Immunology

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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Routine childhood immunization may protect against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Salman S.;  Salem M.L.
SOURCE
  Medical Hypotheses (2020) 140 Article Number: 109689. Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109689

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Mesenchymal stem cell infusion shows promise for combating coronavirus (COVID-19)-induced pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shetty A.K.
SOURCE
  Aging and Disease (2020) 11:2 (462-464). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new study published by the journal Aging & Disease reported that intravenous administration of clinical-grade human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in improved functional outcomes (Leng et al., Aging Dis, 11:216-228, 2020). This study demonstrated that intravenous infusion of MSCs is a safe and effective approach for treating patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, including elderly patients displaying severe pneumonia. COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, treating COVID-19 patients, particularly those afflicted with severe pneumonia, is challenging as no specific drugs or vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available. Therefore, MSC therapy inhibiting the overactivation of the immune system and promoting endogenous repair by improving the lung microenvironment after the SARS-CoV-2 infection found in this study is striking. Additional studies in a larger cohort of patients are needed to validate this therapeutic intervention further, however.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0301

RECORD 3
TITLE
  COVID-19: Pandemic Contingency Planning for the Allergy and Immunology Clinic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shaker M.S.;  Oppenheimer J.;  Grayson M.;  Stukus D.;  Hartog N.;  Hsieh E.W.Y.;  Rider N.;  Dutmer C.M.;  Vander Leek T.K.;  Kim H.;  Chan E.S.;  Mack D.;  Ellis A.K.;  Lang D.;  Lieberman J.;  Fleischer D.;  Golden D.B.K.;  Wallace D.;  Portnoy J.;  Mosnaim G.;  Greenhawt M.
SOURCE
  The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the event of a global infectious pandemic, drastic measures may be needed that limit or require adjustment of ambulatory allergy services. However, no rationale for how to prioritize service shut down and patient care exists. A consensus-based ad-hoc expert panel of allergy/immunology specialists from the United States and Canada developed a service and patient prioritization schematic to temporarily triage allergy/immunology services. Recommendations and feedback were developed iteratively, using an adapted modified Delphi methodology to achieve consensus. During the ongoing pandemic while social distancing is being encouraged, most allergy/immunology care could be postponed/delayed or handled through virtual care. With the exception of many patients with primary immunodeficiency, patients on venom immunotherapy, and patients with asthma of a certain severity, there is limited need for face-to-face visits under such conditions. These suggestions are intended to help provide a logical approach to quickly adjust service to mitigate risk to both medical staff and patients. Importantly, individual community circumstances may be unique and require contextual consideration. The decision to enact any of these measures rests with the judgment of each clinician and individual health care system. Pandemics are unanticipated, and enforced social distancing/quarantining is highly unusual. This expert panel consensus document offers a prioritization rational to help guide decision making when such situations arise and an allergist/immunologist is forced to reduce services or makes the decision on his or her own to do so.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.03.012

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin Y.;  Yang H.;  Ji W.;  Wu W.;  Chen S.;  Zhang W.;  Duan G.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:4 Article Number: 372. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

RECORD 5
TITLE
  Sars-cov-2 and coronavirus disease 2019: What we know so far
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rabi F.A.;  Al Zoubi M.S.;  Al-Nasser A.D.;  Kasasbeh G.A.;  Salameh D.M.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 231. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a cluster of fatal pneumonia cases presented in Wuhan, China. They were caused by a previously unknown coronavirus. All patients had been associated with the Wuhan Wholefood market, where seafood and live animals are sold. The virus spread rapidly and public health authorities in China initiated a containment effort. However, by that time, travelers had carried the virus to many countries, sparking memories of the previous coronavirus epidemics, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and causing widespread media attention and panic. Based on clinical criteria and available serological and molecular information, the new disease was called coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the novel coronavirus was called SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing its close relationship to the 2002 SARS virus (SARS-CoV). The scientific community raced to uncover the origin of the virus, understand the pathogenesis of the disease, develop treatment options, define the risk factors, and work on vaccine development. Here we present a summary of current knowledge regarding the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030231

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Telemedicine in the Era of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Portnoy J.;  Waller M.;  Elliott T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.03.008

RECORD 7
TITLE
  COVID-19 infection and rheumatoid arthritis: Faraway, so close!
AUTHOR NAMES
  Favalli E.G.;  Ingegnoli F.;  De Lucia O.;  Cincinelli G.;  Cimaz R.;  Caporali R.
SOURCE
  Autoimmunity Reviews (2020) Article Number: 102523. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the new coronavirus infections COVID-19 in December 2019 in China has quickly become a global health emergency. Given the lack of specific anti-viral therapies, the current management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly supportive, even though several compounds are now under investigation for the treatment of this life-threatening disease. COVID-19 pandemic is certainly conditioning the treatment strategy of a complex disorder as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whose infectious risk is increased compared to the general population because of an overall impairment of immune system typical of autoimmune diseases combined with the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. However, the increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is leading to consider some anti-rheumatic drugs as potential treatment options for the management of COVID-19. In this review we will critically analyse the evidences on either positive or negative effect of drugs commonly used to treat RA in this particular scenario, in order to optimize the current approach to RA patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102523

RECORD 8
TITLE
  Evolving reporting criteria of COVID-19 in Taiwan during the epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang Y.-C.;  Lee P.-I.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.014

