions is crucial to ensure preparedness at both the individual and organization levels and to prevent new outbreaks.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000782

RECORD 362
TITLE
  Timely research papers about COVID-19 in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiang Y.-T.;  Li W.;  Zhang Q.;  Jin Y.;  Rao W.-W.;  Zeng L.-N.;  Lok G.K.I.;  Chow I.H.I.;  Cheung T.;  Hall B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10225 (684-685). Date of Publication: 29 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30375-5

RECORD 363
TITLE
  Negative Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Swab Does Not Rule Out COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Winichakoon P.;  Chaiwarith R.;  Liwsrisakun C.;  Salee P.;  Goonna A.;  Limsukon A.;  Kaewpoowat Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), has become the Public Health Emergency of International Concern.….
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00297-20

RECORD 364
TITLE
  Wuhan novel coronavirus (COVID-19): why global control is challenging?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee A.
SOURCE
  Public Health (2020) 179 (A1-A2). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.02.001

RECORD 365
TITLE
  The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rothan H.A.;  Byrareddy S.N.
SOURCE
  Journal of Autoimmunity (2020) Article Number: 102433. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433

RECORD 366
TITLE
  Six weeks into the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak- it is time to consider strategies to impede the emergence of new zoonotic infections
AUTHOR NAMES
  Harypursat V.;  Chen Y.-K.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000760

RECORD 367
TITLE
  Nepal’s First Case of COVID-19 and public health response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shrestha R.;  Shrestha S.;  Khanal P.;  Bhuvan K.C.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa024

RECORD 368
TITLE
  Development and Clinical Application of A Rapid IgM-IgG Combined Antibody Test for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Diagnosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Z.;  Yi Y.;  Luo X.;  Xiong N.;  Liu Y.;  Li S.;  Sun R.;  Wang Y.;  Hu B.;  Chen W.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang J.;  Huang B.;  Lin Y.;  Yang J.;  Cai W.;  Wang X.;  Cheng J.;  Chen Z.;  Sun K.;  Pan W.;  Zhan Z.;  Chen L.;  Ye F.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quickly spread all over China and to more than 20 other countries. Although the virus (SARS-Cov-2) nucleic acid RT-PCR test has become the standard method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, these real-time PCR test kits have many limitations. In addition, high false negative rates were reported. There is an urgent need for an accurate and rapid test method to quickly identify large number of infected patients and asymptomatic carriers to prevent virus transmission and assure timely treatment of patients. We have developed a rapid and simple point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay which can detect IgM and IgG antibodies simultaneously against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 15 minutes which can detect patients at different infection stages. With this test kit, we carried out clinical studies to validate its clinical efficacy uses. The clinical detection sensitivity and specificity of this test were measured using blood samples collected from 397 PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients and 128 negative patients at 8 different clinical sites. The overall testing sensitivity was 88.66% and specificity was 90.63%. In addition, we evaluated clinical diagnosis results obtained from different types of venous and fingerstick blood samples. The results indicated great detection consistency among samples from fingerstick blood, serum and plasma of venous blood. The IgM-IgG combined assay has better utility and sensitivity compared with a single IgM or IgG test. It can be used for the rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers, symptomatic or asymptomatic, in hospitals, clinics, and test laboratories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25727

RECORD 369
TITLE
  Recommendation on the modernization of disease control and prevention
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (453-460). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Special Expert Group for Control of the Epidemic of COVID-19 of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association have had a deep discussion on how to promote the modernization progress of current disease control and prevention system in China. By deeply investigating and analyzing the problems existed in the current Chinese disease control and prevention system, and learning the experiences from the disease control and prevention systems of other countries, the expert group suggested the following recommendations, included the enhance and update the laws related to public health, build up advanced institution mechanisms that meet current social status, reform current emergency response system, clarify the dominance and function of disease control and prevention system in Health China developing, and speed up the construction of a modern information system, talented professional groups, and advanced culture.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200225-00166

RECORD 370
TITLE
  Assessing the impact of reduced travel on exportation dynamics of novel coronavirus infection (Covid-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Anzai A.;  Kobayashi T.;  Linton N.M.;  Kinoshita R.;  Hayashi K.;  Suzuki A.;  Yang Y.;  Jung S.-M.;  Miyama T.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Nishiura H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 601. Date of Publication: 2 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The impact of the drastic reduction in travel volume within mainland China in January and February 2020 was quantified with respect to reports of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections outside China. Data on confirmed cases diagnosed outside China were analyzed using statistical models to estimate the impact of travel reduction on three epidemiological outcome measures: (i) the number of exported cases, (ii) the probability of a major epidemic, and (iii) the time delay to a major epidemic. From 28 January to 7 February 2020, we estimated that 226 exported cases (95% confidence interval: 86,449) were prevented, corresponding to a 70.4% reduction in incidence compared to the counterfactual scenario. The reduced probability of a major epidemic ranged from 7% to 20% in Japan, which resulted in a median time delay to a major epidemic of two days. Depending on the scenario, the estimated delay may be less than one day. As the delay is small, the decision to control travel volume through restrictions on freedom of movement should be balanced between the resulting estimated epidemiological impact and predicted economic fallout.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020601

