Genetics

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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Phylogenetic analysis of the first four SARS-CoV-2 cases in Chile
AUTHOR NAMES
  Castillo A.E.;  Parra B.;  Tapia P.;  Acevedo A.;  Lagos J.;  Andrade W.;  Arata L.;  Leal G.;  Barra G.;  Tambley C.;  Tognarelli J.;  Bustos P.;  Ulloa S.;  Fasce R.;  Fernández J.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current pandemic caused by the new coronavirus is a worldwide public health concern. To aboard this emergency, and like never before, scientific groups around the world have been working in a fast and coordinated way in order to get the maximum of information about this virus when it has been almost three months since the first cases were detected in Wuhan province in China. The complete genome sequences of around 450 isolates are available, and studies about similarities and differences among them and with the close related viruses that caused similar epidemics in this century. In this work we studied the complete genome of the first four cases of the new coronavirus disease in Chile, from patients who traveled to Europe and Southeast Asia. Our findings reveal at least two different viral variants entries to Chilean territory, coming from Europe and Asia. We also sub-classified the isolates into variants according to punctual mutations in the genome. Our work contributes to the global information about transmission dynamics and the importance to take control measures to stop the spread of the infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25797

RECORD 2
TITLE
  COVID-19: Zoonotic aspects
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ahmad T.;  Khan M.;  Haroon ;  Musa T.H.;  Nasir S.;  Hui J.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101607. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101607

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.L.;  Desai A.;  Duca A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:5 (1-28). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients.

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Expert consensus on the management strategy of patients with hereditary ataxia during prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Specialized Committee Of Neurogenetics Neurophysician Branch Of Chinese Medical Doctor Association ;  Jiang H.;  Tang B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics (2020) 37:4 (359-366). Date of Publication: 10 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a series of highly infectious cases of unexplained pneumonia have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which have been confirmed as ‘2019 corona virus disease’ caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 virus can invade many human systems including the lungs. Patients with central nervous system involvement may show a series of neurological symptoms, which is easy to be misdiagnosed and neglected, thereby increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hereditary ataxia is a large group of neurodegenerative diseases with great clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high mortality and disability. In view of the seriousness of the COVID-19 epidemic, a series of prevention and control measures adopted by the government have restricted the follow-up, diagnosis and treatment of patients by the hospitals, which has a great impact on their mental and physical health. In order to standardize the management of patients during the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic, the Specialized Committee of Neurogenetics of the Neurophysician Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has formulated this consensus, with an aim to help patients to overcome the difficulties and pass the epidemic prevention period safely.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2020.04.001

RECORD 5
TITLE
  Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu B.;  Gutierrez B.;  Mekaru S.;  Sewalk K.;  Goodwin L.;  Loskill A.;  Cohn E.L.;  Hswen Y.;  Hill S.C.;  Cobo M.M.;  Zarebski A.E.;  Li S.;  Wu C.-H.;  Hulland E.;  Morgan J.D.;  Wang L.;  O’Brien K.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Brownstein J.S.;  Pybus O.G.;  Pigott D.M.;  Kraemer M.U.G.
SOURCE
  Scientific data (2020) 7:1 (106). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Cases of a novel coronavirus were first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019 and have since spread across the world. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. To aid the analysis and tracking of the COVID-19 epidemic we collected and curated individual-level data from national, provincial, and municipal health reports, as well as additional information from online reports. All data are geo-coded and, where available, include symptoms, key dates (date of onset, admission, and confirmation), and travel history. The generation of detailed, real-time, and robust data for emerging disease outbreaks is important and can help to generate robust evidence that will support and inform public health decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0448-0

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Emerging Viruses without Borders: The Wuhan Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu S.-L.;  Saif L.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:2. Date of Publication: 22 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recently emerged coronavirus in Wuhan, China has claimed at least two lives as of January 17 and infected hundreds if not thousands of individuals. The situation has drawn international attention, including from the virology community. We applaud the rapid release to the public of the genome sequence of the new virus by Chinese virologists, but we also believe that increased transparency on disease reporting and data sharing with international colleagues are crucial for curbing the spread of this newly emerging virus to other parts of the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020130