RECORD 9
TITLE
  Why are pregnant women susceptible to COVID-19? An immunological viewpoint
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu H.;  Wang L.-L.;  Zhao S.-J.;  Kwak-Kim J.;  Mor G.;  Liao A.-H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2020) 139 Article Number: 103122. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019 and became epidemic in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 has been rapidly spreading out in China and all over the world. The virus causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 has been known to be genetically similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) but distinct from it. Clinical manifestation of COVID-19 can be characterized by mild upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection involving non-life threatening pneumonia, and life-threatening pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome. It affects all age groups, including newborns, to the elders. Particularly, pregnant women may be more susceptible to COVID-19 since pregnant women, in general, are vulnerable to respiratory infection. In pregnant women with COVID-19, there is no evidence for vertical transmission of the virus, but an increased prevalence of preterm deliveries has been noticed. The COVID-19 may alter immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, and affect the well-being of mothers and infants. In this review, we focused on the reason why pregnant women are more susceptible to COVID-19 and the potential maternal and fetal complications from an immunological viewpoint.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2020.103122

RECORD 10
TITLE
  A Sequence Homology and Bioinformatic Approach Can Predict Candidate Targets for Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Grifoni A.;  Sidney J.;  Zhang Y.;  Scheuermann R.H.;  Peters B.;  Sette A.
SOURCE
  Cell Host and Microbe (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Effective countermeasures against the recent emergence and rapid expansion of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) require the development of data and tools to understand and monitor its spread and immune responses to it. However, little information is available about the targets of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. We used the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) to catalog available data related to other coronaviruses. This includes SARS-CoV, which has high sequence similarity to SARS-CoV-2 and is the best-characterized coronavirus in terms of epitope responses. We identified multiple specific regions in SARS-CoV-2 that have high homology to the SARS-CoV virus. Parallel bioinformatic predictions identified a priori potential B and T cell epitopes for SARS-CoV-2. The independent identification of the same regions using two approaches reflects the high probability that these regions are promising targets for immune recognition of SARS-CoV-2. These predictions can facilitate effective vaccine design against this virus of high priority.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.002

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Expanded Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs) as a Therapeutic Strategy in Managing Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: The Case for Compassionate Use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Atluri S.;  Manchikanti L.;  Hirsch J.A.
SOURCE
  Pain physician (2020) 23:2 (E71-E83). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 has affected the United States leading to a national emergency with health care and economic impact, propelling the country into a recession with disrupted lifestyles not seen in recent history. COVID-19 is a serious illness leading to multiple deaths in various countries including the United States. Several million Americans satisfy the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for being high risk. Unfortunately, the available supply of medical beds and equipment for mechanical ventilation are much less than is projected to be needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and multiple agencies led by the CDC in the United States have attempted to organize intensive outbreak investigation programs utilizing appropriate preventive measures, evaluation, and treatment. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic forms to conditions encompassing multiorgan and systemic manifestations in terms of septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) syndromes. The presently approved treatments are supportive but not curative for the disease. There are multiple treatments being studied. These include vaccines, medications Remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine and potentially combination therapy. Finally, expanded umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells or (UC-MSCs) may have a role and are being studied. The cure of COVID-19 is essentially dependent on the patients’ own immune system. When the immune system is over activated in an attempt to kill the virus, this can lead to the production of a large number of inflammatory factors, resulting in severe cytokine storm. The cytokine storm may induce organ damage followed by the edema, dysfunction of air exchange, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute cardiac injury, and secondary infection, which may lead to death. Thus, at this point, the avoidance of the cytokine storm may be the key for the treatment of HCOV-19 infected patients.In China, where there was limited availability of effective modalities to manage COVID-19 several patients were treated with expanded UC-MSCs. Additionally, the Italian College of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care have reported guidelines to treat coronavirus patients with stem cells in the hope of decreasing the number of patients going to the ICU, and, also relatively quickly getting them out of ICU. In this manuscript, we describe the urgent need for various solutions, pathogenesis of coronavirus and the clinical evidence for treatment of COVID-19 with stem cells. The limited but emerging evidence regarding UC MSC in managing COVID-19 suggests that it might be considered for compassionate use in critically ill patients to reduce morbidity and mortality in the United States. The administration and Coronavirus Task Force might wish to approach the potential of expanded UC-MSCs as an evolutionary therapeutic strategy in managing COVID-19 illness with a 3-pronged approach: If proven safe and effective on a specific and limited basis…1. Minimize regulatory burden by all agencies so that critically ill COVID-19 patients will have access regardless of their financial circumstance.2. Institute appropriate safeguards to avoid negative consequences from unscrupulous actors.3. With proper informed consent from patients or proxy when necessary, and subject to accumulation of data in that cohort, allow the procedure to be initiated in critically ill patients who are not responding to conventional therapies.KEY WORDS: Coronavirus, COVID-19, cytokine storm, multiorgan failure, expanded umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Could Intravenous Immunoglobulin Collected from Recovered Coronavirus Patients Protect against COVID-19 and Strengthen the Immune System of New Patients?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jawhara S.
SOURCE
  International journal of molecular sciences (2020) 21:7. Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of the novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China, which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans (COVID-19), has become a global health concern. Most coronaviruses infect animals but can evolve into strains that cross the species barrier and infect humans. At the present, there is no single specific vaccine or efficient antiviral therapy against COVID-19. Recently, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment reduces inflammation of intestinal epithelial cells and eliminates overgrowth of the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans in the murine gut. Immunotherapy with IVIg could be employed to neutralize COVID-19. However, the efficacy of IVIg would be better if the immune IgG antibodies were collected from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 in the same city, or the surrounding area, in order to increase the chance of neutralizing the virus. These immune IgG antibodies will be specific against COVID-19 by boosting the immune response in newly infected patients. Different procedures may be used to remove or inactivate any possible pathogens from the plasma of recovered coronavirus patient derived immune IgG, including solvent/detergent, 60 °C heat-treatment, and nanofiltration. Overall, immunotherapy with immune IgG antibodies combined with antiviral drugs may be an alternative treatment against COVID-19 until stronger options such as vaccines are available.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072272

