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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Featuring COVID-19 cases via screening symptomatic patients with epidemiologic link during flu season in a medical center of central Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsih W.-H.;  Cheng M.-Y.;  Ho M.-W.;  Chou C.-H.;  Lin P.-C.;  Chi C.-Y.;  Liao W.-C.;  Chen C.-Y.;  Leong L.-Y.;  Tien N.;  Lai H.-C.;  Lai Y.-C.;  Lu M.-C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CO-V-2), was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China has now rapidly spread over 50 countries. For the prevention and control of infection, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control initiated testing of SARS-CoV-2 on January 24th 2020 for persons suspected with this disease. Until February 28th, 43 flu-like symptomatic patients were screened in China Medical University Hospital. Methods: Two patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR as COVID-19 patients A and B. Causative pathogens for included patients were detected using FilmArray™ Respiratory Panel. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiologic findings, and travel and exposure contact histories, of the COVID-19 patients in comparison to those with other respiratory infections. Results: Through contact with Taiwan No. 19 case patient on 27th January, COVID-19 patients A and B were infected. Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates. Owing to the persistence of positive SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimen, the two COVID-19 patients are still in the isolation rooms despite recovery until 10th of March. The results of FilmArrayTM Respiratory Panel revealed 22 of the 41 non-COVID-19 patients were infected by particular pathogens. In general, seasonal respiratory pathogens are more prevalent than SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients in non- COVID-19 endemic area during the flu season. Since all patients shared similar clinical and laboratory findings, expanded surveillance of detailed exposure history for suspected patients and application of rapid detection tools are highly recommended.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.008

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Improved molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 by the novel, highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay validated in vitro and with clinical specimens
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chan J.F.-W.;  Yip C.C.-Y.;  To K.K.-W.;  Tang T.H.-C.;  Wong S.C.-Y.;  Leung K.-H.;  Fung A.Y.-F.;  Ng A.C.-K.;  Zou Z.;  Tsoi H.-W.;  Choi G.K.-Y.;  Tam A.R.;  Cheng V.C.-C.;  Chan K.-H.;  Tsang O.T.-Y.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organization was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China. Subsequent investigations identified a novel coronavirus, now named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from the affected patients. Highly sensitive and specific laboratory diagnostics are important for controlling the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2-associated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. In this study, we developed and compared the performance of three novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)/helicase (Hel), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2 with that of the reported RdRp-P2 assay which is used in >30 European laboratories. Among the three novel assays, the COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay had the lowest limit of detection in vitro (1.8 TCID50/ml with genomic RNA and 11.2 RNA copies/reaction with in vitro RNA transcripts). Among 273 specimens from 15 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Hong Kong, 77 (28.2%) were positive by both the COVID-19-RdRp/Hel and RdRp-P2 assays. The COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay was positive for an additional 42 RdRd-P2-negative specimens [119/273 (43.6%) vs 77/273 (28.2%), P<0.001], including 29/120 (24.2%) respiratory tract specimens and 13/153 (8.5%) non-respiratory tract specimens. The mean viral load of these specimens was 3.21×104 RNA copies/ml (range, 2.21×102 to 4.71×105 RNA copies/ml). The COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay did not cross-react with other human-pathogenic coronaviruses and respiratory pathogens in cell culture and clinical specimens, whereas the RdRp-P2 assay cross-reacted with SARS-CoV in cell culture. The highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay may help to improve the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00310-20

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Hiding in plain sight: An approach to treating patients with severe covid-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fedson D.S.;  Opal S.M.;  Rordam O.M.
SOURCE
  mBio (2020) 11:2 Article Number: e00398-20. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Patients with COVID-19 infection are at risk of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) and death. The tissue receptor for COVID-19 is ACE2, and higher levels of ACE2 can protect against ARDS. Angiotensin receptor blockers and statins upregulate ACE2. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether this drug combination might be used to treat patients with severe COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00398-20

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Internationally lost COVID-19 cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lau H.;  Khosrawipour V.;  Kocbach P.;  Mikolajczyk A.;  Ichii H.;  Schubert J.;  Bania J.;  Khosrawipour T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: With its epicenter in Wuhan, China, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). While many countries have implemented flight restrictions to China, an increasing number of cases with or without travel background to China are confirmed daily. These developments support concerns on possible unidentified and unreported international COVID-19 cases, which could lead to new local disease epicenters. Methods: We have analyzed all available data on the development of international COVID-19 cases from January 20th, 2020 until February 18th, 2020. COVID-19 cases with and without travel history to China were divided into cohorts according to the Healthcare Access and Quality Index (HAQ-Index) of each country. Chi-square and Post-hoc testing were performed. Results: While COVID-19 cases with travel history to China seem to peak for each HAQ-cohort, the number of non-travel related COVID-19 cases seem to continuously increase in the HAQ-cohort of countries with higher medical standards. Further analyses demonstrate a significantly lower proportion of reported COVID-19 cases without travel history to China in countries with lower HAQ (HAQ I vs. HAQ II, posthoc p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our data indicate that countries with lower HAQ-index may either underreport COVID-19 cases or are unable to adequately detect them. Although our data may be incomplete and must be interpreted with caution, inconsistencies in reporting COVID-19 cases is a serious problem which might sabotage efforts to contain the virus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.013

RECORD 5
TITLE
  Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Porcheddu R.;  Serra C.;  Kelvin D.;  Kelvin N.;  Rubino S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (2020) 14:2 (125-128). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of 28 February 2020, Italy had 888 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with most cases in Northern Italy in the Lombardia and Veneto regions. Travel-related cases were the main source of COVID-19 cases during the early stages of the current epidemic in Italy. The month of February, however, has been dominated by two large clusters of outbreaks in Northern Italy, south of Milan, with mainly local transmission the source of infections. Contact tracing has failed to identify patient zero in one of the outbreaks. As of 28 February 2020, twenty-one cases of COVID-19 have died. Comparison between case fatality rates in China and Italy are identical at 2.3. Additionally, deaths are similar in both countries with fatalities in mostly the elderly with known comorbidities. It will be important to develop point-of-care devices to aid clinicians in stratifying elderly patients as early as possible to determine the potential level of care they will require to improve their chances of survival from COVID-19 disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12600

RECORD 6
TITLE
  TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Yang X.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 emerges as a pandemic disease with high mortality. Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need. We reviewed TH17 responses in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and proposed an FDA approved JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib for reducing mortality of patients with TH17 type immune profiles.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.005