RECORD 371
TITLE
  COVID-19: fighting panic with information
AUTHOR NAMES
  The Lancet
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10224 (537). Date of Publication: 22 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30379-2

RECORD 372
TITLE
  Corona Virus International Public Health Emergencies: Implications for Radiology Management
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang H.-W.;  Yu J.;  Xu H.-J.;  Lei Y.;  Pu Z.-H.;  Dai W.-C.;  Lin F.;  Wang Y.-L.;  Wu X.-L.;  Liu L.-H.;  Li M.;  Mo Y.-Q.;  Zhang H.;  Luo S.-P.;  Chen H.;  Lyu G.-W.;  Zhou Z.-G.;  Liu W.-M.;  Liu X.-L.;  Song H.-Y.;  Chen F.-Z.;  Zeng L.;  Zhong H.;  Guo T.-T.;  Hu Y.-Q.;  Yang X.-X.;  Liu P.-N.;  Li D.-F.
SOURCE
  Academic Radiology (2020) 27:4 (463-467). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019 and has spread internationally. This article discusses how radiology departments can most effectively respond to this public health emergency.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.02.003

RECORD 373
TITLE
  Communicating the risk of death from novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kobayashi T.;  Jung S.-M.;  Linton N.M.;  Kinoshita R.;  Hayashi K.;  Miyama T.;  Anzai A.;  Yang Y.;  Yuan B.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Suzuki A.;  Nishiura H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 580. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  To understand the severity of infection for a given disease, it is common epidemiological practice to estimate the case fatality risk, defined as the risk of death among cases. However, there are three technical obstacles that should be addressed to appropriately measure this risk. First, division of the cumulative number of deaths by that of cases tends to underestimate the actual risk because deaths that will occur have not yet observed, and so the delay in time from illness onset to death must be addressed. Second, the observed dataset of reported cases represents only a proportion of all infected individuals and there can be a substantial number of asymptomatic and mildly infected individuals who are never diagnosed. Third, ascertainment bias and risk of death among all those infected would be smaller when estimated using shorter virus detection windows and less sensitive diagnostic laboratory tests. In the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, health authorities must cope with the uncertainty in the risk of death from COVID-19, and high-risk individuals should be identified using approaches that can address the abovementioned three problems. Although COVID-19 involves mostly mild infections among the majority of the general population, the risk of death among young adults is higher than that of seasonal influenza, and elderly with underlying comorbidities require additional care.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020580

RECORD 374
TITLE
  Short-term forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in Guangdong and Zhejiang, China: February 13–23, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Roosa K.;  Lee Y.;  Luo R.;  Kirpich A.;  Rothenberg R.;  Hyman J.M.;  Yan P.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 596. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ongoing COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread within and outside of China, despite several social distancing measures implemented by the Chinese government. Limited epidemiological data are available, and recent changes in case definition and reporting further complicate our understanding of the impact of the epidemic, particularly in the epidemic’s epicenter. Here we use previously validated phenomenological models to generate short-term forecasts of cumulative reported cases in Guangdong and Zhejiang, China. Using daily reported cumulative case data up until 13 February 2020 from the National Health Commission of China, we report 5-and 10-day ahead forecasts of cumulative case reports. Specifically, we generate forecasts using a generalized logistic growth model, the Richards growth model, and a sub-epidemic wave model, which have each been previously used to forecast outbreaks due to different infectious diseases. Forecasts from each of the models suggest the outbreaks may be nearing extinction in both Guangdong and Zhejiang; however, the sub-epidemic model predictions also include the potential for further sustained transmission, particularly in Zhejiang. Our 10-day forecasts across the three models predict an additional 65–81 cases (upper bounds: 169–507) in Guangdong and an additional 44–354 (upper bounds: 141–875) cases in Zhejiang by February 23, 2020. In the best-case scenario, current data suggest that transmission in both provinces is slowing down.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020596

RECORD 375
TITLE
  COVID-19: what is next for public health?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Heymann D.L.;  Shindo N.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10224 (542-545). Date of Publication: 22 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30374-3