RECORD 13
TITLE
  Clinical and immunologic features in severe and moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen G.;  Wu D.;  Guo W.;  Cao Y.;  Huang D.;  Wang H.;  Wang T.;  Zhang X.;  Chen H.;  Yu H.;  Zhang X.;  Zhang M.;  Wu S.;  Song J.;  Chen T.;  Han M.;  Li S.;  Luo X.;  Zhao J.;  Ning Q.
SOURCE
  The Journal of clinical investigation (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunologic features of severe and moderate COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical and immunologic characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the Guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China. RESULTS: The median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough and fatigue. Compared to moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute number of T lymphocytes, CD4+T and CD8+T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5 and 89.0 × 106/L) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5 and 254.0 × 106/L). The expressions of IFN-γ by CD4+T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than moderate cases (22.8%). CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes particularly CD4+T and CD8+ T cells, resulting in decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production. These potential immunological markers may be of importance due to their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI137244

RECORD 14
TITLE
  The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The experience of clinical immunologists from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang W.;  Zhao Y.;  Zhang F.;  Wang Q.;  Li T.;  Liu Z.;  Wang J.;  Qin Y.;  Zhang X.;  Yan X.;  Zeng X.;  Zhang S.
SOURCE
  Clinical Immunology (2020) 214 Article Number: 108393. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading all over the world. Reports from China showed that about 20% of patients developed severe disease, resulting in a fatality of 4%. In the past two months, we clinical immunologists participated in multi-rounds of MDT (multidiscipline team) discussion on the anti-inflammation management of critical COVID-19 patients, with our colleagues dispatched from Chinese leading PUMC Hospital to Wuhan to admit and treat the most severe patients. Here, from the perspective of clinical immunologists, we will discuss the clinical and immunological characteristics of severe patients, and summarize the current evidence and share our experience in anti-inflammation treatment, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 antagonist, JAK inhibitors and choloroquine/hydrocholoroquine, of patients with severe COVID-19 that may have an impaired immune system.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108393

RECORD 15
TITLE
  Practical Strategies Against the Novel Coronavirus and COVID-19—the Imminent Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rahimi F.;  Talebi Bezmin Abadi A.
SOURCE
  Archives of Medical Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The last month of 2019 harbingered the emergence of a viral outbreak that is now a major public threat globally. COVID-19 was first diagnosed and confirmed in a couple of cases with unknown pneumonia; the patients lived in, or travelled to, Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province. People now face a complex challenge that deserves urgent intervention by all involved in medical healthcare globally. Conventional antiviral therapies or vaccines are the most referred means of tackling the virus, but we think establishing these ideal management strategies is presently far-fetched. In-house isolation or quarantine of suspected cases to keep hospital admissions manageable and prevent in-hospital spread of the virus, and promoting general awareness about transmission routes are the practical strategies used to tackle the spread of COVID-19. Cases with weakened or compromised immune systems—for example, elderly individuals, young children, and those with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases—are particularly more susceptible to COVID-19. Hopefully, cumulative data using whole-genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in parallel with mathematical modeling will help the molecular biologists to understand unknown features of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.03.005

RECORD 16
TITLE
  COVID-19: the new challenge for rheumatologists
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ferro F.;  Elefante E.;  Baldini C.;  Bartoloni E.;  Puxeddu I.;  Talarico R.;  Mosca M.;  Bombardieri S.
SOURCE
  Clinical and experimental rheumatology (2020) 38:2 (175-180). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tai W.;  He L.;  Zhang X.;  Pu J.;  Voronin D.;  Jiang S.;  Zhou Y.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Cellular & molecular immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zheng M.;  Gao Y.;  Wang G.;  Song G.;  Liu S.;  Sun D.;  Xu Y.;  Tian Z.
SOURCE
  Cellular & molecular immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0402-2

RECORD 19
TITLE
  Serological and molecular findings during SARS-CoV-2 infection: the first case study in Finland, January to February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haveri A.;  Smura T.;  Kuivanen S.;  Österlund P.;  Hepojoki J.;  Ikonen N.;  Pitkäpaasi M.;  Blomqvist S.;  Rönkkö E.;  Kantele A.;  Strandin T.;  Kallio-Kokko H.;  Mannonen L.;  Lappalainen M.;  Broas M.;  Jiang M.;  Siira L.;  Salminen M.;  Puumalainen T.;  Sane J.;  Melin M.;  Vapalahti O.;  Savolainen-Kopra C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:11. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Finland was confirmed on 29 January 2020. No secondary cases were detected. We describe the clinical picture and laboratory findings 3-23 days since the first symptoms. The SARS-CoV-2/Finland/1/2020 virus strain was isolated, the genome showing a single nucleotide substitution to the reference strain from Wuhan. Neutralising antibody response appeared within 9 days along with specific IgM and IgG response, targeting particularly nucleocapsid and spike proteins.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.11.2000266

RECORD 20
TITLE
  The Rheumatologist’s Role in Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cron R.Q.;  Chatham W.W.
SOURCE
  The Journal of rheumatology (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has spread rapidly throughout the planet. It is believed to have originated in the Wuhan province of China, but this highly contagious respiratory virus has spread to over 140 countries on 6 continents as of mid-March 2020 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Worldwide, there have been over 164,000 cases identified and over 6,500 deaths attributed to the viral infection. As of March 15, 2020, there are over 3,700 confirmed cases and 68 deaths ascribed to Covid-19 (the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2) in the United States [https://www.livescience.com/coronavirus-updates-unitedstates.html].
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.200334

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Leukoerythroblastic reaction in a patient with COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mitra A.;  Dwyre D.M.;  Schivo M.;  Thompson G.R.;  Cohen S.H.;  Ku N.;  Graff J.P.
SOURCE
  American journal of hematology (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25793