RECORD 7
TITLE
  Diagnostic Utility of Clinical Laboratory Data Determinations for Patients with the Severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao Y.;  Li T.;  Han M.;  Li X.;  Wu D.;  Xu Y.;  Zhu Y.;  Liu Y.;  Wang X.;  Wang L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The role of clinical laboratory data in the differential diagnosis of the severe forms of COVID-19 has not been definitely established. The aim of this study was to look for the warning index in severe COVID-19 patients. We investigated forty-three adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were classified into mild group (28 patients) and severe group (15 patients). Comparison of the haematological parameters between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in IL-6, D-Dimer, GLU, TT, FIB and CRP (P <0.05). The optimal threshold and area under the ROC curve of IL-6 were 24.3 pg/mL and 0.795 respectively, while those of D-Dimer were 0.28 µg/L and 0.750, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of IL-6 combined with D-Dimer was 0.840. The specificity of predicting the severity of COVID-19 during IL-6 and D-Dimer tandem testing was up to 93.3%, while the sensitivity of IL-6 and D-Dimer by parallel test in the severe COVID-19 was 96.4%. IL-6 and D-Dimer were closely related to the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in the adult patients, and their combined detection had the highest specificity and sensitivity for early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients, which has important clinical value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25770

RECORD 8
TITLE
  Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological viewpoint
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu H.;  Wang L.-L.;  Zhao S.-J.;  Kwak-Kim J.;  Mor G.;  Liao A.-H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2020) 139 Article Number: 103122. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2020.103122

RECORD 9
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 10
TITLE
  From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  El Zowalaty M.E.;  Järhult J.D.
SOURCE
  One Health (2020) 9 Article Number: 100124. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Human coronaviruses continue to pose a threat to human health. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. This recent emergence of a previously unknown coronavirus in China leads to huge impacts on humans globally. Covid-19 is a challenge to global public health. Here, we discuss the COVID-19 outbreak in a one health context, highlighting the need for the implementation of one health measures and practices to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemic viruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100124

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Biological Product Development Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yan C.-X.;  Li J.;  Shen X.;  Luo L.;  Li Y.;  Li M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (139-145). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel coronavirus, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), has become a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Due to the large infection population, broad transmissibility and high mortality, it is urgent to find out the efficient and specific methods to prevent and treat COVID-19. As biological products have broadly applied in the prevention and treatment of severe epidemic diseases, they are promising in blocking novel coronavirus infection. According to the research advances of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), we reviewed the potential application of biological products such as interferon, convalescent plasma, intestinal micro-ecological regulators, vaccines and therapeutic antibodies, etc. , on prevention and treatment of COVID-19. May this review be helpful for conquering COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360506

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Report from the American Society for Microbiology COVID-19 International Summit, 23 March 2020: Value of Diagnostic Testing for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Patel R.;  Babady E.;  Theel E.S.;  Storch G.A.;  Pinsky B.A.;  St George K.;  Smith T.C.;  Bertuzzi S.
SOURCE
  mBio (2020) 11:2. Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00722-20

RECORD 13
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Marchand-Senécal X.;  Kozak R.;  Mubareka S.;  Salt N.;  Gubbay J.B.;  Eshaghi A.;  Allen V.;  Li Y.;  Bastien N.;  Gilmour M.;  Ozaldin O.;  Leis J.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report diagnosis and management of the first laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in Toronto, Canada. No healthcare-associated transmission occurred. In the face of a potential pandemic of COVID-19, we suggest sustainable and scalable control measures developed based on lessons learned from SARS.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa227

RECORD 14
TITLE
  Negative Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Swab Does Not Rule Out COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Winichakoon P.;  Chaiwarith R.;  Liwsrisakun C.;  Salee P.;  Goonna A.;  Limsukon A.;  Kaewpoowat Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), has become the Public Health Emergency of International Concern.….
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00297-20

RECORD 15
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 16
TITLE
  Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Prompetchara E.;  Ketloy C.;  Palaga T.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2020) 38:1 (1-9). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the world is witnessing the epidemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerging genetics and clinical evidences suggest a similar path to those of SARS and MERS. The rapid genomic sequencing and open access data, together with advanced vaccine technology, are expected to give us more knowledge on the pathogen itself, including the host immune response as well as the plan for therapeutic vaccines in the near future. This review aims to provide a comparative view among SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the newly epidemic SARS-CoV-2, in the hope to gain a better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, host immune responses, and the pathogen immune evasion strategies. This predictive view may help in designing an immune intervention or preventive vaccine for COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0772

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qiu H.;  Wu J.;  Hong L.;  Luo Y.;  Song Q.;  Chen D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since December, 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally. Little is known about the epidemiological and clinical features of paediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively retrieved data for paediatric patients (aged 0-16 years) with confirmed COVID-19 from electronic medical records in three hospitals in Zhejiang, China. We recorded patients’ epidemiological and clinical features. FINDINGS: From Jan 17 to March 1, 2020, 36 children (mean age 8·3 [SD 3·5] years) were identified to be infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The route of transmission was by close contact with family members (32 [89%]) or a history of exposure to the epidemic area (12 [33%]); eight (22%) patients had both exposures. 19 (53%) patients had moderate clinical type with pneumonia; 17 (47%) had mild clinical type and either were asymptomatic (ten [28%]) or had acute upper respiratory symptoms (seven [19%]). Common symptoms on admission were fever (13 [36%]) and dry cough (seven [19%]). Of those with fever, four (11%) had a body temperature of 38·5°C or higher, and nine (25%) had a body temperature of 37·5-38·5°C. Typical abnormal laboratory findings were elevated creatine kinase MB (11 [31%]), decreased lymphocytes (11 [31%]), leucopenia (seven [19%]), and elevated procalcitonin (six [17%]). Besides radiographic presentations, variables that were associated significantly with severity of COVID-19 were decreased lymphocytes, elevated body temperature, and high levels of procalcitonin, D-dimer, and creatine kinase MB. All children received interferon alfa by aerosolisation twice a day, 14 (39%) received lopinavir-ritonavir syrup twice a day, and six (17%) needed oxygen inhalation. Mean time in hospital was 14 (SD 3) days. By Feb 28, 2020, all patients were cured. INTERPRETATION: Although all paediatric patients in our cohort had mild or moderate type of COVID-19, the large proportion of asymptomatic children indicates the difficulty in identifying paediatric patients who do not have clear epidemiological information, leading to a dangerous situation in community-acquired infections. FUNDING: Ningbo Clinical Research Center for Children’s Health and Diseases, Ningbo Reproductive Medicine Centre, and Key Scientific and Technological Innovation Projects of Wenzhou.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30198-5