RECORD 7
TITLE
  Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Prompetchara E.;  Ketloy C.;  Palaga T.
SOURCE
  Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2020) 38:1 (1-9). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the world is witnessing the epidemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerging genetics and clinical evidences suggest a similar path to those of SARS and MERS. The rapid genomic sequencing and open access data, together with advanced vaccine technology, are expected to give us more knowledge on the pathogen itself, including the host immune response as well as the plan for therapeutic vaccines in the near future. This review aims to provide a comparative view among SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and the newly epidemic SARS-CoV-2, in the hope to gain a better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, host immune responses, and the pathogen immune evasion strategies. This predictive view may help in designing an immune intervention or preventive vaccine for COVID-19 in the near future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12932/AP-200220-0772

RECORD 8
TITLE
  Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Kagaya K.;  Zarebski A.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 5 February 2020, in Yokohama, Japan, a cruise ship hosting 3,711 people underwent a 2-week quarantine after a former passenger was found with COVID-19 post-disembarking. As at 20 February, 634 persons on board tested positive for the causative virus. We conducted statistical modelling to derive the delay-adjusted asymptomatic proportion of infections, along with the infections’ timeline. The estimated asymptomatic proportion was 17.9% (95% credible interval (CrI): 15.5-20.2%). Most infections occurred before the quarantine start.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

RECORD 9
TITLE
  Post-discharge surveillance and positive virus detection in two medical staff recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), China, January to February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xing Y.;  Mo P.;  Xiao Y.;  Zhao O.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang F.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, 62 medical staff of Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China have been hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019. During the post-discharge surveillance after clinical recovery, swabs were positive in two asymptomatic cases (3.23%). Case 1 had presented typical clinical and radiological manifestations on admission, while manifestation in Case 2 was very mild. In conclusion, a small proportion of recovered patients may test positive after discharge, and post-discharge surveillance and isolation need to be strengthened.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000191

RECORD 10
TITLE
  The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsu L.Y.;  Chia P.Y.;  Lim J.F.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020

RECORD 11
TITLE
  Genetic evolution analysis of 2019 novel coronavirus and coronavirus from other species
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.;  Yang Y.;  Ren L.
SOURCE
  Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2020) 82 Article Number: 104285. Date of Publication: 1 Aug 2020
ABSTRACT
  The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, so far, there are still controversies about the source of the virus and its intermediate host. Here, we found the novel coronavirus was closely related to coronaviruses derived from five wild animals, including Paguma larvata, Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Civet, Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Rhinolophus sinicus, and was in the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. However, genome and ORF1a homology show that the virus is not the same coronavirus as the coronavirus derived from these five animals, whereas the virus has the highest homology with Bat coronavirus isolate RaTG13.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104285

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is currently an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China. Although there are still several unanswered questions about this infection, we evaluate the potential for international dissemination of this disease via commercial air travel should the outbreak continue.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa008

RECORD 13
TITLE
  Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu X.;  Chen P.;  Wang J.;  Feng J.;  Zhou H.;  Li X.;  Zhong W.;  Hao P.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (457-460). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

RECORD 14
TITLE
  Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilson M.E.;  Chen L.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

RECORD 15
TITLE
  Laboratory readiness and response for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in expert laboratories in 30 EU/EEA countries, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Reusken C.B.E.M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Haagmans B.;  Meijer A.;  Corman V.M.;  Papa A.;  Charrel R.;  Drosten C.;  Koopmans M.;  Leitmeyer K.;  On Behalf Of Evd-LabNet And Erli-Net
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Timely detection of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection cases is crucial to interrupt the spread of this virus. We assessed the required expertise and capacity for molecular detection of 2019-nCoV in specialised laboratories in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Thirty-eight laboratories in 24 EU/EEA countries had diagnostic tests available by 29 January 2020. A coverage of all EU/EEA countries was expected by mid-February. Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000082

RECORD 16
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dilcher M.;  Werno A.;  Jennings L.C.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (6-11). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (18-19). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00548-w

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Letter to the editor: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Colson P.;  La Scola B.;  Esteves-Vieira V.;  Ninove L.;  Zandotti C.;  Jimeno M.-T.;  Gazin C.;  Bedotto M.;  Filosa V.;  Giraud-Gatineau A.;  Chaudet H.;  Brouqui P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000171

RECORD 19
TITLE
  The race to unravel the biggest coronavirus outbreak in the United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maxmen A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (181-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00676-3

RECORD 20
TITLE
  The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.-R.;  Cao Q.-D.;  Hong Z.-S.;  Tan Y.-Y.;  Chen S.-D.;  Jin H.-J.;  Tan K.-S.;  Wang D.-Y.;  Yan Y.
SOURCE
  Military Medical Research (2020) 7:1 (11). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Facing challenges with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  van der Werf S.;  Peltékian C.
SOURCE
  Virologie (Montrouge, France) (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/vir.2020.0826

