Diagnosis

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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Review article: gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tian Y.;  Rong L.;  Nian W.;  He Y.
SOURCE
  Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: There is little published evidence on the gastrointestinal features of COVID-19. Aims: To report on the gastrointestinal manifestations and pathological findings of patients with COVID-19, and to discuss the possibility of faecal transmission. Methods: We have reviewed gastrointestinal features of, and faecal test results in, COVID-19 from case reports and retrospective clinical studies relating to the digestive system published since the outbreak. Results: With an incidence of 3% (1/41)-79% (159/201), gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 included anorexia 39.9% (55/138)-50.2% (101/201), diarrhoea 2% (2/99)-49.5% (146/295), vomiting 3.6% (5/138)-66.7% (4/6), nausea 1% (1/99)-29.4% (59/201), abdominal pain 2.2% (3/138)-6.0% (12/201) and gastrointestinal bleeding 4% (2/52)-13.7% (10/73). Diarrhoea was the most common gastrointestinal symptom in children and adults, with a mean duration of 4.1 ± 2.5 days, and was observed before and after diagnosis. Vomiting was more prominent in children. About 3.6% (5/138)-15.9% (32/201) of adult and 6.5% (2/31)-66.7% (4/6) of children patients presented vomiting. Adult and children patients can present with digestive symptoms in the absence of respiratory symptoms. The incidence of digestive manifestations was higher in the later than in the early stage of the epidemic, but no differences in digestive symptoms among different regions were found. Among the group of patients with a higher proportion of severe cases, the proportion of gastrointestinal symptoms in severe patients was higher than that in nonsevere patients (anorexia 66.7% vs 30.4%; abdominal pain 8.3% vs 0%); while in the group of patients with a lower severe rate, the proportion with gastrointestinal symptoms was similar in severe and nonsevere cases (nausea and vomiting 6.9% vs 4.6%; diarrhoea 5.8% vs 3.5%). Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and virus nucleocapsid protein were detected in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and infectious virus particles were isolated from faeces. Faecal PCR testing was as accurate as respiratory specimen PCR detection. In 36% (5/14)-53% (39/73) faecal PCR became positive, 2-5 days later than sputum PCR positive. Faecal excretion persisted after sputum excretion in 23% (17/73)-82% (54/66) patients for 1-11 days. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with COVID-19, and had an increased prevalence in the later stage of the recent epidemic in China. SARS-CoV-2 enters gastrointestinal epithelial cells, and the faeces of COVID-19 patients are potentially infectious.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15731

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Laboratory diagnosis of emerging human coronavirus infections–the state of the art
AUTHOR NAMES
  Loeffelholz M.J.;  Tang Y.-W.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (747-756). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The three unprecedented outbreaks of emerging human coronavirus (HCoV) infections at the beginning of the twenty-first century have highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and fast diagnostic testing methods. The laboratory diagnostic methods for human coronavirus infections have evolved substantially, with the development of novel assays as well as the availability of updated tests for emerging ones. Newer laboratory methods are fast, highly sensitive and specific, and are gradually replacing the conventional gold standards. This presentation reviews the current laboratory methods available for testing coronaviruses by focusing on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak going on in Wuhan. Viral pneumonias typically do not result in the production of purulent sputum. Thus, a nasopharyngeal swab is usually the collection method used to obtain a specimen for testing. Nasopharyngeal specimens may miss some infections; a deeper specimen may need to be obtained by bronchoscopy. Alternatively, repeated testing can be used because over time, the likelihood of the SARS-CoV-2 being present in the nasopharynx increases. Several integrated, random-access, point-of-care molecular devices are currently under development for fast and accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. These assays are simple, fast and safe and can be used in the local hospitals and clinics bearing the burden of identifying and treating patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1745095

RECORD 3
TITLE
  Propagation analysis and prediction of the COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li L.;  Yang Z.;  Dang Z.;  Meng C.;  Huang J.;  Meng H.;  Wang D.;  Chen G.;  Zhang J.;  Peng H.;  Shao Y.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (282-292). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Based on the official data modeling, this paper studies the transmission process of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The error between the model and the official data curve is quite small. At the same time, it realized forward prediction and backward inference of the epidemic situation, and the relevant analysis help relevant countries to make decisions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.03.002

RECORD 4
TITLE
  COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, February 27-March 9, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  McMichael T.M.;  Clark S.;  Pogosjans S.;  Kay M.;  Lewis J.;  Baer A.;  Kawakami V.;  Lukoff M.D.;  Ferro J.;  Brostrom-Smith C.;  Riedo F.X.;  Russell D.;  Hiatt B.;  Montgomery P.;  Rao A.K.;  Currie D.W.;  Chow E.J.;  Tobolowsky F.;  Bardossy A.C.;  Oakley L.P.;  Jacobs J.R.;  Schwartz N.G.;  Stone N.;  Reddy S.C.;  Jernigan J.A.;  Honein M.A.;  Clark T.A.;  Duchin J.S.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (339-342). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On February 28, 2020, a case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in a woman resident of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington.* Epidemiologic investigation of facility A identified 129 cases of COVID-19 associated with facility A, including 81 of the residents, 34 staff members, and 14 visitors; 23 persons died. Limitations in effective infection control and prevention and staff members working in multiple facilities contributed to intra- and interfacility spread. COVID-19 can spread rapidly in long-term residential care facilities, and persons with chronic underlying medical conditions are at greater risk for COVID-19-associated severe disease and death. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to protect the health of residents and preserve the health care workforce by identifying and excluding potentially infected staff members and visitors, ensuring early recognition of potentially infected patients, and implementing appropriate infection control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e1

RECORD 5
TITLE
  Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships – Worldwide, February-March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Moriarty L.F.;  Plucinski M.M.;  Marston B.J.;  Kurbatova E.V.;  Knust B.;  Murray E.L.;  Pesik N.;  Rose D.;  Fitter D.;  Kobayashi M.;  Toda M.;  Canty P.T.;  Scheuer T.;  Halsey E.S.;  Cohen N.J.;  Stockman L.;  Wadford D.A.;  Medley A.M.;  Green G.;  Regan J.J.;  Tardivel K.;  White S.;  Brown C.;  Morales C.;  Yen C.;  Wittry B.;  Freeland A.;  Naramore S.;  Novak R.T.;  Daigle D.;  Weinberg M.;  Acosta A.;  Herzig C.;  Kapella B.K.;  Jacobson K.R.;  Lamba K.;  Ishizumi A.;  Sarisky J.;  Svendsen E.;  Blocher T.;  Wu C.;  Charles J.;  Wagner R.;  Stewart A.;  Mead P.S.;  Kurylo E.;  Campbell S.;  Murray R.;  Weidle P.;  Cetron M.;  Friedman C.R.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (347-352). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An estimated 30 million passengers are transported on 272 cruise ships worldwide each year* (1). Cruise ships bring diverse populations into proximity for many days, facilitating transmission of respiratory illness (2). SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread worldwide to at least 187 countries and territories. Widespread COVID-19 transmission on cruise ships has been reported as well (3). Passengers on certain cruise ship voyages might be aged ≥65 years, which places them at greater risk for severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). During February-March 2020, COVID-19 outbreaks associated with three cruise ship voyages have caused more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases among passengers and crew, including 10 deaths. Transmission occurred across multiple voyages of several ships. This report describes public health responses to COVID-19 outbreaks on these ships. COVID-19 on cruise ships poses a risk for rapid spread of disease, causing outbreaks in a vulnerable population, and aggressive efforts are required to contain spread. All persons should defer all cruise travel worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3

RECORD 6
TITLE
  COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yi Y.;  Lagniton P.N.P.;  Ye S.;  Li E.;  Xu R.-H.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1753-1766). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of people in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 might also be transmitted from the bats and causes similar symptoms through a similar mechanism. However, COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youth and more men than women. In response to the rapidly increasing number of publications on the emerging disease, this article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the swiftly developing research subject. We will cover the basics about the epidemiology, etiology, virology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of the disease. Although many questions still require answers, we hope that this review helps in the understanding and eradication of the threatening disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45134

RECORD 7
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acute Severe Pneumonia Patient with COVID-19: Case Report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng Z.;  Yuxing H.U.;  Yang P.;  Zheng P.;  Peng W.;  Ren B.;  Zeng X.;  Tian X.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 outbreak globally and continues to grow This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25802

RECORD 8
TITLE
  Study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in some regions of China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Di Y.;  Ye J.;  Wei W.
SOURCE
  Psychology, health & medicine (2020) (1-10). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: As COVID-19 occurs suddenly and is highly contagious, this will inevitably cause people anxiety, depression, etc. The study on the public psychological states and its related factors during the COVID-19 outbreak is of practical significance.Methods: 600 valid questionnaires were received. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used.Results: Females’ anxiety risk was 3.01 times compared to males (95% CI 1.39-6.52). Compared with people below 40 years old, the anxiety risk of people above 40 years old was 0.40 times (95% CI 0.16-0.99). SDS results indicated that the difference between education level and occupation was statistically significant (p = 0.024, 0.005). Compared to people with a master’s degree or above, those with a bachelor’s degree group had a depression risk of 0.39 times (95% CI 0.17-0.87). Compared with professionals, industrial service workers and other staff had a depression risk of 0.31 times (95% CI 0.15-0.65) and 0.38 times (95% CI 0.15-0.93).Conclusions: 600 questionnaire participants were psychologically stable. Non-anxiety and non-depression rates were 93.67% and 82.83%, respectively. There were anxiety in 6.33% and depression in 17.17%. Therefore, we should pay attention to the psychological states of the public.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1746817