RECORD 18
TITLE
  The SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Pipeline: an Overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen W.-H.;  Strych U.;  Hotez P.J.;  Bottazzi M.E.
SOURCE
  Current Tropical Medicine Reports (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose of Review: The goal of this review is to provide a timely overview on efforts to develop a vaccine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Recent Findings: Previous research efforts to develop a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) vaccine in the years following the 2003 pandemic have opened the door for investigators to design vaccine concepts and approaches for the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit a high degree of genetic similarity and bind to the same host cell ACE2 receptor. Based on previous experience with SARS-CoV vaccines, it is expected that all COVID-19 vaccines will require careful safety evaluations for immunopotentiation that could lead to increased infectivity or eosinophilic infiltration. Besides this, a COVID-19 vaccine target product profile must address vaccinating at-risk human populations including frontline healthcare workers, individuals over the age of 60, and those with underlying and debilitating chronic conditions. Among the vaccine technologies under evaluation are whole virus vaccines, recombinant protein subunit vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. Summary: Each current vaccine strategy has distinct advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is paramount that multiple strategies be advanced quickly and then evaluated for safety and efficacy. Ultimately, the safety studies to minimize undesired immunopotentiation will become the most significant bottleneck in terms of time.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40475-020-00201-6

RECORD 19
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yuen K.-S.;  Ye Z.-W.;  Fung S.-Y.;  Chan C.-P.;  Jin D.-Y.
SOURCE
  Cell and Bioscience (2020) 10:1 Article Number: 40. Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global health emergency. Here we highlight nine most important research questions concerning virus transmission, asymptomatic and presymptomatic virus shedding, diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development, origin of virus and viral pathogenesis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-020-00404-4

RECORD 20
TITLE
  COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dhama K.;  Sharun K.;  Tiwari R.;  Dadar M.;  Malik Y.S.;  Singh K.P.;  Chaicumpa W.
SOURCE
  Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province of China has spread to many countries worldwide. Efforts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus (CoV) infections such as MERS and SARS in the past decades. However, to date, no licensed antiviral treatment or vaccine exists for MERS and SARS. Most of the efforts for developing CoV vaccines and drugs target the spike glycoprotein or S protein, the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies. Although a few candidates have shown efficacy in in vitro studies, not many have progressed to randomized animal or human trials, hence may have limited use to counter COVID-19 infection. This article highlights ongoing advances in designing vaccines and therapeutics to counter COVID-19 while also focusing on such experiences and advances as made with earlier SARS- and MERS-CoVs, which together could enable efforts to halt this emerging virus infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227

RECORD 21
TITLE
  The Late Arrival of COVID-19 in Africa – Mitigating Pan-Continental Spread
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nachega J.B.;  Seydi M.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa353

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Study on assessing early epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song Q.Q.;  Zhao H.;  Fang L.Q.;  Liu W.;  Zheng C.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (461-465). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To study the early dynamics of the epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China from 15 to 31 January, 2020, and estimate the corresponding epidemiological parameters (incubation period, generation interval and basic reproduction number) of the epidemic. Methods: By means of Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal distributions methods, we estimated the probability distribution of the incubation period and generation interval data obtained from the reported COVID-19 cases. Moreover, the AIC criterion was used to determine the optimal distribution. Considering the epidemic is ongoing, the exponential growth model was used to fit the incidence data of COVID-19 from 10 to 31 January, 2020, and exponential growth method, maximum likelihood method and SEIR model were used to estimate the basic reproduction number. Results: Early COVID-19 cases kept an increase in exponential growth manner before 26 January, 2020, then the increase trend became slower. The average incubation period was 5.01 (95%CI: 4.31-5.69) days; the average generation interval was 6.03 (95%CI: 5.20-6.91) days. The basic reproduction number was estimated to be 3.74 (95%CI: 3.63-3.87), 3.16 (95%CI: 2.90-3.43), and 3.91 (95%CI: 3.71-4.11) by three methods, respectively. Conclusions: The Gamma distribution fits both the generation interval and incubation period best, and the mean value of generation interval is 1.02 day longer than that of incubation period. The relatively high basic reproduction number indicates that the epidemic is still serious; Based on our analysis, the turning point of the epidemic would be seen on 26 January, the growth rate would be lower afterwards.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200205-00069

RECORD 23
TITLE
  Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Cardona-Ospina J.A.;  Gutiérrez-Ocampo E.;  Villamizar-Peña R.;  Holguin-Rivera Y.;  Escalera-Antezana J.P.;  Alvarado-Arnez L.E.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Franco-Paredes C.;  Henao-Martinez A.F.;  Paniz-Mondolfi A.;  Lagos-Grisales G.J.;  Ramírez-Vallejo E.;  Suárez J.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Villamil-Gómez W.E.;  Balbin-Ramon G.J.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Harapan H.;  Dhama K.;  Nishiura H.;  Kataoka H.;  Ahmad T.;  Sah R.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101623. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5–92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8–74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9–80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0–30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7–51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1–9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2–21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Evolving reporting criteria of COVID-19 in Taiwan during the epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang Y.-C.;  Lee P.-I.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.014

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Impact of international travel and border control measures on the global spread of the novel 2019 coronavirus outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wells C.R.;  Sah P.;  Moghadas S.M.;  Pandey A.;  Shoukat A.;  Wang Y.;  Wang Z.;  Meyers L.A.;  Singer B.H.;  Galvani A.P.
SOURCE
  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in mainland China has rapidly spread across the globe. Within 2 mo since the outbreak was first reported on December 31, 2019, a total of 566 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS CoV-2) cases have been confirmed in 26 other countries. Travel restrictions and border control measures have been enforced in China and other countries to limit the spread of the outbreak. We estimate the impact of these control measures and investigate the role of the airport travel network on the global spread of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that the daily risk of exporting at least a single SARS CoV-2 case from mainland China via international travel exceeded 95% on January 13, 2020. We found that 779 cases (95% CI: 632 to 967) would have been exported by February 15, 2020 without any border or travel restrictions and that the travel lockdowns enforced by the Chinese government averted 70.5% (95% CI: 68.8 to 72.0%) of these cases. In addition, during the first three and a half weeks of implementation, the travel restrictions decreased the daily rate of exportation by 81.3% (95% CI: 80.5 to 82.1%), on average. At this early stage of the epidemic, reduction in the rate of exportation could delay the importation of cases into cities unaffected by the COVID-19 outbreak, buying time to coordinate an appropriate public health response.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2002616117