RECORD 376
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chang L.;  Yan Y.;  Wang L.
SOURCE
  Transfusion Medicine Reviews (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, a new coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), aroused the attention of the entire world. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 in China as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Two other coronavirus infections—SARS in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012—both caused severe respiratory syndrome in humans. All 3 of these emerging infectious diseases leading to a global spread are caused by β-coronaviruses. Although coronaviruses usually infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, viral shedding in plasma or serum is common. Therefore, there is still a theoretical risk of transmission of coronaviruses through the transfusion of labile blood products. Because more and more asymptomatic infections are being found among COVID-19 cases, considerations of blood safety and coronaviruses have arisen especially in endemic areas. In this review, we detail current evidence and understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS–CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 through blood products as of February 10, 2020, and also discuss pathogen inactivation methods on coronaviruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmrv.2020.02.003

RECORD 377
TITLE
  Characteristics of and public health responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng S.-Q.;  Peng H.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 575. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the Huanan Seafood Market were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified to be accountable for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is confirmed, and this disease (named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO)) spread rapidly around the country and the world. As of 18 February 2020, the number of confirmed cases had reached 75,199 with 2009 fatalities. The COVID-19 resulted in a much lower case-fatality rate (about 2.67%) among the confirmed cases, compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases collected from the released official reports, the top four are fever, cough, short of breath, and chest tightness/pain. The major comorbidities of the fatality cases include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, and chronic bronchitis. The source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease are still unconfirmed. No specific therapeutic drug has been found. The Chinese Government has initiated a level-1 public health response to prevent the spread of the disease. Meanwhile, it is also crucial to speed up the development of vaccines and drugs for treatment, which will enable us to defeat COVID-19 as soon as possible.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020575

RECORD 378
TITLE
  Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen P.;  Mao L.;  Nassis G.P.;  Harmer P.;  Ainsworth B.E.;  Li F.
SOURCE
  Journal of Sport and Health Science (2020) 9:2 (103-104). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.001

RECORD 379
TITLE
  Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gilbert M.;  Pullano G.;  Pinotti F.;  Valdano E.;  Poletto C.;  Boëlle P.-Y.;  D’Ortenzio E.;  Yazdanpanah Y.;  Eholie S.P.;  Altmann M.;  Gutierrez B.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Colizza V.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (871-877). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country’s health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19. Methods: We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per country. We determined the country’s capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, using the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing most to their risk. Findings: Countries with the highest importation risk (ie, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (ie, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. We identified three clusters of countries that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and the city of Beijing, respectively. Interpretation: Many countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 importations. Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission. Funding: EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30411-6

RECORD 380
TITLE
  COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen S.;  Yang J.;  Yang W.;  Wang C.;  Bärnighausen T.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (764-766). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30421-9

RECORD 381
TITLE
  Genetic diversity and evolution of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Phan T.
SOURCE
  Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2020) 81 Article Number: 104260. Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is a viral respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a global public health emergency. We performed genetic analyses of eighty-six complete or near-complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and revealed many mutations and deletions on coding and non-coding regions. These observations provided evidence of the genetic diversity and rapid evolution of this novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104260

RECORD 382
TITLE
  Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wax R.S.;  Christian M.D.
SOURCE
  Canadian Journal of Anesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A global health emergency has been declared by the World Health Organization as the 2019-nCoV outbreak spreads across the world, with confirmed patients in Canada. Patients infected with 2019-nCoV are at risk for developing respiratory failure and requiring admission to critical care units. While providing optimal treatment for these patients, careful execution of infection control measures is necessary to prevent nosocomial transmission to other patients and to healthcare workers providing care. Although the exact mechanisms of transmission are currently unclear, human-to-human transmission can occur, and the risk of airborne spread during aerosol-generating medical procedures remains a concern in specific circumstances. This paper summarizes important considerations regarding patient screening, environmental controls, personal protective equipment, resuscitation measures (including intubation), and critical care unit operations planning as we prepare for the possibility of new imported cases or local outbreaks of 2019-nCoV. Although understanding of the 2019-nCoV virus is evolving, lessons learned from prior infectious disease challenges such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome will hopefully improve our state of readiness regardless of the number of cases we eventually manage in Canada.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-020-01591-x

RECORD 383
TITLE
  Defining the Epidemiology of Covid-19 – Studies Needed
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lipsitch M.;  Swerdlow D.L.;  Finelli L.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020) 382:13 (1194-1196). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2002125