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Insights into the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (Sars-coV-2) in light of past human coronavirus outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ashour H.M.;  Elkhatib W.F.;  Rahman M.M.;  Elshabrawy H.A.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 186. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that have become a major public health concern since the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV) outbreak in 2002. The continuous evolution of coronaviruses was further highlighted with the emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) outbreak in 2012. Currently, the world is concerned about the 2019 novel CoV (SARS-CoV-2) that was initially identified in the city of Wuhan, China in December 2019. Patients presented with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness. The number of cases has been mounting since then. As of late February 2020, tens of thousands of cases and several thousand deaths have been reported in China alone, in addition to thousands of cases in other countries. Although the fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is currently lower than SARS-CoV, the virus seems to be highly contagious based on the number of infected cases to date. In this review, we discuss structure, genome organization, entry of CoVs into target cells, and provide insights into past and present outbreaks. The future of human CoV outbreaks will not only depend on how the viruses will evolve, but will also depend on how we develop efficient prevention and treatment strategies to deal with this continuous threat.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030186

RECORD 23
TITLE
  COVID-19, an emerging coronavirus infection: advances and prospects in designing and developing vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and therapeutics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dhama K.;  Sharun K.;  Tiwari R.;  Dadar M.;  Malik Y.S.;  Singh K.P.;  Chaicumpa W.
SOURCE
  Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19 or Coronavirus disease 2019) that emerged from Wuhan, Hubei province of China has spread to many countries worldwide. Efforts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus (CoV) infections such as MERS and SARS in the past decades. However, to date, no licensed antiviral treatment or vaccine exists for MERS and SARS. Most of the efforts for developing CoV vaccines and drugs target the spike glycoprotein or S protein, the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies. Although a few candidates have shown efficacy in in vitro studies, not many have progressed to randomized animal or human trials, hence may have limited use to counter COVID-19 infection. This article highlights ongoing advances in designing vaccines and therapeutics to counter COVID-19 while also focusing on such experiences and advances as made with earlier SARS- and MERS-CoVs, which together could enable efforts to halt this emerging virus infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1735227

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio is associated with prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qu R.;  Ling Y.;  Zhang Y.-H.-Z.;  Wei L.-Y.;  Chen X.;  Li X.-M.;  Liu X.-Y.;  Liu H.-M.;  Guo Z.;  Ren H.;  Wang Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Abstract: Since December 2019, novel coronavirus infected pneumonia emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. In severe novel coronavirus pneumonia cases, the number of platelets, their dynamic changes during the treatment, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were a concern. We sought to describe the platelet feature of these cases. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in Huizhou municipal central hospital from January 2020 to February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical, blood routine results, other laboratory results, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of severe patients and nonsevere patients were compared. Univariate analysis showed that: age, platelet peaks, and PLR at peak platelet were the influencing factors in severe patients, multivariate analysis showed that the PLR value at peak platelet during treatment was an independent influencing factor in severe patients. The average hospitalization day of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was longer than those without platelet peaks (P <.05). The average age of patients with platelet peaks during treatment was older than those without platelet peaks (P <.05). The patients with significantly elevated platelets during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. And the higher PLR of patients during treatment had longer average hospitalization days. Single-center case series of the 30 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Huizhou Municipal Central Hospital, presumed that the number of platelets and their dynamic changes during the treatment may have a suggestion on the severity and prognosis of the disease. The patient with markedly elevated platelets and longer average hospitalization days may be related to the cytokine storm. The PLR of patients means the degree of cytokine storm, which might provide a new indicator in the monitoring in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25767

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Lymphopenic community acquired pneumonia as signature of severe COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bermejo-Martin J.F.;  Almansa R.;  Menéndez R.;  Mendez R.;  Kelvin D.J.;  Torres A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.029

RECORD 26
TITLE
  Featuring COVID-19 cases via screening symptomatic patients with epidemiologic link during flu season in a medical center of central Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsih W.-H.;  Cheng M.-Y.;  Ho M.-W.;  Chou C.-H.;  Lin P.-C.;  Chi C.-Y.;  Liao W.-C.;  Chen C.-Y.;  Leong L.-Y.;  Tien N.;  Lai H.-C.;  Lai Y.-C.;  Lu M.-C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CO-V-2), was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China has now rapidly spread over 50 countries. For the prevention and control of infection, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control initiated testing of SARS-CoV-2 on January 24th 2020 for persons suspected with this disease. Until February 28th, 43 flu-like symptomatic patients were screened in China Medical University Hospital. Methods: Two patients were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR as COVID-19 patients A and B. Causative pathogens for included patients were detected using FilmArray™ Respiratory Panel. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical presentations, laboratory data, radiologic findings, and travel and exposure contact histories, of the COVID-19 patients in comparison to those with other respiratory infections. Results: Through contact with Taiwan No. 19 case patient on 27th January, COVID-19 patients A and B were infected. Both patients had no identified comorbidities and developed mild illness with temporal fever, persistent cough, and lung interstitial infiltrates. Owing to the persistence of positive SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimen, the two COVID-19 patients are still in the isolation rooms despite recovery until 10th of March. The results of FilmArrayTM Respiratory Panel revealed 22 of the 41 non-COVID-19 patients were infected by particular pathogens. In general, seasonal respiratory pathogens are more prevalent than SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients in non- COVID-19 endemic area during the flu season. Since all patients shared similar clinical and laboratory findings, expanded surveillance of detailed exposure history for suspected patients and application of rapid detection tools are highly recommended.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.008