RECORD 26
TITLE
  Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Liu Y.H.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Wang Y.-H.;  Hsueh S.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.;  Ko W.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Updated approaches against SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li H.;  Zhou Y.;  Zhang M.;  Wang H.;  Zhao Q.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lies behind the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies. However, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug or vaccine has been officially approved due to the absence of adequate evidence. Scientists are racing towards the development of treatment for COVID-19. Recent studies have revealed many attractive threptic options, even if some of them remain to be further confirmed in rigorous preclinical models and clinical trials. In this minireview, we aim to summarize the updated potential approaches against SARS-CoV-2. We emphasize that further efforts are warranted to develop the safest and most effective approach.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00483-20

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Alhazzani W.;  Møller M.H.;  Arabi Y.M.;  Loeb M.;  Gong M.N.;  Fan E.;  Oczkowski S.;  Levy M.M.;  Derde L.;  Dzierba A.;  Du B.;  Aboodi M.;  Wunsch H.;  Cecconi M.;  Koh Y.;  Chertow D.S.;  Maitland K.;  Alshamsi F.;  Belley-Cote E.;  Greco M.;  Laundy M.;  Morgan J.S.;  Kesecioglu J.;  McGeer A.;  Mermel L.;  Mammen M.J.;  Alexander P.E.;  Arrington A.;  Centofanti J.E.;  Citerio G.;  Baw B.;  Memish Z.A.;  Hammond N.;  Hayden F.G.;  Evans L.;  Rhodes A.
SOURCE
  Intensive care medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5

RECORD 29
TITLE
  A case of COVID-19 and pneumonia returning from Macau in Taiwan: Clinical course and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG dynamic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee N.-Y.;  Li C.-W.;  Tsai H.-P.;  Chen P.-L.;  Syue L.-S.;  Li M.-C.;  Tsai C.-S.;  Lo C.-L.;  Hsueh P.-R.;  Ko W.-C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with 2-day fever and cough at seven days after returning from Macau. COVID-19 and pneumonia was diagnosed based on the positive real-time RT-PCR tests for oropharyngeal swab samples and the presence of anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG starting from the illness day 11 and post-exposure 18–21 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.003

RECORD 30
TITLE
  The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Casadevall A.;  Pirofski L.-A.
SOURCE
  The Journal of clinical investigation (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138003

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Iran; Actions and problems
AUTHOR NAMES
  Abdi M.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.86

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Questions raised by COVID-19 case descriptions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Britton P.N.;  Marais B.J.
SOURCE
  Journal of paediatrics and child health (2020). Date of Publication: 22 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.14872

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Emergence of a Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and the Importance of Diagnostic Testing: Why Partnership between Clinical Laboratories, Public Health Agencies, and Industry Is Essential to Control the Outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Binnicker M.J.
SOURCE
  Clinical chemistry (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvaa071

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Managing COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hopman J.;  Allegranzi B.;  Mehtar S.
SOURCE
  JAMA (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4169

RECORD 35
TITLE
  Frequency and Distribution of Chest Radiographic Findings in COVID-19 Positive Patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wong H.Y.F.;  Lam H.Y.S.;  Fong A.H.-T.;  Leung S.T.;  Chin T.W.-Y.;  Lo C.S.Y.;  Lui M.M.-S.;  Lee J.C.Y.;  Chiu K.W.-H.;  Chung T.;  Lee E.Y.P.;  Wan E.Y.F.;  Hung F.N.I.;  Lam T.P.W.;  Kuo M.;  Ng M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2019) (201160). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2019
ABSTRACT
  Background Current COVID-19 radiological literature is dominated by CT and a detailed description of chest x-ray (CXR) appearances in relation to the disease time course is lacking. Purpose To describe the time course and severity of the CXR findings of COVID-19 and correlate these with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-Cov-2 nucleic acid. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of COVID-19 patients with RT-PCR confirmation and CXRs admitted across 4 hospitals evaluated between January and March 2020. Baseline and serial CXRs (total 255 CXRs) were reviewed along with RT-PCRs. Correlation with concurrent CTs (total 28 CTs) was made when available. Two radiologists scored each CXR in consensus for: consolidation, ground glass opacity (GGO), location and pleural fluid. A severity index was determined for each lung. The lung scores were summed to produce the final severity score. Results There were 64 patients (26 men, mean age 56±19 years). Of these, 58, 44 and 38 patients had positive initial RT-PCR (91%, [CI: 81-96%]), abnormal baseline CXR (69%, [CI: 56-80%]) and positive initial RT-PCR with abnormal baseline CXR (59 [CI:46-71%]) respectively. Six patients (9%) showed CXR abnormalities before eventually testing positive on RT-PCR. Sensitivity of initial RT-PCR (91% [95% CI: 83-97%]) was higher than baseline CXR (69% [95% CI: 56-80%]) (p = 0.009). Radiographic (mean 6 ± 5 days) and virologic recovery (mean 8 ± 6 days) were not significantly different (p= 0.33). Consolidation was the most common finding (30/64, 47%), followed by GGO (21/64, 33%). CXR abnormalities had a peripheral (26/64, 41%) and lower zone distribution (32/64, 50%) with bilateral involvement (32/64, 50%). Pleural effusion was uncommon (2/64, 3%). The severity of CXR findings peaked at 10-12 days from the date of symptom onset. Conclusion Chest x-ray findings in COVID-19 patients frequently showed bilateral lower zone consolidation which peaked at 10-12 days from symptom onset.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020201160

RECORD 36
TITLE
  The explosive epidemic outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the persistent threat of respiratory tract infectious diseases to global health security
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zumla A.;  Niederman M.S.
SOURCE
  Current opinion in pulmonary medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000676

RECORD 37
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Taiwan: Reports of two cases from Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang W.-H.;  Teng L.-C.;  Yeh T.-K.;  Chen Y.-J.;  Lo W.-J.;  Wu M.-J.;  Chin C.-S.;  Tsan Y.-T.;  Lin T.-C.;  Chai J.-W.;  Lin C.-F.;  Tseng C.-H.;  Liu C.-W.;  Wu C.-M.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Shi Z.-Y.;  Liu P.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We reported two cases with community-acquired pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who returned from Wuhan, China in January, 2020. The reported cases highlight non-specific clinical presentations of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as well as the importance of rapid laboratory-based diagnosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.009