RECORD 9
TITLE
  Comparison of Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by COVID-19 and H1N1
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang X.;  Du R.;  Wang R.;  Cao T.;  Guan L.;  Yang C.;  Zhu Q.;  Hu M.;  Li X.;  Li Y.;  Liang L.;  Tong Z.;  Sun B.;  Peng P.;  Shi H.
SOURCE
  Chest (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, considerable attention has been focused on its elucidation. However, it is also important for clinicians and epidemiologists to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza viruses. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the study was to explore the different clinical presentations between COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). STUDY DESIGN: and Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study. We compared two independent cohorts of ARDS patients infected with either COVID-19 (n=73) or H1N1 (n=75). We analyzed and compared their clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, treatments, and prognosis. RESULTS: The median age of COVID-19 patients was higher than that of H1N1 patients, and there was a higher proportion of males among COVID-19 patients (p<0.05). COVID-19 patients exhibited higher proportions of non-productive coughs, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms than those of H1N1 patients (p<0.05). H1N1 patients had higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than COVID-19 patients (p<0.05). The PaO2/FiO2 of 198.2 mmHg in COVID-19 patients was significantly higher than the PaO2/FiO2 of 107.0 mmHg of H1N1 patients (p<0.001). Ground-glass opacities was more common in COVID-19 patients than in H1N1 patients (p<0.001). There was a greater variety of antiviral therapies administered to COVID-19 patients than to H1N1 patients. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was 28.8%, while that of H1N1 patients was 34.7% (p=0.483). SOFA-score adjusted mortality of H1N1 patients was significantly higher than that of COVID-19 patients with the rate ratio was 2.009 (95% CI [1.563, 2.583], p<0.001). INTERPRETATION: There were many differences between COVID-19 and H1N1-induced ARDS patients in clinical presentations. Compared with H1N1, patients with COVID-19 induced ARDS had lower severity of illness scores at presentation and lower SOFA-score adjusted mortality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.032

RECORD 10
TITLE
  False-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Role of deep-learning-based ct diagnosis and insights from two cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li D.;  Wang D.;  Dong J.;  Wang N.;  Huang H.;  Xu H.;  Xia C.
SOURCE
  Korean Journal of Radiology (2020) 21:4 (505-508). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The epidemic of 2019 novel coronavirus, later named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still gradually spreading worldwide. The nucleic acid test or genetic sequencing serves as the gold standard method for confirmation of infection, yet several recent studies have reported false-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Here, we report two representative false-negative cases and discuss the supplementary role of clinical data with rRT-PCR, including laboratory examination results and computed tomography features. Coinfection with SARS-COV-2 and other viruses has been discussed as well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0146

RECORD 11
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak: An overview on dentistry
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spagnuolo G.;  De Vito D.;  Rengo S.;  Tatullo M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:6 Article Number: 2094. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062094

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shi H.;  Han X.;  Jiang N.;  Cao Y.;  Alwalid O.;  Gu J.;  Fan Y.;  Zheng C.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (425-434). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were successively reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to describe the CT findings across different timepoints throughout the disease course. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by next-generation sequencing or RT-PCR) who were admitted to one of two hospitals in Wuhan and who underwent serial chest CT scans were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were grouped on the basis of the interval between symptom onset and the first CT scan: group 1 (subclinical patients; scans done before symptom onset), group 2 (scans done ≤1 week after symptom onset), group 3 (>1 week to 2 weeks), and group 4 (>2 weeks to 3 weeks). Imaging features and their distribution were analysed and compared across the four groups. Findings: 81 patients admitted to hospital between Dec 20, 2019, and Jan 23, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort included 42 (52%) men and 39 (48%) women, and the mean age was 49·5 years (SD 11·0). The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4. The predominant pattern of abnormality observed was bilateral (64 [79%] patients), peripheral (44 [54%]), ill-defined (66 [81%]), and ground-glass opacification (53 [65%]), mainly involving the right lower lobes (225 [27%] of 849 affected segments). In group 1 (n=15), the predominant pattern was unilateral (nine [60%]) and multifocal (eight [53%]) ground-glass opacities (14 [93%]). Lesions quickly evolved to bilateral (19 [90%]), diffuse (11 [52%]) ground-glass opacity predominance (17 [81%]) in group 2 (n=21). Thereafter, the prevalence of ground-glass opacities continued to decrease (17 [57%] of 30 patients in group 3, and five [33%] of 15 in group 4), and consolidation and mixed patterns became more frequent (12 [40%] in group 3, eight [53%] in group 4). Interpretation: COVID-19 pneumonia manifests with chest CT imaging abnormalities, even in asymptomatic patients, with rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations within 1–3 weeks. Combining assessment of imaging features with clinical and laboratory findings could facilitate early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30086-4

RECORD 13
TITLE
  COVID-19 pneumonia: what has CT taught us?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lee E.Y.P.;  Ng M.-Y.;  Khong P.-L.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (384-385). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30134-1

RECORD 14
TITLE
  The first Vietnamese case of COVID-19 acquired from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Van Cuong L.;  Giang H.T.N.;  Linh L.K.;  Shah J.;  Van Sy L.;  Hung T.H.;  Reda A.;  Truong L.N.;  Tien D.X.;  Huy N.T.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (408-409). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30111-0

RECORD 15
TITLE
  COVID-19 with spontaneous pneumomediastinum
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou C.;  Gao C.;  Xie Y.;  Xu M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (510). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30156-0

RECORD 16
TITLE
  Screening for Chinese medical staff mental health by SDS and SAS during the outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liang Y.;  Chen M.;  Zheng X.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Psychosomatic Research (2020) 133 Article Number: 110102. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2020.110102

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang L.;  Karakiulakis G.;  Roth M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e21). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30116-8

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Covid-19: A puzzle with many missing pieces
AUTHOR NAMES
  Vetter P.;  Eckerle I.;  Kaiser L.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m627. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m627

RECORD 19
TITLE
  Covid-19 mass testing facilities could end the epidemic rapidly
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peto J.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368. Date of Publication: 22 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1163

RECORD 20
TITLE
  Familial cluster of COVID-19 infection from an asymptomatic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.;  Tian S.;  Lou J.;  Chen Y.
SOURCE
  Critical Care (2020) 24:1 Article Number: 119. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2817-7

RECORD 21
TITLE
  A quickly, effectively screening process of novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shi Y.;  Wang X.;  Liu G.;  Zhu Q.;  Wang J.;  Yu H.;  Wang C.;  Wang L.;  Zhang M.;  Zhang L.;  Lu G.;  Lu Z.;  Yu J.;  Qiao Z.;  Gu Y.;  Shen G.;  Xu H.;  Zeng M.;  Zhai X.;  Huang G.
SOURCE
  Annals of Translational Medicine (2020) 8:5 Article Number: 241. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in China was caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the screening and diagnosis of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in our hospital. Methods: Developed a procedure for the identification of children cases with COVID-19 in outpatient and emergency department of our hospital, then we observed how this process works. Results: (I) There were 56 cases considered suspected cases, and 10 cases were confirmed as COVID-19. (II) Of the 10 confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted in our hospital, 5 were males and 5 were females, aged from 7 months to 11 years, the average age is 6.0±4.2 years, 6 cases were mild pneumonia, the others were upper respiratory tract infection. (III) We followed up 68 patients in isolation at home until symptoms disappeared. Non were missed in the patient’s first visit. The sensitivity of this method is 100% and the specificity is 71.3%. Conclusions: Our screening process works well, and it is also necessary to establish a screening network in the hospital.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.22

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Point-of-care RNA-based diagnostic device for Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang T.;  Wang Y.-C.;  Shen C.-F.;  Cheng C.-M.
SOURCE
  Diagnostics (2020) 10:3 Article Number: 165. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10030165

RECORD 23
TITLE
  Diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): rRT-PCR or CT?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Long C.;  Xu H.;  Shen Q.;  Zhang X.;  Fan B.;  Wang C.;  Zeng B.;  Li Z.;  Li X.;  Li H.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Radiology (2020) 126 Article Number: 108961. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of computed tomography (CT) and real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This retrospective study included all patients with COVID-19 pneumonia suspicion, who were examined by both CT and rRT-PCR at initial presentation. The sensitivities of both tests were then compared. For patients with a final confirmed diagnosis, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to CT imaging findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 36 patients were finally diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. Thirty-five patients had abnormal CT findings at presentation, whereas one patient had a normal CT. Using rRT-PCR, 30 patients were tested positive, with 6 cases initially missed. Amongst these 6 patients, 3 became positive in the second rRT-PCR assay(after 2 days, 2 days and 3 days respectively), and the other 3 became positive only in the third round of rRT-PCR tests(after 5 days, 6 days and 8 days respectively). At presentation, CT sensitivity was therefore 97.2%, whereas the sensitivity of initial rRT-PCR was only 83.3%. Conclusion: rRT-PCR may produce initial false negative results. We suggest that patients with typical CT findings but negative rRT-PCR results should be isolated, and rRT-PCR should be repeated to avoid misdiagnosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108961