RECORD 22
TITLE
  China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking
AUTHOR NAMES
  Callaway E.;  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 577:7792 (605-607). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00166-6

RECORD 23
TITLE
  High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu H.;  Zhong L.;  Deng J.;  Peng J.;  Dan H.;  Zeng X.;  Li T.;  Chen Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of oral science (2020) 12:1 (8). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  It has been reported that ACE2 is the main host cell receptor of 2019-nCoV and plays a crucial role in the entry of virus into the cell to cause the final infection. To investigate the potential route of 2019-nCov infection on the mucosa of oral cavity, bulk RNA-seq profiles from two public databases including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Functional Annotation of The Mammalian Genome Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (FANTOM5 CAGE) dataset were collected. RNA-seq profiling data of 13 organ types with para-carcinoma normal tissues from TCGA and 14 organ types with normal tissues from FANTOM5 CAGE were analyzed in order to explore and validate the expression of ACE2 on the mucosa of oral cavity. Further, single-cell transcriptomes from an independent data generated in-house were used to identify and confirm the ACE2-expressing cell composition and proportion in oral cavity. The results demonstrated that the ACE2 expressed on the mucosa of oral cavity. Interestingly, this receptor was highly enriched in epithelial cells of tongue. Preliminarily, those findings have explained the basic mechanism that the oral cavity is a potentially high risk for 2019-nCoV infectious susceptibility and provided a piece of evidence for the future prevention strategy in dental clinical practice as well as daily life.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bordi L.;  Nicastri E.;  Scorzolini L.;  Di Caro A.;  Capobianchi M.R.;  Castilletti C.;  Lalle E.;  On Behalf Of Inmi Covid-Study Group And Collaborating Centers
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative pathogen of an ongoing outbreak of respiratory disease, now named COVID-19. Most cases and sustained transmission occurred in China, but travel-associated cases have been reported in other countries, including Europe and Italy. Since the symptoms are similar to other respiratory infections, differential diagnosis in travellers arriving from countries with wide-spread COVID-19 must include other more common infections such as influenza and other respiratory tract diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000170

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Early transmission patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan to Thailand, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Okada P.;  Buathong R.;  Phuygun S.;  Thanadachakul T.;  Parnmen S.;  Wongboot W.;  Waicharoen S.;  Wacharapluesadee S.;  Uttayamakul S.;  Vachiraphan A.;  Chittaganpitch M.;  Mekha N.;  Janejai N.;  Iamsirithaworn S.;  Lee R.T.;  Maurer-Stroh S.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan, China to Thailand. Both were independent introductions on separate flights, discovered with thermoscanners and confirmed with RT-PCR and genome sequencing. Both cases do not seem directly linked to the Huanan Seafood Market in Hubei but the viral genomes are identical to four other sequences from Wuhan, suggesting early spread within the city already in the first week of January.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000097

RECORD 26
TITLE
  Machine Learning, COVID-19 (2019-nCoV), and multi-OMICS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020) 97:3 (215-216). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23990

RECORD 27
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Konrad R.;  Eberle U.;  Dangel A.;  Treis B.;  Berger A.;  Bengs K.;  Fingerle V.;  Liebl B.;  Ackermann N.;  Sing A.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The need for timely establishment of diagnostic assays arose when Germany was confronted with the first travel-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Europe. We describe our laboratory experiences during a large contact tracing investigation, comparing previously published real-time RT-PCR assays in different PCR systems and a commercial kit. We found that assay performance using the same primers and probes with different PCR systems varied and the commercial kit performed well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000173

RECORD 29
TITLE
  TH17 responses in cytokine storm of COVID-19: An emerging target of JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Yang X.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 emerges as a pandemic disease with high mortality. Development of effective prevention and treatment is an urgent need. We reviewed TH17 responses in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and proposed an FDA approved JAK2 inhibitor Fedratinib for reducing mortality of patients with TH17 type immune profiles.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.005

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Case of the Index Patient Who Caused Tertiary Transmission of COVID-19 Infection in Korea: the Application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia Monitored by Quantitative RT-PCR
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lim J.;  Jeon S.;  Shin H.Y.;  Kim M.J.;  Seong Y.M.;  Lee W.J.;  Choe K.W.;  Kang Y.M.;  Lee B.;  Park S.J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:6 (e79). Date of Publication: 17 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine in treating a family case of COVID-19 in Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ni L.;  Zhou L.;  Zhou M.;  Zhao J.;  Wang D.W.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. By February 14, 2020, it has led to 66 492 confirmed patients in China and high mortality up to ∼2.96% (1123/37 914) in Wuhan. Here we report the first family case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed in Wuhan and treated using the combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL). This report describes the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of three cases from a family, suggests the expected therapeutic effects of SHL on COVID-19, and warrants further clinical trials.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0757-x