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Simulation of the clinical and pathological manifestations of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in golden Syrian hamster model: implications for disease pathogenesis and transmissibility
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chan J.F.-W.;  Zhang A.J.;  Yuan S.;  Poon V.K.-M.;  Chan C.C.-S.;  Lee A.C.-Y.;  Chan W.-M.;  Fan Z.;  Tsoi H.-W.;  Wen L.;  Liang R.;  Cao J.;  Chen Y.;  Tang K.;  Luo C.;  Cai J.-P.;  Kok K.-H.;  Chu H.;  Chan K.-H.;  Sridhar S.;  Chen Z.;  Chen H.;  To K.K.-W.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A physiological small animal model that resembles COVID-19 with low mortality is lacking. METHODS: Molecular docking on the binding between angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of common laboratory mammals and the receptor-binding domain of the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that the golden Syrian hamster is an option. Virus challenge, contact transmission, and passive immunoprophylaxis were performed. Serial organ tissues and blood were harvested for histopathology, viral load and titre, chemokine/cytokine assay, and neutralising antibody titre. RESULTS: The Syrian hamster could be consistently infected by SARS-CoV-2. Maximal clinical signs of rapid breathing, weight loss, histopathological changes from the initial exudative phase of diffuse alveolar damage with extensive apoptosis to the later proliferative phase of tissue repair, airway and intestinal involvement with virus nucleocapsid protein expression, high lung viral load, and spleen and lymphoid atrophy associated with marked cytokine activation were observed within the first week of virus challenge. The lung virus titre was between 105-107 TCID50/g. Challenged index hamsters consistently infected naïve contact hamsters housed within the same cage, resulting in similar pathology but not weight loss. All infected hamsters recovered and developed mean serum neutralising antibody titre ≥1:427 fourteen days post-challenge. Immunoprophylaxis with early convalescent serum achieved significant decrease in lung viral load but not in lung pathology. No consistent non-synonymous adaptive mutation of the spike was found in viruses isolated from infected hamsters. CONCLUSIONS: Besides satisfying the Koch’s postulates, this readily available hamster model is an important tool for studying transmission, pathogenesis, treatment, and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa325

RECORD 39
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dilcher M.;  Werno A.;  Jennings L.C.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (6-11). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 40
TITLE
  A Generic Computer-Assisted Four-Pronged Approach for the Management of Emerging Global Pathogens: Some Comments on COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Basak S.C.;  Majumdar S.;  Vracko M.;  Nandy A.;  Bhattacharjee A.
SOURCE
  Current computer-aided drug design (2020). Date of Publication: 15 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409916999200316102548

RECORD 41
TITLE
  Facing the COVID-19 outbreak: What should we know and what could we do?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang Y.;  Shang W.;  Rao X.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25720

RECORD 42
TITLE
  Estimation of COVID-19 outbreak size in Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tuite A.R.;  Ng V.;  Rees E.;  Fisman D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30227-9

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Safety Considerations in the Laboratory Testing of Specimens Suspected or Known to Contain the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Iwen P.C.;  Stiles K.L.;  Pentella M.A.
SOURCE
  American journal of clinical pathology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa047

RECORD 44
TITLE
  Composition and divergence of coronavirus spike proteins and host ACE2 receptors predict potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Z.;  Xiao X.;  Wei X.;  Li J.;  Yang J.;  Tan H.;  Zhu J.;  Zhang Q.;  Wu J.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  From the beginning of 2002 and 2012, severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) crossed the species barriers to infect humans, causing thousands of infections and hundreds of deaths, respectively. Currently, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which has become the cause of the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), was discovered. Until 18 February 2020, there were 72 533 confirmed COVID-19 cases (including 10 644 severe cases) and 1872 deaths in China. SARS-CoV-2 is spreading among the public and causing substantial burden due to its human-to-human transmission. However, the intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is still unclear. Finding the possible intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 is imperative to prevent further spread of the epidemic. In this study, we used systematic comparison and analysis to predict the interaction between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of coronavirus spike protein and the host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The interaction between the key amino acids of S protein RBD and ACE2 indicated that, other than pangolins and snakes, as previously suggested, turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii, Chelonia mydas, and Pelodiscus sinensis) may act as the potential intermediate hosts transmitting SARS-CoV-2 to humans.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25726

RECORD 45
TITLE
  Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yen M.-Y.;  Schwartz J.;  Chen S.-Y.;  King C.-C.;  Yang G.-Y.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan’s 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector – the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.011

RECORD 46
TITLE
  Importing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into China after international air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang X.-A.;  Fan H.;  Qi R.-Z.;  Zheng W.;  Zheng K.;  Gong J.-H.;  Fang L.-Q.;  Liu W.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101620). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101620

RECORD 47
TITLE
  The holy week 2020 and the beginning of COVID-19 epidemics in Latin America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Sah R.;  Paniz-Mondolfi A.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101633). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101633

RECORD 48
TITLE
  Insights from nanomedicine into chloroquine efficacy against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu T.Y.;  Frieman M.;  Wolfram J.
SOURCE
  Nature nanotechnology (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0674-9

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  To K.K.-W.;  Tsang O.T.-Y.;  Leung W.-S.;  Tam A.R.;  Wu T.-C.;  Lung D.C.;  Yip C.C.-Y.;  Cai J.-P.;  Chan J.M.-C.;  Chik T.S.-H.;  Lau D.P.-L.;  Choi C.Y.-C.;  Chen L.-L.;  Chan W.-M.;  Chan K.-H.;  Ip J.D.;  Ng A.C.-K.;  Poon R.W.-S.;  Luo C.-T.;  Cheng V.C.-C.;  Chan J.F.-W.;  Hung I.F.-N.;  Chen Z.;  Chen H.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe community and nosocomial outbreaks. Comprehensive data for serial respiratory viral load and serum antibody responses from patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not yet available. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs are usually obtained for serial viral load monitoring of respiratory infections but gathering these specimens can cause discomfort for patients and put health-care workers at risk. We aimed to ascertain the serial respiratory viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in posterior oropharyngeal (deep throat) saliva samples from patients with COVID-19, and serum antibody responses. METHODS: We did a cohort study at two hospitals in Hong Kong. We included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We obtained samples of blood, urine, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and rectal swabs. Serial viral load was ascertained by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 internal nucleoprotein (NP) and surface spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using EIA. Whole-genome sequencing was done to identify possible mutations arising during infection. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 2020, and Feb 12, 2020, 30 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 23 were included (median age 62 years [range 37-75]). The median viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva or other respiratory specimens at presentation was 5·2 log10 copies per mL (IQR 4·1-7·0). Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope -0·15, 95% CI -0·19 to -0·11; R2=0·71). In one patient, viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset. Older age was correlated with higher viral load (Spearman’s ρ=0·48, 95% CI 0·074-0·75; p=0·020). For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n=15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n=14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n=16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n=15). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NP or anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG levels correlated with virus neutralisation titre (R2>0·9). No genome mutations were detected on serial samples. INTERPRETATION: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples are a non-invasive specimen more acceptable to patients and health-care workers. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. This finding emphasises the importance of stringent infection control and early use of potent antiviral agents, alone or in combination, for high-risk individuals. Serological assay can complement RT-qPCR for diagnosis. FUNDING: Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Tong, Marina Lee, Government Consultancy Service, and Sanming Project of Medicine.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1