RECORD 24
TITLE
  High-resolution computed tomography manifestations of COVID-19 infections in patients of different ages
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Z.;  Fan H.;  Cai J.;  Li Y.;  Wu B.;  Hou Y.;  Xu S.;  Zhou F.;  Liu Y.;  Xuan W.;  Hu H.;  Sun J.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Radiology (2020) 126 Article Number: 108972. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: We aimed to compare chest HRCT lung signs identified in scans of differently aged patients with COVID-19 infections. Methods: Case data of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province in China were collected, and chest HRCT signs of infected patients in four age groups (<18 years, 18–44 years, 45–59 years, ≥60 years) were compared. Results: Small patchy, ground-glass opacity (GGO), and consolidations were the main HRCT signs in 98 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infections. Patients aged 45–59 years and aged ≥60 years had more bilateral lung, lung lobe, and lung field involvement, and greater lesion numbers than patients <18 years. GGO accompanied with the interlobular septa thickening or a crazy-paving pattern, consolidation, and air bronchogram sign were more common in patients aged 45–59 years, and ≥60 years, than in those aged <18 years, and aged 18–44 years. Conclusions: Chest HRCT manifestations in patients with COVID-19 are related to patient’s age, and HRCT signs may be milder in younger patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108972

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Dynamic change process of target genes by RT-PCR testing of SARS-Cov-2 during the course of a Coronavirus Disease 2019 patient
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lv D.-F.;  Ying Q.-M.;  Weng Y.-S.;  Shen C.-B.;  Chu J.-G.;  Kong J.-P.;  Sun D.-H.;  Gao X.;  Weng X.-B.;  Chen X.-Q.
SOURCE
  Clinica Chimica Acta (2020) 506 (172-175). Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report the dynamic change process of target genes by RT-PCR testing of SARS-Cov-2 during the course of a COVID-19 patient: from successive negative results to successive single positive nucleocapsid gene, to two positive target genes (orf1ab and nucleocapsid) by RT-PCR testing of SARS-Cov-2, and describe the diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case. In this case, negative results of RT-PCR testing was not excluded to diagnose a suspected COVID-19 patient, clinical signs and symptoms, other laboratory findings, and chest CT images should be taken into account for the absence of enough positive evidence. This case highlights the importance of successive sampling and testing SARS-Cov-2 by RT-PCR as well as the increased value of single positive target gene from pending to positive in two specimens to diagnose laboratory-confirmed COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.032

RECORD 26
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yuen K.-S.;  Ye Z.-W.;  Fung S.-Y.;  Chan C.-P.;  Jin D.-Y.
SOURCE
  Cell and Bioscience (2020) 10:1 Article Number: 40. Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global health emergency. Here we highlight nine most important research questions concerning virus transmission, asymptomatic and presymptomatic virus shedding, diagnosis, treatment, vaccine development, origin of virus and viral pathogenesis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-020-00404-4

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Art of performing dermoscopy during the times of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Simple change in approach can save the day!
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jakhar D.;  Kaur I.;  Kaul S.
SOURCE
  Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Dermatoscope is a convenient diagnostic tool used by dermatologists in the diagnosis of skin, hair and nail disorders. During dermoscopy, a dermatoscope comes in contact with the patient and hence can act as a potential source of nosocomial spread of infections.1 The uncertainty associated with the mode of spread of current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has only lead to confusion and studies are underway to determine the role of zoonotic and environmental factors.2-4 There are reports of presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) on door handles, mobile phones and other surfaces.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdv.16412

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of 54 medical staff with COVID-19: A retrospective study in a single center in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chu J.;  Yang N.;  Wei Y.;  Yue H.;  Zhang F.;  Zhao J.;  He L.;  Sheng G.;  Chen P.;  Li G.;  Wu S.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang S.;  Wang C.;  Miao X.;  Li J.;  Liu W.;  Zhang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 infection occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to worldwide, which has attracted many people’s concerns about the patients. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnels is still lacking. METHODS: 54 cases of SARS-Cov-2 infected medical staff from Tongji Hospital between January 7th to February 11th of 2020 were analyzed in this retrospective study. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were compared between different groups by statistical method. RESULTS: From January 7 to February 11, 2020, 54 medical staff of Tongji Hospital were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Most of them were from other clinical departments (72.2%) rather than emergency department (3.7%) or medical technology departments (18.5%). Among the 54 COVID-19 patients, the distribution of age had a significant difference between non-severe type and severe/critical cases (median age: 47 years vs. 38 years, p=0.0015). However, there was no statistical difference in terms of gender distribution and the first symptoms between theses two groups. Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs. 0%, P=0.028) and right lung (61% vs. 18.2%, P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings with medical staff infection data, we suggest training for all hospital staff to prevent infection and preparation of sufficient protection and disinfection materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25793

RECORD 29
TITLE
  Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Alhazzani W.;  Møller M.H.;  Arabi Y.M.;  Loeb M.;  Gong M.N.;  Fan E.;  Oczkowski S.;  Levy M.M.;  Derde L.;  Dzierba A.;  Du B.;  Aboodi M.;  Wunsch H.;  Cecconi M.;  Koh Y.;  Chertow D.S.;  Maitland K.;  Alshamsi F.;  Belley-Cote E.;  Greco M.;  Laundy M.;  Morgan J.S.;  Kesecioglu J.;  McGeer A.;  Mermel L.;  Mammen M.J.;  Alexander P.E.;  Arrington A.;  Centofanti J.E.;  Citerio G.;  Baw B.;  Memish Z.A.;  Hammond N.;  Hayden F.G.;  Evans L.;  Rhodes A.
SOURCE
  Intensive care medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which 4 are best practice statements, 9 are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for 6 questions. The topics were: (1) infection control, (2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, (3) hemodynamic support, (4) ventilatory support, and (5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new recommendations in further releases of these guidelines.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06022-5

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Detectable SARS-CoV-2 Viral RNA in Feces of Three Children during Recovery Period of COVID-19 Pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang T.;  Cui X.;  Zhao X.;  Wang J.;  Zheng J.;  Zheng G.;  Guo W.;  Cai C.;  He S.;  Xu Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After its first occurrence in Wuhan of China from December 2019, COVID-19 rapidly spread around the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) statement on March 13, 2020, there had been over 132,500 confirmed cases globally. Nevertheless, the case reports of children are rare, which result in the lack of evidence for preventing and controlling of children’s infection. Here, we report 3 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infected children diagnosed from February 3 to February 17, 2020 in Tianjin, China. All of these three cases experienced mild illness and recovered soon after treatment, with the nucleic acid of throat swab turning negative within 14, 11, 7 days after diagnosis respectively. However, after been discharged, all the three cases were tested SARS-CoV-2 positive in the stool samples within 10 days, in spite of their remained negative nucleic acid in throat swab specimens. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially for children cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25795

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao J.;  Yuan Q.;  Wang H.;  Liu W.;  Liao X.;  Su Y.;  Wang X.;  Yuan J.;  Li T.;  Li J.;  Qian S.;  Hong C.;  Wang F.;  Liu Y.;  Wang Z.;  He Q.;  Li Z.;  He B.;  Zhang T.;  Fu Y.;  Ge S.;  Liu L.;  Zhang J.;  Xia N.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerging virus. The antibody response in infected patient remains largely unknown, and the clinical values of antibody testing have not been fully demonstrated. METHODS: A total of 173 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. Their serial plasma samples (n=535) collected during the hospitalization were tested for total antibodies (Ab), IgM and IgG against SARS-CoV-2. The dynamics of antibodies with the disease progress was analyzed. RESULTS: Among 173 patients, the seroconversion rate for Ab, IgM and IgG was 93.1%, 82.7% and 64.7%, respectively. The reason for the negative antibody findings in 12 patients might due to the lack of blood samples at the later stage of illness. The median seroconversion time for Ab, IgM and then IgG were day-11, day-12 and day-14, separately. The presence of antibodies was <40% among patients within 1-week since onset, and rapidly increased to 100.0% (Ab), 94.3% (IgM) and 79.8% (IgG) since day-15 after onset. In contrast, RNA detectability decreased from 66.7% (58/87) in samples collected before day-7 to 45.5% (25/55) during day 15-39. Combining RNA and antibody detections significantly improved the sensitivity of pathogenic diagnosis for COVID-19 (p<0.001), even in early phase of 1-week since onset (p=0.007). Moreover, a higher titer of Ab was independently associated with a worse clinical classification (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The antibody detection offers vital clinical information during the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings provide strong empirical support for the routine application of serological testing in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa344

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Quantitative Detection and Viral Load Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Infected Patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yu F.;  Yan L.;  Wang N.;  Yang S.;  Wang L.;  Tang Y.;  Gao G.;  Wang S.;  Ma C.;  Xie R.;  Wang F.;  Tan C.;  Zhu L.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang F.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency. The widely used reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) method has limitations for clinical diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A total of 323 samples from 76 COVID-19 confirmed patients were analyzed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and RT-PCR based two target genes (ORF1ab and N). Nasal swabs, throat swabs, sputum, blood, and urine were collected. Clinical and imaging data were obtained for clinical staging. RESULTS: In 95 samples tested positive by both methods, the cycle threshold (Ct) of RT-PCR was highly correlated with the copy numbed of ddPCR (ORF1ab gene, R2 = 0.83; N gene, R2 = 0.87). 4 (4/161) negative and 41 (41/67) single-gene positive samples tested by RT-PCR were positive according to ddPCR with viral load ranging from 11.1 to 123.2 copies/test. Then the viral load of respiratory samples was compared and the average viral load in sputum (17429 ± 6920 copies/test) was found to be significantly higher than in throat swabs (2552 ± 1965 copies/test, p < 0.001) and nasal swabs (651 ± 501 copies/test, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the viral load in the early and progressive stages were significantly higher than that in the recovery stage (46800 ± 17272 vs 1252 ± 1027, p < 0.001) analyzed by sputum samples. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative monitoring of viral load in lower respiratory tract samples helps to evaluate disease progression, especially in cases of low viral load.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa345