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Potential factors influencing repeated SARS outbreaks in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Z.;  Thilakavathy K.;  Kumar S.S.;  He G.;  Liu S.V.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1633. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or-released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051633

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Therapeutic options for the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li G.;  De Clercq E.
SOURCE
  Nature reviews. Drug discovery (2020) 19:3 (149-150). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00016-0

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in Coronavirus Disease 2019 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shen Z.;  Xiao Y.;  Kang L.;  Ma W.;  Shi L.;  Zhang L.;  Zhou Z.;  Yang J.;  Zhong J.;  Yang D.;  Guo L.;  Zhang G.;  Li H.;  Xu Y.;  Chen M.;  Gao Z.;  Wang J.;  Ren L.;  Li M.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 75,000 individuals and spread to over 20 countries. It is still unclear how fast the virus evolved and how the virus interacts with other microorganisms in the lung. METHODS: We have conducted metatranscriptome sequencing for the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of eight SARS-CoV-2 patients, 25 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, and 20 healthy controls. RESULTS: The median number of intra-host variants was 1-4 in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, which ranged between 0 and 51 in different samples. The distribution of variants on genes was similar to those observed in the population data (110 sequences). However, very few intra-host variants were observed in the population as polymorphism, implying either a bottleneck or purifying selection involved in the transmission of the virus, or a consequence of the limited diversity represented in the current polymorphism data. Although current evidence did not support the transmission of intra-host variants in a person-to-person spread, the risk should not be overlooked. The microbiota in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients was similar to those in CAP, either dominated by the pathogens or with elevated levels of oral and upper respiratory commensal bacteria. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 evolves in vivo after infection, which may affect its virulence, infectivity, and transmissibility. Although how the intra-host variant spreads in the population is still elusive, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of the viral evolution in the population and associated clinical changes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa203

RECORD 35
TITLE
  Effective Chemicals against Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu W.;  Zhu H.-L.;  Duan Y.
SOURCE
  Current topics in medicinal chemistry (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026620999200305145032

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Angiotensin receptor blockers as tentative SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gurwitz D.
SOURCE
  Drug Development Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  At the time of writing this commentary (February 2020), the coronavirus COVID-19 epidemic has already resulted in more fatalities compared with the SARS and MERS coronavirus epidemics combined. Therapeutics that may assist to contain its rapid spread and reduce its high mortality rates are urgently needed. Developing vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may take many months. Moreover, vaccines based on viral-encoded peptides may not be effective against future coronavirus epidemics, as virus mutations could make them futile. Indeed, new Influenza virus strains emerge every year, requiring new immunizations. A tentative suggestion based on existing therapeutics, which would likely be resistant to new coronavirus mutations, is to use available angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1R) blockers, such as losartan, as therapeutics for reducing the aggressiveness and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 virus infections. This idea is based on observations that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) very likely serves as the binding site for SARS-CoV-2, the strain implicated in the current COVID-19 epidemic, similarly to strain SARS-CoV implicated in the 2002–2003 SARS epidemic. This commentary elaborates on the idea of considering AT1R blockers as tentative treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infections, and proposes a research direction based on datamining of clinical patient records for assessing its feasibility.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21656

RECORD 37
TITLE
  The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rothan H.A.;  Byrareddy S.N.
SOURCE
  Journal of Autoimmunity (2020) Article Number: 102433. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Genetic diversity and evolution of SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Phan T.
SOURCE
  Infection, Genetics and Evolution (2020) 81 Article Number: 104260. Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is a viral respiratory illness caused by a new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. The World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a global public health emergency. We performed genetic analyses of eighty-six complete or near-complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and revealed many mutations and deletions on coding and non-coding regions. These observations provided evidence of the genetic diversity and rapid evolution of this novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104260

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Virus Isolation from the First Patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park W.B.;  Kwon N.J.;  Choi S.J.;  Kang C.K.;  Choe P.G.;  Kim J.Y.;  Yun J.;  Lee G.W.;  Seong M.W.;  Kim N.J.;  Seo J.S.;  Oh M.D.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:7 (e84). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e84