RECORD 50
TITLE
  Leukoerythroblastic reaction in a patient with COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mitra A.;  Dwyre D.M.;  Schivo M.;  Thompson G.R.;  Cohen S.H.;  Ku N.;  Graff J.P.
SOURCE
  American journal of hematology (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25793

RECORD 51
TITLE
  Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peng P.W.H.;  Ho P.-L.;  Hota S.S.
SOURCE
  British Journal of Anaesthesia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2020.02.008

RECORD 52
TITLE
  Guidance for building a dedicated health facility to contain the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Agarwal A.;  Nagi N.;  Chatterjee P.;  Sarkar S.;  Mourya D.;  Sahay R.R.;  Bhatia R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Preparedness for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its spread in India calls for setting up of adequately equipped and dedicated health facilities to manage sick patients while protecting healthcare workers and the environment. In the wake of other emerging dangerous pathogens in recent times, such as Ebola, Nipah and Zika, it is important that such facilities are kept ready during the inter-epidemic period for training of health professionals and for managing cases of multi-drug resistant and difficult-to-treat pathogens. While endemic potential of such critically ill patients is not yet known, the health system should have surge capacity for such critical care units and preferably each tertiary government hospital should have at least one such facility. This article describes elements of design of such unit (e.g., space, infection control, waste disposal, safety of healthcare workers, partners to be involved in design and plan) which can be adapted to the context of either a new construction or makeshift construction on top of an existing structure. In view of a potential epidemic of COVID-19, specific requirements to handle it are also given.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_518_20

RECORD 53
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 54
TITLE
  Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng V.C.C.;  Wong S.-C.;  Chen J.H.K.;  Yip C.C.Y.;  Chuang V.W.M.;  Tsang O.T.Y.;  Sridhar S.;  Chan J.F.W.;  Ho P.-L.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background:To describe the infection control preparedness for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 [previously known as 2019-novel coronavirus] in the first 42 days after announcement of a cluster of pneumonia in China, on 31 December 2019 (day 1) in Hong Kong.Methods:A bundle approach of active and enhanced laboratory surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and contact tracing for healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure in the hospitals was implemented. Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases, environmental and air samples were collected and analyzed.Results:From day 1 to day 42, forty-two (3.3%) of 1275 patients fulfilling active (n=29) and enhanced laboratory surveillance (n=13) confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of locally acquired case significantly increased from 1 (7.7%) of 13 [day 22 to day 32] to 27 (93.1%) of 29 confirmed case [day 33 to day 42] (p<0.001). Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) came from 8 family clusters. Eleven (2.7%) of 413 HCWs caring these confirmed cases were found to have unprotected exposure requiring quarantine for 14 days. None of them was infected and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. Environmental surveillance performed in a patient with viral load of 3.3×106 copies/ml (pooled nasopharyngeal/ throat swab) and 5.9×106 copies/ml (saliva) respectively. SARS-CoV-2 revealed in 1 (7.7%) of 13 environmental samples, but not in 8 air samples collected at a distance of 10 cm from patient’s chin with or without wearing a surgical mask.Conclusion:Appropriate hospital infection control measures could prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.58

RECORD 55
TITLE
  Genetic diversity and evolution of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Phan T.
SOURCE
  Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2020) 81 Article Number: 104260. Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is a viral respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a global public health emergency. We performed genetic analyses of eighty-six complete or near-complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and revealed many mutations and deletions on coding and non-coding regions. These observations provided evidence of the genetic diversity and rapid evolution of this novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104260

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Mapping the incidence of the COVID-19 hotspot in Iran – Implications for Travellers
AUTHOR NAMES
  Arab-Mazar Z.;  Sah R.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Dhama K.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101630. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101630

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Are children less susceptible to COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee P.-I.;  Hu Y.-L.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Huang Y.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.011

RECORD 58
TITLE
  Evaluation of a quantitative RT-PCR assay for the detection of the emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 using a high throughput system
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pfefferle S.;  Reucher S.;  Nörz D.;  Lütgehetmann M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Facing the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), high-volume respiratory testing is demanded in laboratories worldwide. We evaluated the performance of a molecular assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 on a high-throughput platform, the cobas 6800, using the ‘open channel’ for integration of a laboratory-developed assay. We observed good analytical performance in clinical specimens. The fully automated workflow enables high-throughput testing with minimal hands-on time, while offering fast and reliable results.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000152

RECORD 59
TITLE
  A tug-of-war between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and host antiviral defence: lessons from other pathogenic viruses
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fung S.-Y.;  Yuen K.-S.;  Ye Z.-W.;  Chan C.-P.;  Jin D.-Y.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (558-570). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  World Health Organization has declared the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The virus was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Human infection with SARS-CoV-2 leads to a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic, mild, moderate to severe. The severe cases present with pneumonia, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The outbreak provides an opportunity for real-time tracking of an animal coronavirus that has just crossed species barrier to infect humans. The outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection is largely determined by virus-host interaction. Here, we review the discovery, zoonotic origin, animal hosts, transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in relation to its interplay with host antiviral defense. A comparison with SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, community-acquired human coronaviruses and other pathogenic viruses including human immunodeficiency viruses is made. We summarize current understanding of the induction of a proinflammatory cytokine storm by other highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, their adaptation to humans and their usurpation of the cell death programmes. Important questions concerning the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host antiviral defence, including asymptomatic and presymptomatic virus shedding, are also discussed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1736644

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Yan L.-M.;  Wan L.;  Xiang T.-X.;  Le A.;  Liu J.-M.;  Peiris M.;  Poon L.L.M.;  Zhang W.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30232-2