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Prompetchara E.;  Ketloy C.;  Palaga T.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2020) 38:1 (1-9). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the world is witnessing the epidemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerging genetics and clinical evidences suggest a similar path to those of SARS and MERS. The rapid genomic sequencing and open access data, together with advanced vaccine technology, are expected to give us more knowledge on the pathogen itself, including the host immune response as well as the plan for therapeutic vaccines in the near future. This review aims to provide a comparative view among SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the newly epidemic SARS-CoV-2, in the hope to gain a better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, host immune responses, and the pathogen immune evasion strategies. This predictive view may help in designing an immune intervention or preventive vaccine for COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0772

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Perspectives on monoclonal antibody therapy as potential therapeutic intervention for Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shanmugaraj B.;  Siriwattananon K.;  Wangkanont K.;  Phoolcharoen W.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2020) 38:1 (10-18). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Last decade witnessed the outbreak of many life-threatening human pathogens including Nipah, Ebola, Chikungunya, Zika, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and more recently novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2). The disease condition associated with novel coronavirus, referred to as Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The emergence of novel coronavirus in 2019 in Wuhan, China marked the third highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting humans in the 21st century. The continuing emergence of coronaviruses at regular intervals poses a significant threat to human health and economy. Ironically, even after a decade of research on coronavirus, still there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutic agents to treat coronavirus infection which highlights an urgent need to develop effective vaccines or post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent future epidemics. Several clinical, genetic and epidemiological features of COVID-19 resemble SARS-CoV infection. Hence, the research advancements on SARS-CoV treatment might help scientific community in quick understanding of this virus pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic/prophylactic agents to treat and prevent this infection. Monoclonal antibodies represent the major class of biotherapeutics for passive immunotherapy to fight against viral infection. The therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies has been well recognized in the treatment of many diseases. Here, we summarize the potential monoclonal antibody based therapeutic intervention for COVID-19 by considering the existing knowledge on the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against similar coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Further research on COVID-19 pathogenesis could identify appropriate therapeutic targets to develop specific anti-virals against this newly emerging pathogen.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0773

RECORD 29
TITLE
  Insights from nanomedicine into chloroquine efficacy against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu T.Y.;  Frieman M.;  Wolfram J.
SOURCE
  Nature nanotechnology (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-020-0674-9

RECORD 30
TITLE
  COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun J.;  He W.-T.;  Wang L.;  Lai A.;  Ji X.;  Zhai X.;  Li G.;  Suchard M.A.;  Tian J.;  Zhou J.;  Veit M.;  Su S.
SOURCE
  Trends in Molecular Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan turned into a public health emergency of international concern. With no antiviral drugs nor vaccines, and the presence of carriers without obvious symptoms, traditional public health intervention measures are significantly less effective. Here, we report the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. We propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu X.;  Chen P.;  Wang J.;  Feng J.;  Zhou H.;  Li X.;  Zhong W.;  Hao P.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (457-460). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kruse R.L.
SOURCE
  F1000Research (2020) 9 (72). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) originating in Wuhan, China presents a potential respiratory viral pandemic to the world population. Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals. Ultimately, the outbreak could be controlled with a protective vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. While vaccine research should be pursued intensely, there exists today no therapy to treat 2019-nCoV upon infection, despite an urgent need to find options to help these patients and preclude potential death. Herein, I review the potential options to treat 2019-nCoV in patients, with an emphasis on the necessity for speed and timeliness in developing new and effective therapies in this outbreak. I consider the options of drug repurposing, developing neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy, and an oligonucleotide strategy targeting the viral RNA genome, emphasizing the promise and pitfalls of these approaches. Finally, I advocate for the fastest strategy to develop a treatment now, which could be resistant to any mutations the virus may have in the future. The proposal is a biologic that blocks 2019-nCoV entry using a soluble version of the viral receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), fused to an immunoglobulin Fc domain, providing a neutralizing antibody with maximal breath to avoid any viral escape, while also helping to recruit the immune system to build lasting immunity. The sequence of the ACE2-Fc protein is provided to investigators, allowing its possible use in recombinant protein expression systems to start producing drug today to treat patients under compassionate use, while formal clinical trials are later undertaken. Such a treatment could help infected patients before a protective vaccine is developed and widely available in the coming months to year(s).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.22211.2

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiang S.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7799 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00751-9

RECORD 34
TITLE
  COVID-19 pneumonia: infection control protocol inside computed tomography suites
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nakajima K.;  Kato H.;  Yamashiro T.;  Izumi T.;  Takeuchi I.;  Nakajima H.;  Utsunomiya D.
SOURCE
  Japanese journal of radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) causes a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It spread rapidly and globally. CT imaging is helpful for the evaluation of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Infection control inside the CT suites is also important to prevent hospital-related transmission of COVID-19. We present our experience with infection control protocol for COVID-19 inside the CT suites.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-00948-y

RECORD 35
TITLE
  COVID-19: a recommendation to examine the effect of hydroxychloroquine in preventing infection and progression
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou D.;  Dai S.-M.;  Tong Q.
SOURCE
  The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, has swept across 31 provinces in China and over 40 countries worldwide. The transition from first symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is highly likely to be due to uncontrolled cytokine release. There is an urgent need to identify safe and effective drugs for treatment. Chloroquine (CQ) exhibits a promising inhibitory effect. However, the clinical use of CQ can cause severe side effects. We propose that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which exhibits an antiviral effect highly similar to that of CQ, could serve as a better therapeutic approach. HCQ is likely to attenuate the severe progression of COVID-19, inhibiting the cytokine storm by suppressing T cell activation. It has a safer clinical profile and is suitable for those who are pregnant. It is cheaper and more readily available in China. We herein strongly urge that clinical trials are performed to assess the preventive effects of HCQ in both disease infection and progression.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa114