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Clinical analysis of pregnant women with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen S.;  Liao E.;  Shao Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pregnant women infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide help for clinical prevention and treatment. METHODS: All 5 cases of pregnant women confirmed COVID-19 were collected among patients who admitted in Maternal and Child Hospital of Hubei Province between January 20 and February 10, 2020. RESULTS: All patients, aging from 25 to 31 years old, had the gestational week from 38th weeks to 41st weeks. All pregnant women did not have an antepartum fever but developed a low-grade fever (37.5-38.5℃) within 24 hours after delivery. All patients had normal liver and renal function, two patients had elevated plasma levels of the myocardial enzyme. Unusual chest imaging manifestations, featured with ground-grass opacity, were frequently observed in bilateral (3 cases) or unilateral lobe (2 cases) by computed tomography (CT) scan. All labors smoothly processed, the Apgar scores were 10 one and five minutes after delivery, no complications were observed in the newborn. INTERPRETATION: Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of patients with COVID-19 should receive more attention. It is probable that pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 have no fever before delivery. Their primary initial manifestations were merely low-grade postpartum fever or mild respiratory symptoms. Therefore, the protective measures are necessary on admission; the instant CT scan and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay should be helpful in early diagnosis and avoid cross-infection on the occasion that patients have fever and other respiratory signs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25789

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Organ-protective Effect of Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 and its Effect on the Prognosis of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng H.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and severe risk factors for COVID-19 and the possible mechanisms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R regulatory axis and the ACE2-Ang1-7-MasR counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in humans. ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. ACE2 antagonizes the activation of the classical RAS system and protects against organ damage, protecting against hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Similar to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also uses the ACE2 receptor to invade human alveolar epithelial cells. ARDS is a clinical high-mortality disease, and ACE2 has a protective effect on this type of acute lung injury. Current research shows that the poor prognosis of patients with COVID-19 is related to factors such as sex (male), age (higher than 60 years), underlying diseases (hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), secondary ARDS, and other relevant factors. Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on chronic underlying diseases and ARDS, the development of spike protein-based vaccine and drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25785

RECORD 35
TITLE
  A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Singhal T.
SOURCE
  Indian Journal of Pediatrics (2020) 87:4 (281-286). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6

RECORD 36
TITLE
  Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Q.;  Qiu H.;  Huang M.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Annals of Intensive Care (2020) 10:1 Article Number: 33. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00650-2

RECORD 37
TITLE
  Anal swab findings in an infant with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fan Q.;  Pan Y.;  Wu Q.;  Liu S.;  Song X.;  Xie Z.;  Liu Y.;  Zhao L.;  Wang Z.;  Zhang Y.;  Wu Z.;  Guan L.;  Lv X.
SOURCE
  Pediatric Investigation (2020) 4:1 (48-50). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: The transmission pathways of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain not completely clear. In this case study the test for the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in pharyngeal swab and anal swab were compared. Case presentation: A 3-month-old girl was admitted to our hospital with COVID-19. Her parents had both been diagnosed with COVID-19. The results of pharyngeal swab and anal swab of the little girl were recorded and compared during the course of the disease. The oropharyngeal specimen showed negative result for SARS-CoV-2 on the 14th day after onset of the illness. However, the anal swab was still positive for SARS-CoV-2 on the 28th day after the onset of the illness. Conclusion: The possibility of fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 should be assessed. Personal hygiene during home quarantine merits considerable attention.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12186

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Consensus of Chinese experts on protection of skin and mucous membrane barrier for health-care workers fighting against coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yan Y.;  Chen H.;  Chen L.;  Cheng B.;  Diao P.;  Dong L.;  Gao X.;  Gu H.;  He L.;  Ji C.;  Jin H.;  Lai W.;  Lei T.;  Li L.;  Li L.;  Li R.;  Liu D.;  Liu W.;  Lu Q.;  Shi Y.;  Song J.;  Tao J.;  Wang B.;  Wang G.;  Wu Y.;  Xiang L.;  Xie J.;  Xu J.;  Yao Z.;  Zhang F.;  Zhang J.;  Zhong S.;  Li H.;  Li H.
SOURCE
  Dermatologic Therapy (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Health professions preventing and controlling Coronavirus Disease 2019 are prone to skin and mucous membrane injury, which may cause acute and chronic dermatitis, secondary infection and aggravation of underlying skin diseases. This is a consensus of Chinese experts on protective measures and advice on hand-cleaning- and medical-glove-related hand protection, mask- and goggles-related face protection, UV-related protection, eye protection, nasal and oral mucosa protection, outer ear, and hair protection. It is necessary to strictly follow standards of wearing protective equipment and specification of sterilizing and cleaning. Insufficient and excessive protection will have adverse effects on the skin and mucous membrane barrier. At the same time, using moisturizing products is highly recommended to achieve better protection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13310

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Challenges and Countermeasures of Integrative Cancer Therapy in the Epidemic of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang G.;  Zhang H.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Integrative Cancer Therapies (2020) 19. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735420912811

RECORD 40
TITLE
  The correlation between viral clearance and biochemical outcomes of 94 COVID-19 infected discharged patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yuan J.;  Zou R.;  Zeng L.;  Kou S.;  Lan J.;  Li X.;  Liang Y.;  Ding X.;  Tan G.;  Tang S.;  Liu L.;  Liu Y.;  Pan Y.;  Wang Z.
SOURCE
  Inflammation Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: This study aims to evaluate the correlation between viral clearance and blood biochemical index of 94 discharged patients with COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital, enrolled from Jan 5 to Feb 13, 2020. Methods: The clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the electronic medical records of the patients. The data were analysed and reviewed by a trained team of physicians. Information on clinical signs and symptoms, medical treatment, virus clearance, and laboratory parameters including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein were collected. Results: COVID-19 mRNA clearance ratio was identified significantly correlated with the decline of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Furthermore, COVID-19 mRNA clearance time was positively correlated with the length of hospital stay in patients treated with either IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir or IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin. Conclusions: Therapeutic regimens of IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir and IFN-α + lopinavir/ritonavir + ribavirin might be beneficial for treatment of COVID-19. Serum LDH or CK decline may predict a favorable response to treatment of COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01342-0

RECORD 41
TITLE
  Taking the right measures to control COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao Y.;  Torok M.E.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30152-3

RECORD 42
TITLE
  COVID-19 – what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wujtewicz M.;  Dylczyk-Sommer A.;  Aszkiełowicz A.;  Zdanowski S.;  Piwowarczyk S.;  Owczuk R.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesiology intensive therapy (2020) 52:1 (34-41). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Over the past three months, the world has faced an unprecedented health hazard. The World Health Organization has announced a pandemic infection with an unknown species of coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. Spreading mainly through the droplet route, the virus causes mild symptoms in the majority of cases, the most common being: fever (80%), dry cough (56%), fatigue (22%) and muscle pain (7%); less common symptoms include a sore throat, a runny nose, diarrhea, hemoptysis and chills. A life-threatening complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection is an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs more often in older adults, those with immune disorders and co-morbidities. Severe forms of the infection, being an indication for treatment in the intensive care unit, comprise acute lung inflammation, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. The article presents basic information about etiology, pathogenesis and diagnostics (with particular emphasis on the importance of tomocomputer imaging), clinical picture, treatment and prevention of the infection. It goes on to emphasize the specific risks of providing anesthesiology and intensive care services. Due to the fact that effective causal treatment is not yet available and the number of infections and deaths increases day by day, infection prevention and strict adherence to recommendations of infection control organizations remain the basis for fighting the virus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ait.2020.93756

RECORD 43
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2 viral load in upper respiratory specimens of infected patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zou L.;  Ruan F.;  Huang M.;  Liang L.;  Huang H.;  Hong Z.;  Yu J.;  Kang M.;  Song Y.;  Xia J.;  Guo Q.;  Song T.;  He J.;  Yen H.-L.;  Peiris M.;  Wu J.
SOURCE
  New England Journal of Medicine (2020) 382:12 (1177-1179). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001737

RECORD 44
TITLE
  Audio interview: New research on possible treatments for Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rubin E.J.;  Baden L.R.;  Morrissey S.
SOURCE
  New England Journal of Medicine (2020) 382:12 (E30). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe2005759

RECORD 45
TITLE
  Mimics and chameleons of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nickel C.H.;  Bingisser R.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20231). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20231

RECORD 46
TITLE
  Clinical features and chest CT findings of coronavirus disease 2019 in infants and young children
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou Y.;  Yang G.-D.;  Feng K.;  Huang H.;  Yun Y.-X.;  Mou X.-Y.;  Wang L.-F.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics (2020) 22:3 (215-220). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and chest CT findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in infants and young children. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data and chest CT images of 9 children, aged 0 to 3 years, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by nucleic acid detection between January 20 and February 10, 2020. RESULTS: All 9 children had an epidemiological history, and family clustering was observed for all infected children. Among the 9 children with COVID-19, 5 had no symptoms, 4 had fever, 2 had cough, and 1 had rhinorrhea. There were only symptoms of the respiratory system. Laboratory examination showed no reductions in leukocyte or lymphocyte count. Among the 9 children, 6 had an increase in lymphocyte count and 2 had an increase in leukocyte count. CT examination showed that among the 9 children, 8 had pulmonary inflammation located below the pleura or near the interlobar fissure and 3 had lesions distributed along the bronchovascular bundles. As for the morphology of the lesions, 6 had nodular lesions and 7 had patchy lesions; ground glass opacity with consolidation was observed in 6 children, among whom 3 had halo sign, and there was no typical paving stone sign. CONCLUSIONS: Infants and young children with COVID-19 tend to have mild clinical symptoms and imaging findings not as typical as those of adults, and therefore, the diagnosis of COVID-19 should be made based on imaging findings along with epidemiological history and nucleic acid detection. Chest CT has guiding significance for the early diagnosis of asymptomatic children.