RECORD 61
TITLE
  Evolutionary history, potential intermediate animal host, and cross-species analyses of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Zai J.;  Zhao Q.;  Nie Q.;  Li Y.;  Foley B.T.;  Chaillon A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  To investigate the evolutionary history of the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China, a total of 70 genomes of virus strains from China and elsewhere with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 3 February 2020 were analyzed. To explore the potential intermediate animal host of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we reanalyzed virome data sets from pangolins and representative SARS-related coronaviruses isolates from bats, with particular attention paid to the spike glycoprotein gene. We performed phylogenetic, split network, transmission network, likelihood-mapping, and comparative analyses of the genomes. Based on Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis using the tip-dating method, we estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor and evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2, which ranged from 22 to 24 November 2019 and 1.19 to 1.31 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, respectively. Our results also revealed that the BetaCoV/bat/Yunnan/RaTG13/2013 virus was more similar to the SARS-CoV-2 virus than the coronavirus obtained from the two pangolin samples (SRR10168377 and SRR10168378). We also identified a unique peptide (PRRA) insertion in the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which may be involved in the proteolytic cleavage of the spike protein by cellular proteases, and thus could impact host range and transmissibility. Interestingly, the coronavirus carried by pangolins did not have the RRAR motif. Therefore, we concluded that the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is responsible for the recent outbreak of COVID-19, did not come directly from pangolins.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25731

RECORD 62
TITLE
  The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Siddique R.;  Shereen M.A.;  Ali A.;  Liu J.;  Bai Q.;  Bashir N.;  Xue M.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not clear yet, however, its resemblance with SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infected people. In this Review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00187-20

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Lymphopenic community acquired pneumonia as signature of severe COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bermejo-Martin J.F.;  Almansa R.;  Menéndez R.;  Mendez R.;  Kelvin D.J.;  Torres A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.029

RECORD 64
TITLE
  Mass gathering events and reducing further global spread of COVID-19: a political and public health dilemma
AUTHOR NAMES
  McCloskey B.;  Zumla A.;  Ippolito G.;  Blumberg L.;  Arbon P.;  Cicero A.;  Endericks T.;  Lim P.L.;  Borodina M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30681-4

RECORD 65
TITLE
  Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a potential approach for coronavirus infection therapy?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Batlle D.;  Wysocki J.;  Satchell K.
SOURCE
  Clinical science (London, England : 1979) (2020) 134:5 (543-545). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new coronavirus, referred to as SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the recent outbreak of severe respiratory disease. This outbreak first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread to other regions of China and to 25 other countries as of January, 2020. It has been known since the 2003 SARS epidemic that the receptor critical for SARS-CoV entry into host cells is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S1 domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV attaches the virus to its cellular receptor ACE2 on the host cells. We thought that it is timely to explain the connection between the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and the rationale for soluble ACE2 as a potential therapy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200163

RECORD 66
TITLE
  Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Konrad R.;  Eberle U.;  Dangel A.;  Treis B.;  Berger A.;  Bengs K.;  Fingerle V.;  Liebl B.;  Ackermann N.;  Sing A.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The need for timely establishment of diagnostic assays arose when Germany was confronted with the first travel-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Europe. We describe our laboratory experiences during a large contact tracing investigation, comparing previously published real-time RT-PCR assays in different PCR systems and a commercial kit. We found that assay performance using the same primers and probes with different PCR systems varied and the commercial kit performed well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000173

RECORD 67
TITLE
  Potential impact of seasonal forcing on a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Neher R.A.;  Dyrdak R.;  Druelle V.;  Hodcroft E.B.;  Albert J.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20224). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first detected in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly since December 2019, causing more than 100,000 confirmed infections and 4000 fatalities (as of 10 March 2020). The outbreak has been declared a pandemic by the WHO on Mar 11, 2020. Here, we explore how seasonal variation in transmissibility could modulate a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from routine diagnostics show a strong and consistent seasonal variation of the four endemic coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) and we parameterise our model for SARS-CoV-2 using these data. The model allows for many subpopulations of different size with variable parameters. Simulations of different scenarios show that plausible parameters result in a small peak in early 2020 in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and a larger peak in winter 2020/2021. Variation in transmission and migration rates can result in substantial variation in prevalence between regions. While the uncertainty in parameters is large, the scenarios we explore show that transient reductions in the incidence rate might be due to a combination of seasonal variation and infection control efforts but do not necessarily mean the epidemic is contained. Seasonal forcing on SARS-CoV-2 should thus be taken into account in the further monitoring of the global transmission. The likely aggregated effect of seasonal variation, infection control measures, and transmission rate variation is a prolonged pandemic wave with lower prevalence at any given time, thereby providing a window of opportunity for better preparation of health care systems.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20224

RECORD 68
TITLE
  Insights into the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (Sars-coV-2) in light of past human coronavirus outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ashour H.M.;  Elkhatib W.F.;  Rahman M.M.;  Elshabrawy H.A.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 186. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that have become a major public health concern since the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2002. The continuous evolution of coronaviruses was further highlighted with the emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) outbreak in 2012. Currently, the world is concerned about the 2019 novel CoV (SARS-CoV-2) that was initially identified in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. Patients presented with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness. The number of cases has been mounting since then. As of late February 2020, tens of thousands of cases and several thousand deaths have been reported in China alone, in addition to thousands of cases in other countries. Although the fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is currently lower than SARS-CoV, the virus seems to be highly contagious based on the number of infected cases to date. In this review, we discuss structure, genome organization, entry of CoVs into target cells, and provide insights into past and present outbreaks. The future of human CoV outbreaks will not only depend on how the viruses will evolve, but will also depend on how we develop efficient prevention and treatment strategies to deal with this continuous threat.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030186

RECORD 69
TITLE
  Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Thevarajan I.;  Nguyen T.H.O.;  Koutsakos M.;  Druce J.;  Caly L.;  van de Sandt C.E.;  Jia X.;  Nicholson S.;  Catton M.;  Cowie B.;  Tong S.Y.C.;  Lewin S.R.;  Kedzierska K.
SOURCE
  Nature Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0819-2

RECORD 70
TITLE
  Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) strain isolated in Nepal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sah R.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Jha R.;  Chu D.K.W.;  Gu H.;  Peiris M.;  Bastola A.;  Lal B.K.;  Ojha H.C.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Costello A.;  Morita K.;  Pandey B.D.;  Poon L.L.M.
SOURCE
  Microbiology Resource Announcements (2020) 9:11 Article Number: e00169-20. Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00169-20

RECORD 71
TITLE
  Laboratory readiness and response for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in expert laboratories in 30 EU/EEA countries, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Reusken C.B.E.M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Haagmans B.;  Meijer A.;  Corman V.M.;  Papa A.;  Charrel R.;  Drosten C.;  Koopmans M.;  Leitmeyer K.;  On Behalf Of Evd-LabNet And Erli-Net
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Timely detection of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection cases is crucial to interrupt the spread of this virus. We assessed the required expertise and capacity for molecular detection of 2019-nCoV in specialised laboratories in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Thirty-eight laboratories in 24 EU/EEA countries had diagnostic tests available by 29 January 2020. A coverage of all EU/EEA countries was expected by mid-February. Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000082