RECORD 384
TITLE
  Emergence of a Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Importance of Diagnostic Testing: Why Partnership between Clinical Laboratories, Public Health Agencies, and Industry Is Essential to Control the Outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Binnicker M.J.
SOURCE
  Clinical chemistry (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa071

RECORD 385
TITLE
  Preliminary study of the relationship between novel coronavirus pneumonia and liver function damage: a multicenter study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu C.;  Jiang Z.C.;  Shao C.X.;  Zhang H.G.;  Yue H.M.;  Chen Z.H.;  Ma B.Y.;  Liu W.Y.;  Huang H.H.;  Yang J.;  Wang Y.;  Liu H.Y.;  Xu D.;  Wang J.T.;  Yang J.Y.;  Pan H.Q.;  Zou S.Q.;  Li F.J.;  Lei J.Q.;  Li X.;  He Q.;  Gu Y.;  Qi X.L.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology (2020) 28:2 (148-152). Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia and a preliminary study to explore the relationship between different clinical classification and liver damage. Methods: Consecutively confirmed novel coronavirus infection cases admitted to seven designated hospitals during January 23, 2020 to February 8, 2020 were included. Clinical classification (mild, moderate, severe, and critical) was carried out according to the diagnosis and treatment program of novel coronavirus pneumonia (Trial Fifth Edition) issued by the National Health Commission. The research data were analyzed using SPSS19.0 statistical software. Quantitative data were expressed as median (interquartile range), and qualitative data were expressed as frequency and rate. Results: 32 confirmed cases that met the inclusion criteria were included. 28 cases were of mild or moderate type (87.50%), and four cases (12.50%) of severe or critical type. Four cases (12.5%) were combined with one underlying disease (bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, malignant tumor, chronic kidney disease), and one case (3.13%) was simultaneously combined with high blood pressure and malignant tumor. The results of laboratory examination showed that the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), and total bilirubin (TBil) for entire cohort were 26.98 (16.88 ~ 46.09) U/L and 24.75 (18.71 ~ 31.79) U/L, 39.00 (36.20 ~ 44.20) g/L and 16.40 (11.34- ~ 21.15) mmol/L, respectively. ALT, AST, ALB and TBil of the mild or moderate subgroups were 22.75 (16.31- ~ 37.25) U/L, 23.63 (18.71 ~ 26.50) U/L, 39.70 (36.50 ~ 46.10) g/L, and 15.95 (11.34 ~ 20.83) mmol/L, respectively. ALT, AST, ALB and TBil of the severe or critical subgroups were 60.25 (40.88 ~ 68.90) U/L, 37.00 (20.88 ~ 64.45) U/L, 35.75 (28.68 ~ 42.00) g/L, and 20.50 (11.28 ~ 25.00) mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this multicenter retrospective study suggests that novel coronavirus pneumonia combined with liver damage is more likely to be caused by adverse drug reactions and systemic inflammation in severe patients receiving medical treatment. Therefore, liver function monitoring and evaluation should be strengthened during the treatment of such patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2020.02.003

RECORD 386
TITLE
  Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Quilty B.J.;  Clifford S.;  Flasche S.;  Eggo R.M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We evaluated effectiveness of thermal passenger screening for 2019-nCoV infection at airport exit and entry to inform public health decision-making. In our baseline scenario, we estimated that 46% (95% confidence interval: 36 to 58) of infected travellers would not be detected, depending on incubation period, sensitivity of exit and entry screening, and proportion of asymptomatic cases. Airport screening is unlikely to detect a sufficient proportion of 2019-nCoV infected travellers to avoid entry of infected travellers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000080

RECORD 387
TITLE
  Straining the System: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Preparedness for Concomitant Disasters
AUTHOR NAMES
  Smith N.;  Fraser M.
SOURCE
  American journal of public health (2020) (e1-e2). Date of Publication: 13 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Just a few weeks before the first confirmed case of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was reported in the United States, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a bold promise to the nation: the agency will use its scientific expertise to bring a new level of preparedness in the United States and global health security against current and growing threats, finally eliminate certain diseases, and bring an end to the devastation of epidemics.1 The current outbreak of COVID-19 reminds us how urgent this promise is and just how critical it is to continue to sustain and strengthen our nation’s public health infrastructure. The unprecedented pace of the public health response to COVID-19 has only been possible because of prior investments in public health preparedness. To accelerate our pace and meet the challenges of current and future health threats, we must advance our world-class data and analytics capabilities; maintain and expand our state-of-the-art public health laboratory capacity; continue building a workforce of trusted, expert, public health professionals; sustain our capacity to rapidly respond to outbreaks at their source; and assure a strong global and domestic preparedness capacity. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 13, 2020: e1-e2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305618).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305618