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Hypothesis for potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection-a review of immune changes in patients with viral pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin L.;  Lu L.;  Cao W.;  Li T.
SOURCE
  Emerging microbes & infections (2020) 9:1 (727-732). Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with droplets and contact as the main means of transmission. Since the first case appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the outbreak has gradually spread nationwide. Up to now, according to official data released by the Chinese health commission, the number of newly diagnosed patients has been declining, and the epidemic is gradually being controlled. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection, some patients developed severe and die from multiple organ complications. The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans remains unclear. Immune function is a strong defense against invasive pathogens and there is currently no specific antiviral drug against the virus. This article reviews the immunological changes of coronaviruses like SARS, MERS and other viral pneumonia similar to SARS-CoV-2. Combined with the published literature, the potential pathogenesis of COVID-19 is inferred, and the treatment recommendations for giving high-doses intravenous immunoglobulin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant therapy to severe type patients are proposed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1746199

RECORD 37
TITLE
  Machine Learning, COVID-19 (2019-nCoV), and multi-OMICS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020) 97:3 (215-216). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23990

RECORD 38
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: a potential approach for coronavirus infection therapy?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Batlle D.;  Wysocki J.;  Satchell K.
SOURCE
  Clinical science (London, England : 1979) (2020) 134:5 (543-545). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new coronavirus, referred to as SARS-CoV-2, is responsible for the recent outbreak of severe respiratory disease. This outbreak first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread to other regions of China and to 25 other countries as of January, 2020. It has been known since the 2003 SARS epidemic that the receptor critical for SARS-CoV entry into host cells is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The S1 domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV attaches the virus to its cellular receptor ACE2 on the host cells. We thought that it is timely to explain the connection between the SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, ACE2 and the rationale for soluble ACE2 as a potential therapy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200163

RECORD 40
TITLE
  Advances in the research of mechanism of pulmonary fibrosis induced by Corona Virus Disease 2019 and the corresponding therapeutic measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang J.;  Wang B.J.;  Yang J.C.;  Wang M.Y.;  Chen C.;  Luo G.X.;  He W.F.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns (2020) 36 (E006). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbroke in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbroke in Guangzhou, China in 2003 were caused by highly pathogenic coronaviruses with high homology. Since the 2019 novel coronavirus has strong transmissibility and progress rapidly. It has caused negative social effects and massive economic damage on a global scale. While there is currently no vaccine or effective drugs. Pulmonary fibrosis is a pulmonary disease with progressive fibrosis, which is the main factor leading to pulmonary dysfunction and quality of life decline in SARS survivors after recovery. Extensive epidemiological, viral immunological, and current clinical evidences support the possibility that pulmonary fibrosis may be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients. Although there are no reports on the mechanism of COVID-19 inducing pulmonary fibrosis, based on the existing theoretical basis, we focus on the possible mechanism of COVID-19 sustained lung damaging, the key role of abnormal immune mechanism in the initiation and promotion of pulmonary fibrosis, and the corresponding therapeutic measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn501120-20200307-00132

RECORD 41
TITLE
  A Generic Computer-Assisted Four-Pronged Approach for the Management of Emerging Global Pathogens: Some Comments on COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Basak S.C.;  Majumdar S.;  Vracko M.;  Nandy A.;  Bhattacharjee A.
SOURCE
  Current computer-aided drug design (2020). Date of Publication: 15 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573409916999200316102548

RECORD 42
TITLE
  The Cholera Epidemics in Hamburg and What to Learn for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
    © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23999

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): Facts and myths
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Liu Y.H.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Wang Y.-H.;  Hsueh S.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.;  Ko W.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (formerly known as the 2019 novel coronavirus [2019-nCoV]) in Wuhan, China in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more than 75,000 cases have been reported in 32 countries/regions, resulting in more than 2000 deaths worldwide. Despite the fact that most COVID-19 cases and mortalities were reported in China, the WHO has declared this outbreak as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. The COVID-19 can present as an asymptomatic carrier state, acute respiratory disease, and pneumonia. Adults represent the population with the highest infection rate; however, neonates, children, and elderly patients can also be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, nosocomial infection of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers, and viral transmission from asymptomatic carriers are possible. The most common finding on chest imaging among patients with pneumonia was ground-glass opacity with bilateral involvement. Severe cases are more likely to be older patients with underlying comorbidities compared to mild cases. Indeed, age and disease severity may be correlated with the outcomes of COVID-19. To date, effective treatment is lacking; however, clinical trials investigating the efficacy of several agents, including remdesivir and chloroquine, are underway in China. Currently, effective infection control intervention is the only way to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.012

RECORD 44
TITLE
  Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Porcheddu R.;  Serra C.;  Kelvin D.;  Kelvin N.;  Rubino S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (2020) 14:2 (125-128). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of 28 February 2020, Italy had 888 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with most cases in Northern Italy in the Lombardia and Veneto regions. Travel-related cases were the main source of COVID-19 cases during the early stages of the current epidemic in Italy. The month of February, however, has been dominated by two large clusters of outbreaks in Northern Italy, south of Milan, with mainly local transmission the source of infections. Contact tracing has failed to identify patient zero in one of the outbreaks. As of 28 February 2020, twenty-one cases of COVID-19 have died. Comparison between case fatality rates in China and Italy are identical at 2.3. Additionally, deaths are similar in both countries with fatalities in mostly the elderly with known comorbidities. It will be important to develop point-of-care devices to aid clinicians in stratifying elderly patients as early as possible to determine the potential level of care they will require to improve their chances of survival from COVID-19 disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12600