RECORD 72
TITLE
  Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tai W.;  He L.;  Zhang X.;  Pu J.;  Voronin D.;  Jiang S.;  Zhou Y.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Cellular & molecular immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4

RECORD 73
TITLE
  Li Wenliang, a face to the frontline healthcare worker. The first doctor to notify the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2, (COVID-19), outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Petersen E.;  Hui D.;  Hamer D.H.;  Blumberg L.;  Madoff L.C.;  Pollack M.;  Lee S.S.;  McLellan S.;  Memish Z.;  Praharaj I.;  Wasserman S.;  Ntoumi F.;  Azhar E.I.;  Mchugh T.D.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.;  Koopmans M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (205-207). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.052

RECORD 74
TITLE
  Screening of faecal microbiota transplant donors during the COVID-19 outbreak: suggestions for urgent updates from an international expert panel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ianiro G.;  Mullish B.H.;  Kelly C.R.;  Sokol H.;  Kassam Z.;  Ng S.;  Fischer M.;  Allegretti J.R.;  Masucci L.;  Zhang F.;  Keller J.;  Sanguinetti M.;  Costello S.P.;  Tilg H.;  Gasbarrini A.;  Cammarota G.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30082-0

RECORD 75
TITLE
  Potential factors influencing repeated SARS outbreaks in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Z.;  Thilakavathy K.;  Kumar S.S.;  He G.;  Liu S.V.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1633. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or-released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051633

RECORD 76
TITLE
  Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Calisher C.;  Carroll D.;  Colwell R.;  Corley R.B.;  Daszak P.;  Drosten C.;  Enjuanes L.;  Farrar J.;  Field H.;  Golding J.;  Gorbalenya A.;  Haagmans B.;  Hughes J.M.;  Karesh W.B.;  Keusch G.T.;  Lam S.K.;  Lubroth J.;  Mackenzie J.S.;  Madoff L.;  Mazet J.;  Palese P.;  Perlman S.;  Poon L.;  Roizman B.;  Saif L.;  Subbarao K.;  Turner M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (e42-e43). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30418-9

RECORD 77
TITLE
  Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Yang Y.;  Zhang C.;  Huang F.;  Wang F.;  Yuan J.;  Wang Z.;  Li J.;  Li J.;  Feng C.;  Zhang Z.;  Wang L.;  Peng L.;  Chen L.;  Qin Y.;  Zhao D.;  Tan S.;  Yin L.;  Xu J.;  Zhou C.;  Jiang C.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (364-374). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the 2019-nCoV infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and rapidly spread to many provinces in China as well as other countries. Here we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as potential biomarkers for predicting disease severity in 2019-nCoV-infected patients in Shenzhen, China. All 12 cases of the 2019-nCoV-infected patients developed pneumonia and half of them developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, decreased percentage of lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased CD8 count. The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury. Our results suggest a number of potential diagnosis biomarkers and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs for potential repurposing treatment of 2019-nCoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1643-8

RECORD 78
TITLE
  Passengers’ destinations from China: Low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haider N.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Simons D.;  Osman A.Y.;  Ntoumi F.;  Zumla A.;  Kock R.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and Infection (2020) Article Number: e41. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV [SARS-COV-2]) was detected in humans during the last week of December 2019 at Wuhan city in China, and caused 24 554 cases in 27 countries and territories as of 5 February 2020. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV through human passenger air flight from four major cities of China (Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) to the passengers’ destination countries. We extracted the weekly simulated passengers’ end destination data for the period of 1-31 January 2020 from FLIRT, an online air travel dataset that uses information from 800 airlines to show the direct flight and passengers’ end destination. We estimated a risk index of 2019-nCoV transmission based on the number of travellers to destination countries, weighted by the number of confirmed cases of the departed city reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). We ranked each country based on the risk index in four quantiles (4th quantile being the highest risk and 1st quantile being the lowest risk). During the period, 388 287 passengers were destined for 1297 airports in 168 countries or territories across the world. The risk index of 2019-nCoV among the countries had a very high correlation with the WHO-reported confirmed cases (0.97). According to our risk score classification, of the countries that reported at least one Coronavirus-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) case as of 5 February 2020, 24 countries were in the 4th quantile of the risk index, two in the 3rd quantile, one in the 2nd quantile and none in the 1st quantile. Outside China, countries with a higher risk of 2019-nCoV transmission are Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Canada and the USA, all of which reported at least one case. In pan-Europe, UK, France, Russia, Germany and Italy; in North America, USA and Canada; in Oceania, Australia had high risk, all of them reported at least one case. In Africa and South America, the risk of transmission is very low with Ethiopia, South Africa, Egypt, Mauritius and Brazil showing a similar risk of transmission compared to the risk of any of the countries where at least one case is detected. The risk of transmission on 31 January 2020 was very high in neighbouring Asian countries, followed by Europe (UK, France, Russia and Germany), Oceania (Australia) and North America (USA and Canada). Increased public health response including early case recognition, isolation of identified case, contract tracing and targeted airport screening, public awareness and vigilance of health workers will help mitigate the force of further spread to naïve countries.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000424

RECORD 79
TITLE
  Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wan Y.;  Shang J.;  Graham R.;  Baric R.S.;  Li F.
SOURCE
  Journal of virology (2020) 94:7. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged from Wuhan, China, causing symptoms in humans similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. Here, we analyzed the potential receptor usage by 2019-nCoV, based on the rich knowledge about SARS-CoV and the newly released sequence of 2019-nCoV. First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV’s capacity for human cell infection. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. These analyses provide insights into the receptor usage, cell entry, host cell infectivity and animal origin of 2019-nCoV and may help epidemic surveillance and preventive measures against 2019-nCoV.IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kapata N.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Ntoumi F.;  Raji T.;  Chanda-Kapata P.;  Mwaba P.;  Mukonka V.;  Bates M.;  Tembo J.;  Corman V.;  Mfinanga S.;  Asogun D.;  Elton L.;  Arruda L.B.;  Thomason M.J.;  Mboera L.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Haider N.;  Simons D.;  Hollmann L.;  Lule S.A.;  Veas F.;  Abdel Hamid M.M.;  Dar O.;  Edwards S.;  Vairo F.;  McHugh T.D.;  Drosten C.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (233-236). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.049