RECORD 47
TITLE
  Standardized management guideline for pediatric wards of hematology and oncology during the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019
SOURCE
  Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics (2020) 22:3 (177-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and growing knowledge of its diagnosis and treatment, it has been clear that children are also susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The children with hematological tumors are a special population with immunosuppression and special therapeutic characteristics. Here the management guideline for pediatric wards of hematology and oncology during COVID-19 epidemic is established based on the features of children with hematological tumors.

RECORD 48
TITLE
  CT imaging features of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhong Q.;  Li Z.;  Shen X.;  Xu K.;  Shen Y.;  Fang Q.;  Chen F.;  Liang T.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To analyze the CT findings of patients with different clinical types of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 67 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 by nucleic acid testing were included and divided into 4 groups according to the clinical staging based on Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (Trial version 6). The CT imaging characteristics were analyzed among patients with different clinical types. RESULTS: Among 67 patients, 3 (4.5%) were mild cases, 35 (52.2%) were ordinary cases, 22 (32.8%) were severe cases, and 7 (10.4%) were critically ill. There were no abnormal CT findings in mild cases. In 35 ordinary cases, there were single lesions in 3 cases (8.6%) and multiple lesions in 33 cases (91.4%), while in severe case 1 case had single lesion (4.5%) and 21 had multiple lesions (95.5%). CT images of ordinary patients were mainly manifested as solid plaque shadow and halo sign (18/35, 51.4%); while fibrous strip shadow with ground glass shadow was more frequent in severe cases (7/22, 31.8%). Consolidation shadow as the main lesion was observed in 7 cases, and all of them were severe or critical ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: CT images in patients with different clinical types of COVID-19 have characteristic manifestations, and solid shadow may predict severe and critical illness.

RECORD 49
TITLE
  Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.L.;  Desai A.;  Duca A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:5 (1-28). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients.

RECORD 50
TITLE
  Anesthesia management in cesarean section for a patient with coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kang X.;  Zhang R.;  He H.;  Yao Y.;  Zheng Y.;  Wen X.;  Zhu S.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the cardio-pulmonary function of pregnant women, the anesthetic management in the cesarean section for the patients, as well as the protection for medical staff is significantly different from that in ordinary surgical operation. This paper reports a pregnant woman with COVID-19, for whom a cesarean section was successfully performed in our hospital on February 8, 2020. Anesthetic management, protection of medical staff and psychological intervention for the patients during the operation are discussed. Importance should be attached to the preoperative evaluation of pregnant women with COVID-19 and the implementation of anesthesia plan. For ordinary COVID-19 patients intraspinal anesthesia is preferred in cesarean section, and the influence on respiration and circulation in both maternal and infant should be reduced; while for severe or critically ill patients general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation should be adopted. The safety of medical environment should be ensured, and level-Ⅲ standard protection should be taken for anesthetists. Special attention and support should be given to maternal psychology. It is important to give full explanation before operation to reduce anxiety; to relieve the discomfort during operation to reduce tension; to avoid the bad mood of patients due to pain after operation.

RECORD 51
TITLE
  CT image visual quantitative evaluation and clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li K.;  Fang Y.;  Li W.;  Pan C.;  Qin P.;  Zhong Y.;  Liu X.;  Huang M.;  Liao Y.;  Li S.
SOURCE
  European radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the imaging manifestations and clinical classification of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study on patients with COVID-19 from Jan. 18, 2020 to Feb. 7, 2020 in Zhuhai, China. Patients were divided into 3 types based on Chinese guideline: mild (patients with minimal symptoms and negative CT findings), common, and severe-critical (patients with positive CT findings and different extent of clinical manifestations). CT visual quantitative evaluation was based on summing up the acute lung inflammatory lesions involving each lobe, which was scored as 0 (0%), 1 (1-25%), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%), or 4 (76-100%), respectively. The total severity score (TSS) was reached by summing the five lobe scores. The consistency of two observers was evaluated. The TSS was compared with the clinical classification. ROC was used to test the diagnosis ability of TSS for severe-critical type. RESULTS: This study included 78 patients, 38 males and 40 females. There were 24 mild (30.8%), 46 common (59.0%), and 8 severe-critical (10.2%) cases, respectively. The median TSS of severe-critical-type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). The ICC value of the two observers was 0.976 (95% CI 0.962-0.985). ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918. The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of clinical mild-type patients with COVID-19 was relatively high; CT was not suitable for independent screening tool. The CT visual quantitative analysis has high consistency and can reflect the clinical classification of COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • CT visual quantitative evaluation has high consistency (ICC value of 0.976) among the observers. The median TSS of severe-critical type group was significantly higher than common type (p < 0.001). • ROC analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) of TSS for diagnosing severe-critical type was 0.918 (95% CI 0.843-0.994). The TSS cutoff of 7.5 had 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. • The proportion of confirmed COVID-19 patients with normal chest CT was relatively high (30.8%); CT was not a suitable screening modality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06817-6

RECORD 52
TITLE
  Temporal profiles of viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples and serum antibody responses during infection by SARS-CoV-2: an observational cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  To K.K.-W.;  Tsang O.T.-Y.;  Leung W.-S.;  Tam A.R.;  Wu T.-C.;  Lung D.C.;  Yip C.C.-Y.;  Cai J.-P.;  Chan J.M.-C.;  Chik T.S.-H.;  Lau D.P.-L.;  Choi C.Y.-C.;  Chen L.-L.;  Chan W.-M.;  Chan K.-H.;  Ip J.D.;  Ng A.C.-K.;  Poon R.W.-S.;  Luo C.-T.;  Cheng V.C.-C.;  Chan J.F.-W.;  Hung I.F.-N.;  Chen Z.;  Chen H.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes severe community and nosocomial outbreaks. Comprehensive data for serial respiratory viral load and serum antibody responses from patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not yet available. Nasopharyngeal and throat swabs are usually obtained for serial viral load monitoring of respiratory infections but gathering these specimens can cause discomfort for patients and put health-care workers at risk. We aimed to ascertain the serial respiratory viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in posterior oropharyngeal (deep throat) saliva samples from patients with COVID-19, and serum antibody responses. METHODS: We did a cohort study at two hospitals in Hong Kong. We included patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We obtained samples of blood, urine, posterior oropharyngeal saliva, and rectal swabs. Serial viral load was ascertained by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Antibody levels against the SARS-CoV-2 internal nucleoprotein (NP) and surface spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) were measured using EIA. Whole-genome sequencing was done to identify possible mutations arising during infection. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 2020, and Feb 12, 2020, 30 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 23 were included (median age 62 years [range 37-75]). The median viral load in posterior oropharyngeal saliva or other respiratory specimens at presentation was 5·2 log10 copies per mL (IQR 4·1-7·0). Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope -0·15, 95% CI -0·19 to -0·11; R2=0·71). In one patient, viral RNA was detected 25 days after symptom onset. Older age was correlated with higher viral load (Spearman’s ρ=0·48, 95% CI 0·074-0·75; p=0·020). For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n=15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n=14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n=16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n=15). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-NP or anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG levels correlated with virus neutralisation titre (R2>0·9). No genome mutations were detected on serial samples. INTERPRETATION: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva samples are a non-invasive specimen more acceptable to patients and health-care workers. Unlike severe acute respiratory syndrome, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. This finding emphasises the importance of stringent infection control and early use of potent antiviral agents, alone or in combination, for high-risk individuals. Serological assay can complement RT-qPCR for diagnosis. FUNDING: Richard and Carol Yu, May Tam Mak Mei Yin, The Shaw Foundation Hong Kong, Michael Tong, Marina Lee, Government Consultancy Service, and Sanming Project of Medicine.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30196-1

RECORD 53
TITLE
  Expert consensus on the management strategy of patients with hereditary ataxia during prevention and control of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Specialized Committee Of Neurogenetics Neurophysician Branch Of Chinese Medical Doctor Association ;  Jiang H.;  Tang B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics (2020) 37:4 (359-366). Date of Publication: 10 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a series of highly infectious cases of unexplained pneumonia have been discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which have been confirmed as ‘2019 corona virus disease’ caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 virus can invade many human systems including the lungs. Patients with central nervous system involvement may show a series of neurological symptoms, which is easy to be misdiagnosed and neglected, thereby increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Hereditary ataxia is a large group of neurodegenerative diseases with great clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high mortality and disability. In view of the seriousness of the COVID-19 epidemic, a series of prevention and control measures adopted by the government have restricted the follow-up, diagnosis and treatment of patients by the hospitals, which has a great impact on their mental and physical health. In order to standardize the management of patients during the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic, the Specialized Committee of Neurogenetics of the Neurophysician Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association has formulated this consensus, with an aim to help patients to overcome the difficulties and pass the epidemic prevention period safely.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2020.04.001

RECORD 54
TITLE
  Preliminary Recommendations for Surgical Practice of Neurosurgery Department in the Central Epidemic Area of 2019 Coronavirus Infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tan Y.-T.;  Wang J.-W.;  Zhao K.;  Han L.;  Zhang H.-Q.;  Niu H.-Q.;  Shu K.;  Lei T.
SOURCE
  Current medical science (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed significant threats to the public health and life in China. Unlike the other 6 identified coronaviruses, the SARS-Cov-2 has a high infectious rate, a long incubation period and a variety of manifestations. In the absence of effective treatments for the virus, it becomes extremely urgent to develop scientific and standardized proposals for prevention and control of virus transmission. Hereby we focused on the surgical practice in Neurosurgery Department, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, and drafted several recommendations based on the latest relevant guidelines and our experience. These recommendations have helped us until now to achieve ‘zero infection’ of doctors and nurses in our department, we would like to share them with other medical staff of neurosurgery to fight 2019-nCoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-020-2173-5