RECORD 45
TITLE
  Internationally lost COVID-19 cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lau H.;  Khosrawipour V.;  Kocbach P.;  Mikolajczyk A.;  Ichii H.;  Schubert J.;  Bania J.;  Khosrawipour T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: With its epicenter in Wuhan, China, the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). While many countries have implemented flight restrictions to China, an increasing number of cases with or without travel background to China are confirmed daily. These developments support concerns on possible unidentified and unreported international COVID-19 cases, which could lead to new local disease epicenters. Methods: We have analyzed all available data on the development of international COVID-19 cases from January 20th, 2020 until February 18th, 2020. COVID-19 cases with and without travel history to China were divided into cohorts according to the Healthcare Access and Quality Index (HAQ-Index) of each country. Chi-square and Post-hoc testing were performed. Results: While COVID-19 cases with travel history to China seem to peak for each HAQ-cohort, the number of non-travel related COVID-19 cases seem to continuously increase in the HAQ-cohort of countries with higher medical standards. Further analyses demonstrate a significantly lower proportion of reported COVID-19 cases without travel history to China in countries with lower HAQ (HAQ I vs. HAQ II, posthoc p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our data indicate that countries with lower HAQ-index may either underreport COVID-19 cases or are unable to adequately detect them. Although our data may be incomplete and must be interpreted with caution, inconsistencies in reporting COVID-19 cases is a serious problem which might sabotage efforts to contain the virus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.013

RECORD 46
TITLE
  TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Yang X.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 emerges as a pandemic disease with high mortality. Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need. We reviewed TH17 responses in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and proposed an FDA approved JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib for reducing mortality of patients with TH17 type immune profiles.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.005

RECORD 47
TITLE
  Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yen M.-Y.;  Schwartz J.;  Chen S.-Y.;  King C.-C.;  Yang G.-Y.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan’s 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector – the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.011

RECORD 48
TITLE
  Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.;  Qi T.;  Liu L.;  Ling Y.;  Qian Z.;  Li T.;  Li F.;  Xu Q.;  Zhang Y.;  Xu S.;  Song Z.;  Zeng Y.;  Shen Y.;  Shi Y.;  Zhu T.;  Lu H.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P<0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P<0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR]=1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR=0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Thevarajan I.;  Nguyen T.H.O.;  Koutsakos M.;  Druce J.;  Caly L.;  van de Sandt C.E.;  Jia X.;  Nicholson S.;  Catton M.;  Cowie B.;  Tong S.Y.C.;  Lewin S.R.;  Kedzierska K.
SOURCE
  Nature Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0819-2

RECORD 50
TITLE
  Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Affect the Eyes? A Review of Coronaviruses and Ocular Implications in Humans and Animals
AUTHOR NAMES
  Seah I.;  Agrawal R.
SOURCE
  Ocular Immunology and Inflammation (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (CoV) epidemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus–2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from China. This virus causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since then, there have been anecdotal reports of ocular infection. The ocular implications of human CoV infections have not been widely studied. However, CoVs have been known to cause various ocular infections in animals. Clinical entities such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, retinitis, and optic neuritis have been documented in feline and murine models. In this article, the current evidence suggesting possible human CoV infection of ocular tissue is reviewed. The review article will also highlight animal CoVs and their associated ocular infections. We hope that this article will serve as a start for further research into the ocular implications of human CoV infections.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2020.1738501

RECORD 51
TITLE
  A case of COVID-19 and pneumonia returning from Macau in Taiwan: Clinical course and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG dynamic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee N.-Y.;  Li C.-W.;  Tsai H.-P.;  Chen P.-L.;  Syue L.-S.;  Li M.-C.;  Tsai C.-S.;  Lo C.-L.;  Hsueh P.-R.;  Ko W.-C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with 2-day fever and cough at seven days after returning from Macau. COVID-19 and pneumonia was diagnosed based on the positive real-time RT-PCR tests for oropharyngeal swab samples and the presence of anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG starting from the illness day 11 and post-exposure 18–21 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.003

RECORD 52
TITLE
  The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Casadevall A.;  Pirofski L.-A.
SOURCE
  The Journal of clinical investigation (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138003

RECORD 53
TITLE
  Elevated exhaustion levels and reduced functional diversity of T cells in peripheral blood may predict severe progression in COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zheng H.-Y.;  Zhang M.;  Yang C.-X.;  Zhang N.;  Wang X.-C.;  Yang X.-P.;  Dong X.-Q.;  Zheng Y.-T.
SOURCE
  Cellular and Molecular Immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0401-3

RECORD 54
TITLE
  Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ruan Q.;  Yang K.;  Wang W.;  Jiang L.;  Song J.
SOURCE
  Intensive Care Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-05991-x

RECORD 55
TITLE
  Evolutionary history, potential intermediate animal host, and cross-species analyses of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Zai J.;  Zhao Q.;  Nie Q.;  Li Y.;  Foley B.T.;  Chaillon A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  To investigate the evolutionary history of the recent outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China, a total of 70 genomes of virus strains from China and elsewhere with sampling dates between 24 December 2019 and 3 February 2020 were analyzed. To explore the potential intermediate animal host of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, we reanalyzed virome data sets from pangolins and representative SARS-related coronaviruses isolates from bats, with particular attention paid to the spike glycoprotein gene. We performed phylogenetic, split network, transmission network, likelihood-mapping, and comparative analyses of the genomes. Based on Bayesian time-scaled phylogenetic analysis using the tip-dating method, we estimated the time to the most recent common ancestor and evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2, which ranged from 22 to 24 November 2019 and 1.19 to 1.31 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, respectively. Our results also revealed that the BetaCoV/bat/Yunnan/RaTG13/2013 virus was more similar to the SARS-CoV-2 virus than the coronavirus obtained from the two pangolin samples (SRR10168377 and SRR10168378). We also identified a unique peptide (PRRA) insertion in the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which may be involved in the proteolytic cleavage of the spike protein by cellular proteases, and thus could impact host range and transmissibility. Interestingly, the coronavirus carried by pangolins did not have the RRAR motif. Therefore, we concluded that the human SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is responsible for the recent outbreak of COVID-19, did not come directly from pangolins.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25731