RECORD 55
TITLE
  Clinical Study and CT Findings of a Familial Cluster of Pneumonia with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.-X.;  Wu B.;  Luo F.;  Zhang N.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (155-158). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We studied the epidemiological and clinical data collected from a family with 5 people, in which there were 3 family member diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that the first patient in this family had Wuhan city travel history. Close contact in daily life was the route of infection. The most common symptoms were fever, cough and weakness. Characteristic imaging changes were found with grass opacity (GGO), consolidation and septal thickening mainly distributed in peripheral and posterior area by thoracic CT scan in the 3 patients. The abnormality in laborotary test included lower white blood cell count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count,increasing fibrinogen and C-reactive protein,decreasing myohaemoglobin and increasing lactate dehydrogenase. The epidemiological and clinical features could provide quicker diagnosis and better management for the COVID-19 infected patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360107

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Stability Issues of RT-PCR Testing of SARS-CoV-2 for Hospitalized Patients Clinically Diagnosed with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Yao L.;  Li J.;  Chen L.;  Song Y.;  Cai Z.;  Yang C.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In this study, we collected a total of 610 hospitalized patients from Wuhan between Feb 2, 2020, and Feb 17, 2020. We reported a potentially high false negtive rate of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in the 610 hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the 2019 outbreak. We also found that the RT-PCR results from several tests at different points were variable from the same patients during the course of diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Our results indicate that in addition to the emphasis on RT-PCR testing, clinical indicators such as CT images should also be used not only for diagnosis and treatment but also for isolation, recovery/discharge and transferring for hospitalized patients clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 during the current epidemic. These results suggested the urgent needs for standard of procedures(SOP) of sampling from different anatomic sites, sample transportation, optimization of RT-PCR, serology diagnosis/screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and distinct diagnosis from other respiratory diseases such as fluenza infections as well. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25786

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen T.;  Wu D.;  Chen H.;  Yan W.;  Yang D.;  Chen G.;  Ma K.;  Xu D.;  Yu H.;  Wang H.;  Wang T.;  Guo W.;  Chen J.;  Ding C.;  Zhang X.;  Huang J.;  Han M.;  Li S.;  Luo X.;  Zhao J.;  Ning Q.
SOURCE
  BMJ (Clinical research ed.) (2020) 368 (m1091). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: Among a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms. RESULTS: The median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83; 73%) than in recovered patients (88; 55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113; 100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35; 51%), sepsis (113; 100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94; 77%), heart failure (41/83; 49%), alkalosis (14/35; 40%), hyperkalaemia (42; 37%), acute kidney injury (28; 25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23; 20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1091

RECORD 58
TITLE
  Early antiviral treatment contributes to alleviate the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu J.;  Li W.;  Shi X.;  Chen Z.;  Jiang B.;  Liu J.;  Wang D.;  Liu C.;  Meng Y.;  Cui L.;  Yu J.;  Cao H.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Journal of internal medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: At present, the severity of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a focal point. METHODS: To assess the factors associated with severity and prognosis of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, we retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed 280 cases of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from January 20 to February 20, 2020. RESULTS: The median age of patients in the mild group was 37.55 years old, while that in the severe group was 63.04 years old. The proportion of patients over 65 years old in the severe group was significantly higher than that of the mild group (59.04% vs. 10.15%, P < 0.05). 85.54% of severe patients had diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, which was significantly higher than that of the mild group (51.81% vs 7.11%, P = 0.025; 33.73% vs 3.05%, P = 0.042). Patients in the mild group experienced earlier initiation of antiviral treatment (1.19 ± 0.45 vs 2.65 ± 1.06 days in the severe group, P < 0.001). Our study showed that comorbidity, time from illness onset to antiviral, and age >=65 were three major risk factors for COVID-19 progression, while comorbidity and time from illness onset to antiviral were two major risk factors for COVID-19 recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The elderly and patients with underlying diseases are more likely to experience a severe progression of COVID-19. It is recommended that timely antiviral treatment should be initiated to slow the disease progression and improve the prognosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13063

RECORD 59
TITLE
  Epidemiology, Treatment, and Epidemic Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: a Review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luan R.-S.;  Wang X.;  Sun X.;  Chen X.-S.;  Zhou T.;  Liu Q.-H.;  Lü X.;  Wu X.-P.;  Gu D.-Q.;  Tang M.-S.;  Cui H.-J.;  Shan X.-F.;  Ouyang J.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang W.;  Sichuan University Covid- E.R.G.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (131-138). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. SARS-CoV-2 may be originated from bats, and the patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of epidemic infection. The virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people at all ages are susceptible to this virus. The main clinical symptoms of the patients are fever and cough, accompanied with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Effective drugs have been not yet available thus far. In terms of the prevention and control strategies, vaccine development as the primary prevention should be accelerated. Regarding the secondary prevention, ongoing efforts of the infected patients and close contacts quarantine, mask wearing promotion, regular disinfection in public places should be continued. Meanwhile, rapid detection kit for serological monitoring of the virus in general population is expected so as to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment. In addition, public health education on this disease and prevention should be enhanced so as to mitigate panic and mobilize the public to jointly combat the epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360505

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Experience of Clinical Management for Pregnant Women and Newborns with Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Tongji Hospital, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang S.-S.;  Zhou X.;  Lin X.-G.;  Liu Y.-Y.;  Wu J.-L.;  Sharifu L.M.;  Hu X.-L.;  Rong Z.-H.;  Liu W.;  Luo X.-P.;  Chen Z.;  Zeng W.-J.;  Chen S.-H.;  Ma D.;  Chen L.;  Feng L.
SOURCE
  Current medical science (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Based on the New Diagnosis and Treatment Scheme for Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia (Trial Edition 5), combined with our current clinical treatment experience, we recently proposed a revision of the first edition of “Guidance for maternal and fetal management during pneumonia epidemics of novel coronavirus infection in the Wuhan Tongji Hospital”. This article focused on the issues of greatest concern of pregnant women including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnostic criteria, inspection precautions, drug treatment options, indications and methods of termination of pregnancy, postpartum fever, breastfeeding considerations, mode of mother-to-child transmission, neonatal isolation and advice on neonatal nursing, to provide valuable experience for better management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-020-2174-4

RECORD 61
TITLE
  Analysis on cluster cases of COVID-19 in Tianjin
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.F.;  Li J.M.;  Zhou P.H.;  Liu J.;  Dong X.C.;  Lyu J.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (654-657). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To understand the characteristics of clusters of COVID-19 cases in Tianjin, and provide epidemiological evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: The data of all the cluster cases of COVID-19 in Tianjin reported as 22 February 2020 were collected to analyze the characteristics of different types of the clusters. Results: A total of 115 COVID-19 cases were reported in in 33 clusters in Tianjin. Clusters can be classified as following: 28 familial clusters (71 cases), 1 work place cluster (10 cases), 3 transport vehicle clusters (8 cases) and 1 public place cluster (26 cases). Fourteen familial clusters were caused by the cases from the working place or public place clusters. Numbers of secondary cases of family clusters were 1-7, the median number was 7.The interval from onset to diagnosis for the first case was longer than those of other cases in the familial clusters (Z=-2.406, P= 0.016). The median of incubation period of the public place clusters was 2 days. The intervals from onset to diagnosis were significant different among the family, working place and public place clusters (H=8.843, , P=0.012) , and there were also significant differences in onset time among the secondary cases (H=16.607, P=0.000) . Conclusions: In the surveillance of COVID-19 epidemic, special attention should be paid to the cases from same family, same work place, or other places where clustering are prone to occur, and the epidemiological investigation should be carried out timely to confirm the cluster. To prevent the transmission of COVID-19, the close contacts of the patients should be transferred to an assigned observation place in time for single room isolation. The awareness of COVID-19 prevention is low in some rural areas, reflected by many mass gathering activities and delayed medical care seeking after onset. It is necessary to strengthen the health education and take control measures in early period of epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200225-00165

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Epidemiological analysis on 1 052 cases of COVID-19 in epidemic clusters
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gan H.;  Zhang Y.;  Yuan M.;  Wu X.Y.;  Liu Z.R.;  Liu M.;  Wu J.B.;  Xu S.J.;  Gong L.;  Xu H.L.;  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (E027). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters, and explore the influence of family factors and social factors such as group activities on the spread of the disease. Methods: The data of cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters from 19 January, 2020 to 25 February, 2020 were collected from the official platforms of 36 cities in 6 provinces in China. Descriptive statistical methods, χ(2) test and curve fitting were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the clustered cases. Results: By 25 February, 2020, the data of 1 052 cases in 366 epidemic clusters were collected. In these clustered cases, 86.9%(914/1 050) occurred in families. Among the 1 046 cases with gender information, 513 were males (49.0%) and 533 were females (51.0%). The cases were mainly young adults between 18 and 59 years old, accounting for 68.5% (711/1 038). In the 366 epidemic clusters , the clusters in which the first confirmed cases with the history of sojourn in Wuhan or Hubei accounted for 47.0%(172/366). From 19 January to 3 February, 2020, the first confirmed cases with Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for 66.5%. From 4 to 25 February, the first confirmed cases who had Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for only 18.2%. The median of interval between the first generation case onset and the second generation case onset was 5 (2-8) days. The median of onset- diagnosis interval of the initial cases was 6 (3-9) days, and the median of onset-diagnosis interval of the secondary cases was 5 (3-8) days. Conclusions: Epidemic clusters of COVID-19 were common in many cities outside Wuhan and Hubei. Close contact in family was one of the main causes for the spread of household transmission of the virus. After 4 February, the epidemic clusters were mainly caused by the first generation or second generation cases in local areas, and the time for diagnosis became shorter.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200301-00223

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Era of molecular diagnosis for pathogen identification of unexplained pneumonia, lessons to be learned
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ai J.-W.;  Zhang Y.;  Zhang H.-C.;  Xu T.;  Zhang W.-H.
SOURCE
  Emerging Microbes and Infections (2020) 9:1 (597-600). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Unexplained pneumonia (UP) caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) emerged in China in late December 2019 and has infected more than 9000 cases by 31 January 2020. Shanghai reported the first imported case of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) in 20 January 2020. A combinative approach of real-time RT–PCR, CRISPR-based assay and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) were used to diagnose this unexplained pneumonia patient. Real-time RT–PCR and CRISPR-based assay both reported positive. This sample belonged to Betacoronavirus and shared a more than 99% nucleotide (nt) identity with the Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We further compared pros and cons of common molecular diagnostics in UP. In this study, we illustrated the importance of combining molecular diagnostics to rule out common pathogens and performed mNGS to obtain unbiased potential pathogen result for the diagnosis of UP.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1738905

RECORD 64
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 65
TITLE
  Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng L.;  Li C.;  Zeng Q.;  Liu X.;  Li X.;  Zhang H.;  Hong Z.;  Xia J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included adults (age≥18years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 without Invasive ventilation, diagnosed between Jan 17, 2020, and Feb 13, 2020. Patients, diagnosed after Jan 17, 2020, were given oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group for 5–21 days. The primary endpoint was a negative conversion rate of coronavirus from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis(day7, day14), and assessed whether the pneumonia was progressing or improving by chest CT (day7). Results: We analyzed 16 patients who received oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and 17 who oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group, and both initiated after diagnosis. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and chest CT characteristics were similar between groups. The SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected for 12(75%) of 16 patients’ nasopharyngeal specimens in the combination group after seven days, compared with 6 (35%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). After 14 days, 15 (94%) of 16 and 9 (52·9%) of 17, respectively, SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected (p < 0·05). The chest CT scans were improving for 11(69%) of 16 patients in the combination group after seven days, compared with 5(29%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). Conclusion: In patients with COVID-19, the apparent favorable clinical response with arbidol and LPV/r supports further LPV/r only.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.002

RECORD 66
TITLE
  Imaging manifestations and diagnostic value of chest CT of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Xiaogan area
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang K.;  Kang S.;  Tian R.;  Zhang X.;  Wang Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical Radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  AIM: To report the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in Xiaogan, Hubei, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The complete clinical and imaging data of 114 confirmed COVID-19 patients treated in Xiaogan Hospital were analysed retrospectively. Data were gathered regarding the presence of chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities; the distribution, morphology, density, location, and stage of abnormal shadows on chest CT; and observing the correlation between the severity of chest infection and lymphocyte ratio and blood oxygen saturation (SPO2) in patients. RESULTS: Chest CT revealed abnormal lung shadows in 110 patients. Regarding lesion distribution, multi-lobe lesions in both lungs were present in most patients (80 cases; 72.7%). Lesions most frequently involved both the peripheral zone and the central zone (62 cases; 56.4%). Regarding lesion morphology, 56 cases (50.1%) demonstrated patchy shadows that were partially fused into large areas. Thirty cases showed ground-glass opacity (27.3%), 30 cases showed the consolidation change (27.3%), and the remaining 50 cases showed both types of changes (45.4%). The progressing stage was the most common stage (54 cases; 49.1%). CT results showed a negative correlation with SPO2 and lymphocyte numbers (p<0.05), with r-values of −0.446 and −0.780, respectively. CONCLUSION: Spiral CT is a sensitive examination method, which can be applied to make an early diagnosis and for evaluation of progression, with a diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy better than that of nucleic acid detection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crad.2020.03.004

RECORD 67
TITLE
  Recommended prophylactic and management strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in transplant recipients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ju C.-R.;  Lian Q.-Y.;  Zhang J.-H.;  Qiu T.;  Cai Z.-T.;  Jiang W.-Y.;  Zhang J.;  Cheng Q.;  Chen G.;  Li N.;  Wang C.-Y.;  He J.-X.
SOURCE
  Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, increasing attention has been paid to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 primarily invades the respiratory tract and lungs, leading to pneumonia and other systemic disorders. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 in transplant recipients has raised significant concerns, especially because there is a large population of transplant recipients in China. Based on the current epidemic situation, this study reviewed publications on this virus and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), analyzed common features of respiratory viral pneumonias, and presented the currently reported clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in transplant recipients to improve strategies regarding the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in this special population.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cdtm.2020.02.003

RECORD 68
TITLE
  COVID-19 epidemic in Switzerland: on the importance of testing, contact tracing and isolation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Salathé M.;  Althaus C.L.;  Neher R.;  Stringhini S.;  Hodcroft E.;  Fellay J.;  Zwahlen M.;  Senti G.;  Battegay M.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Eckerle I.;  Egger M.;  Low N.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20225). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Switzerland is among the countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases per capita in the world. There are likely many people with undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection because testing efforts are currently not detecting all infected people, including some with clinical disease compatible with COVID-19. Testing on its own will not stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Testing is part of a strategy. The World Health Organization recommends a combination of measures: rapid diagnosis and immediate isolation of cases, rigorous tracking and precautionary self-isolation of close contacts. In this article, we explain why the testing strategy in Switzerland should be strengthened urgently, as a core component of a combination approach to control COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20225

RECORD 69
TITLE
  Epidemiological, clinical characteristics of cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with abnormal imaging findings
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang X.;  Cai H.;  Hu J.;  Lian J.;  Gu J.;  Zhang S.;  Ye C.;  Lu Y.;  Jin C.;  Yu G.;  Jia H.;  Zhang Y.;  Sheng J.;  Li L.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  PURPOSE: To investigate the epidemiological, clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with abnormal imaging findings. METHODS: Patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection of Zhejiang province from Jan 17 to Feb 8 underwent CT or x-ray were enrolled. Epidemiological, clinical data were analyzed between those with abnormal or normal imaging findings. RESULTS: Excluding 72 patients with normal images, 230 of 573 patients affected more than two lobes. The median radiograph score was 2.0 and there’s negative correlation between the score and oxygenation index (ρ=-0.657,P < 0.001). Patients with abnormal images were older (46.65 ± 13.82), with higher rate of coexisting condition(28.8%), lower rate of exposure history and longer time between onset and confirmation(5d) than non-pneumonia patients(all P < 0.05). Higher rate of fever, cough, expectoration, and headache, lower lymphocytes, albumin, serum sodium levels and higher total bilirubin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein levels and lower oxygenation index were observed in pneumonia patients (all P < 0.05). Muscle ache, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, lower lymphocytes levels and higher serum creatinine and radiograph score at admission were predictive factors for severe/critical subtype. CONCLUSION: Patients with abnormal images have more obvious clinical manifestations and laboratory changes. Combing clinical features and radiograph score can effectively predict severe/critical type.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.040

RECORD 70
TITLE
  Rapid viral diagnosis and ambulatory management of suspected COVID-19 cases presenting at the infectious diseases referral hospital in Marseille, France, – January 31st to March 1st, 2020: A respiratory virus snapshot
AUTHOR NAMES
  Amrane S.;  Tissot-Dupont H.;  Doudier B.;  Eldin C.;  Hocquart M.;  Mailhe M.;  Dudouet P.;  Ormières E.;  Ailhaud L.;  Parola P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Brouqui P.;  Zandotti C.;  Ninove L.;  Luciani L.;  Boschi C.;  La Scola B.;  Raoult D.;  Million M.;  Colson P.;  Gautret P.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101632). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Rapid virological diagnosis is needed to limit the length of isolation for suspected COVID-19 cases. METHOD: We managed the first 280 patients suspected to have COVID-19 through a rapid care circuit and virological diagnosis in our infectious disease reference hospital in Marseille, France. Rapid viral detection was performed on sputum and nasopharyngeal samples. RESULTS: Over our study period, no SARS-CoV-2 was detected. Results were obtained within approximately three hours of the arrival of patient samples at the laboratory. Other viral infections were identified in 49% of the patients, with most common pathogens being influenza A and B viruses, rhinovirus, metapneumovirus and common coronaviruses, notably HKU1 and NL63. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of COVID-19 is critical to isolate confirmed cases and prevent further transmission. Early rule-out of COVID-19 allows public health containment measures to be adjusted by reducing the time spent in isolation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101632

RECORD 71
TITLE
  Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin X.;  Lian J.-S.;  Hu J.-H.;  Gao J.;  Zheng L.;  Zhang Y.-M.;  Hao S.-R.;  Jia H.-Y.;  Cai H.;  Zhang X.-L.;  Yu G.-D.;  Xu K.-J.;  Wang X.-Y.;  Gu J.-Q.;  Zhang S.-Y.;  Ye C.-Y.;  Jin C.-L.;  Lu Y.-F.;  Yu X.;  Yu X.-P.;  Huang J.-R.;  Xu K.-L.;  Ni Q.;  Yu C.-B.;  Zhu B.;  Li Y.-T.;  Liu J.;  Zhao H.;  Zhang X.;  Yu L.;  Guo Y.-Z.;  Su J.-W.;  Tao J.-J.;  Lang G.-J.;  Wu X.-X.;  Wu W.-R.;  Qv T.-T.;  Xiang D.-R.;  Yi P.;  Shi D.;  Chen Y.;  Ren Y.;  Qiu Y.-Q.;  Li L.-J.;  Sheng J.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Gut (2020) Article Number: 320926. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics. Design: COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province. Results: Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2. Conclusion: We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320926