RECORD 56
TITLE
  The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang Y.;  Peng F.;  Wang R.;  Guan K.;  Jiang T.;  Xu G.;  Sun J.;  Chang C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Autoimmunity (2020) Article Number: 102434. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and is the cause of the disease named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002–2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Are children less susceptible to COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee P.-I.;  Hu Y.-L.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Huang Y.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.011

RECORD 58
TITLE
  Persistence and clearance of viral RNA in 2019 novel coronavirus disease rehabilitation patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ling Y.;  Xu S.-B.;  Lin Y.-X.;  Tian D.;  Zhu Z.-Q.;  Dai F.-H.;  Wu F.;  Song Z.-G.;  Huang W.;  Chen J.;  Hu B.-J.;  Wang S.;  Mao E.-Q.;  Zhu L.;  Zhang W.-H.;  Lu H.-Z.
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A patient’s infectivity is determined by the presence of the virus in different body fluids, secretions, and excreta. The persistence and clearance of viral RNA from different specimens of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remain unclear. This study analyzed the clearance time and factors influencing 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) RNA in different samples from patients with COVID-19, providing further evidence to improve the management of patients during convalescence. METHODS: The clinical data and laboratory test results of convalescent patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to from January 20, 2020 to February 10, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for patients’ oropharyngeal swab, stool, urine, and serum samples were collected and analyzed. Convalescent patients refer to recovered non-febrile patients without respiratory symptoms who had two successive (minimum 24 h sampling interval) negative RT-PCR results for viral RNA from oropharyngeal swabs. The effects of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)+ T lymphocytes, inflammatory indicators, and glucocorticoid treatment on viral nucleic acid clearance were analyzed. RESULTS: In the 292 confirmed cases, 66 patients recovered after treatment and were included in our study. In total, 28 (42.4%) women and 38 men (57.6%) with a median age of 44.0 (34.0-62.0) years were analyzed. After in-hospital treatment, patients’ inflammatory indicators decreased with improved clinical condition. The median time from the onset of symptoms to first negative RT-PCR results for oropharyngeal swabs in convalescent patients was 9.5 (6.0-11.0) days. By February 10, 2020, 11 convalescent patients (16.7%) still tested positive for viral RNA from stool specimens and the other 55 patients’ stool specimens were negative for 2019-nCoV following a median duration of 11.0 (9.0-16.0) days after symptom onset. Among these 55 patients, 43 had a longer duration until stool specimens were negative for viral RNA than for throat swabs, with a median delay of 2.0 (1.0-4.0) days. Results for only four (6.9%) urine samples were positive for viral nucleic acid out of 58 cases; viral RNA was still present in three patients’ urine specimens after throat swabs were negative. Using a multiple linear regression model (F = 2.669, P = 0.044, and adjusted R = 0.122), the analysis showed that the CD4+ T lymphocyte count may help predict the duration of viral RNA detection in patients’ stools (t = -2.699, P = 0.010). The duration of viral RNA detection from oropharyngeal swabs and fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (15 days vs. 8.0 days, respectively; t = 2.550, P = 0.013) and the duration of viral RNA detection in fecal samples in the glucocorticoid treatment group was longer than that in the non-glucocorticoid treatment group (20 days vs. 11 days, respectively; t = 4.631, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in inflammatory indicators between patients with positive fecal viral RNA test results and those with negative results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In brief, as the clearance of viral RNA in patients’ stools was delayed compared to that in oropharyngeal swabs, it is important to identify viral RNA in feces during convalescence. Because of the delayed clearance of viral RNA in the glucocorticoid treatment group, glucocorticoids are not recommended in the treatment of COVID-19, especially for mild disease. The duration of RNA detection may relate to host cell immunity.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000774

RECORD 59
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.-J.;  Dong X.;  Cao Y.-Y.;  Yuan Y.-D.;  Yang Y.-B.;  Yan Y.-Q.;  Akdis C.A.;  Gao Y.-D.
SOURCE
  Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, were extracted and analyzed. Results: An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community-acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases were not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) patients and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground-glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) was the most common sign of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r =.486, P <.001) and nonsevere (r =.469, P <.001) patients after hospital admission. Significantly higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with severe patients compared to nonsevere patients (all P <.001). Conclusion: Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14238

RECORD 60
TITLE
  COVID-19: Lessons from SARS and MERS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park M.;  Thwaites R.S.;  Openshaw P.J.M.
SOURCE
  European journal of immunology (2020) 50:3 (308-311). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202070035

RECORD 61
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Taiwan: Reports of two cases from Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang W.-H.;  Teng L.-C.;  Yeh T.-K.;  Chen Y.-J.;  Lo W.-J.;  Wu M.-J.;  Chin C.-S.;  Tsan Y.-T.;  Lin T.-C.;  Chai J.-W.;  Lin C.-F.;  Tseng C.-H.;  Liu C.-W.;  Wu C.-M.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Shi Z.-Y.;  Liu P.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We reported two cases with community-acquired pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who returned from Wuhan, China in January, 2020. The reported cases highlight non-specific clinical presentations of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as well as the importance of rapid laboratory-based diagnosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.009

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen P.;  Mao L.;  Nassis G.P.;  Harmer P.;  Ainsworth B.E.;  Li F.
SOURCE
  Journal of Sport and Health Science (2020) 9:2 (103-104). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.001

RECORD 63
TITLE
  2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng Z.J.;  Shan J.
SOURCE
  Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y