RECORD 72
TITLE
  Analysis of Epidemiological and Clinical features in older patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lian J.;  Jin X.;  Hao S.;  Cai H.;  Zhang S.;  Zheng L.;  Jia H.;  Hu J.;  Gao J.;  Zhang Y.;  Zhang X.;  Yu G.;  Wang X.;  Gu J.;  Ye C.;  Jin C.;  Lu Y.;  Yu X.;  Yu X.;  Ren Y.;  Qiu Y.;  Li L.;  Sheng J.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has become a big threat to China, with high contagious capacity and varied mortality. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of older patients with COVID-19 out of Wuhan. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed, with collecting data from medical records of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Zhejiang province from Jan 17 to Feb 12, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical and treatment data were analyzed between those older (≥60y) and younger (<60y) patients. RESULTS: Total 788 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were selected, where 136 were older patients with corresponding age of 68.28y±7.314y. There was a significantly higher frequency of women in the older patients compared with the younger patients (57.35% vs 46.47%, P=0.021). The presence of coexisting medical condition was significantly higher in older patients compared with younger patients (55.15% vs 21.93%, P<0.001), including the rate of hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases and COPD. Significantly higher rates of severe (older vs younger groups: 16.18% vs 5.98%, P<0.001)/critical (8.82% vs 0.77%, P<0.001) type, shortness of breath (12.50% vs 3.07%, P<0.001) and high temperature of >39.0℃ (13.97% vs 7.21%, P=0.010) were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. Finally, Higher rates of ICU admission (9.56% vs 1.38%, P<0.001) and methylprednisolone application (28.68% vs 9.36%, P<0.001) were also identified in older patients. CONCLUSIONS: The specific epidemiological and clinical features of older COVID-19 patients included significantly higher female gender, body temperature, co-existing of basic diseases and rate of severe and critical type.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa242

RECORD 73
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: initial chest CT findings
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou Z.;  Guo D.;  Li C.;  Fang Z.;  Chen L.;  Yang R.;  Li X.;  Zeng W.
SOURCE
  European radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To systematically analyze CT findings during the early and progressive stages of natural course of coronavirus disease 2019 and also to explore possible changes in pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities during these two stages. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the initial chest CT data of 62 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients (34 men, 28 women; age range 20-91 years old) who did not receive any antiviral treatment between January 21 and February 4, 2020, in Chongqing, China. Patients were assigned to the early-stage group (onset of symptoms within 4 days) or progressive-stage group (onset of symptoms within 4-7 days) for analysis. CT characteristics and the distribution, size, and CT score of pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities were assessed. RESULTS: In our study, the major characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 was ground-glass opacity (61.3%), followed by ground-glass opacity with consolidation (35.5%), rounded opacities (25.8%), a crazy-paving pattern (25.8%), and an air bronchogram (22.6%). No patient presented cavitation, a reticular pattern, or bronchial wall thickening. The CT scores of the progressive-stage group were significantly greater than those of the early-stage group (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Multiple ground-glass opacities with consolidations in the periphery of the lungs were the primary CT characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019. CT score can be used to evaluate the severity of the disease. If these typical alterations are found, then the differential diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 must be considered. KEY POINTS: • Multiple GGOs with consolidations in the periphery of the lungs were the primary CT characteristic of COVID-19. • The halo sign may be a special CT feature in the early-stage COVID-19 patients. • Significantly increased CT score may indicate the aggravation of COVID-19 in the progressive stage.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06816-7

RECORD 74
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Treatment Plan for COVID-19 (Trial Version 6)
SOURCE
  Chinese medical journal (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000819

RECORD 75
TITLE
  The course of clinical diagnosis and treatment of a case infected with coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han W.;  Quan B.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang J.;  Lu Y.;  Feng G.;  Wu Q.;  Fang F.;  Cheng L.;  Jiao N.;  Li X.;  Chen Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020) 92:5 (461-463). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25711

RECORD 76
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen H.;  Guo J.;  Wang C.;  Luo F.;  Yu X.;  Zhang W.;  Li J.;  Zhao D.;  Xu D.;  Gong Q.;  Liao J.;  Yang H.;  Hou W.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (809-815). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were based on information from the general population. Limited data are available for pregnant women with COVID-19 pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in pregnancy and the intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection. Methods: Clinical records, laboratory results, and chest CT scans were retrospectively reviewed for nine pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia (ie, with maternal throat swab samples that were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, from Jan 20 to Jan 31, 2020. Evidence of intrauterine vertical transmission was assessed by testing for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and neonatal throat swab samples. Breastmilk samples were also collected and tested from patients after the first lactation. Findings: All nine patients had a caesarean section in their third trimester. Seven patients presented with a fever. Other symptoms, including cough (in four of nine patients), myalgia (in three), sore throat (in two), and malaise (in two), were also observed. Fetal distress was monitored in two cases. Five of nine patients had lymphopenia (<1·0 × 10 cells per L). Three patients had increased aminotransferase concentrations. None of the patients developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died, as of Feb 4, 2020. Nine livebirths were recorded. No neonatal asphyxia was observed in newborn babies. All nine livebirths had a 1-min Apgar score of 8–9 and a 5-min Apgar score of 9–10. Amniotic fluid, cord blood, neonatal throat swab, and breastmilk samples from six patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and all samples tested negative for the virus. Interpretation: The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women were similar to those reported for non-pregnant adult patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Findings from this small group of cases suggest that there is currently no evidence for intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop COVID-19 pneumonia in late pregnancy. Funding: Hubei Science and Technology Plan, Wuhan University Medical Development Plan.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3

RECORD 77
TITLE
  Diagnosis and treatment recommendation for pediatric coronavirus disease-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Z.;  Fu J.;  Shu Q.;  Chen Y.;  Hua C.;  Li F.;  Lin R.;  Tang L.;  Wang T.;  Wang W.;  Wang Y.;  Xu W.;  Yang Z.;  Ye S.;  Yuan T.;  Zhang C.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (1-8). Date of Publication: 25 May 2020

RECORD 78
TITLE
  What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lake M.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical medicine (London, England) (2020) 20:2 (124-127). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, health authorities in Wuhan, China, identified a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology linked to the city’s South China Seafood Market. Subsequent investigations revealed a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, as the causative agent now at the heart of a major outbreak. The rising case numbers have been accompanied by unprecedented public health action, including the wholesale isolation of Wuhan. Alongside this has been a robust scientific response, including early publication of the pathogen genome, and rapid development of highly specific diagnostics. This article will review the new knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 acute respiratory disease, and summarise its clinical features.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2019-coron

RECORD 79
TITLE
  Retrospective analysis of the possibility of predicting the COVID-19 outbreak from Internet searches and social media data, China, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.;  Chen L.J.;  Chen X.;  Zhang M.;  Pang C.P.;  Chen H.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The peak of Internet searches and social media data about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred 10-14 days earlier than the peak of daily incidences in China. Internet searches and social media data had high correlation with daily incidences, with the maximum r > 0.89 in all correlations. The lag correlations also showed a maximum correlation at 8-12 days for laboratory-confirmed cases and 6-8 days for suspected cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000199

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Countermeasures and treatment for aortic acute syndrome with 2019 coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Si Y.;  Sun X.F.;  Zhong M.;  Yue J.N.;  Fu W.G.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58:3 (178-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 coronavirus disease(COVID-19) has cost a great loss to the health and economic property of Chines people. Under such a special circumstance, how to deal with such patients with acute aortic syndrome has become a serious challenge. Rapid diagnosis of concomitant COVID-19, safe and effective transportation, implementation of the interventional procedure, protection of vascular surgical team and postoperative management and follow-up of such patients have become urgent problems for us. Combined with the latest novel government documents, the literature and the experiences from Wuhan, we answered the above questions briefly and plainly. We also hope to inspire the national vascular surgeons to manage critical emergencies in vascular surgery and even routine vascular diseases with COVID-19, as a final point to limit the severe epidemic situation, and minimize the damage of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0529-5815.2020.03.004

RECORD 81
TITLE
  Host susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and establishment of a host risk score: findings of 487 cases outside Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shi Y.;  Yu X.;  Zhao H.;  Wang H.;  Zhao R.;  Sheng J.
SOURCE
  Critical care (London, England) (2020) 24:1 (108). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2833-7

RECORD 82
TITLE
  The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergency and the role of timely and effective national health surveillance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lana R.M.;  Coelho F.C.;  Gomes M.F.D.C.;  Cruz O.G.;  Bastos L.S.;  Villela D.A.M.;  Codeço C.T.
SOURCE
  Cadernos de saude publica (2020) 36:3 (e00019620). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311×00019620

RECORD 83
TITLE
  Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121

RECORD 84
TITLE
  Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Kagaya K.;  Zarebski A.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 5 February 2020, in Yokohama, Japan, a cruise ship hosting 3,711 people underwent a 2-week quarantine after a former passenger was found with COVID-19 post-disembarking. As at 20 February, 634 persons on board tested positive for the causative virus. We conducted statistical modelling to derive the delay-adjusted asymptomatic proportion of infections, along with the infections’ timeline. The estimated asymptomatic proportion was 17.9% (95% credible interval (CrI): 15.5-20.2%). Most infections occurred before the quarantine start.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

RECORD 85
TITLE
  Post-discharge surveillance and positive virus detection in two medical staff recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), China, January to February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xing Y.;  Mo P.;  Xiao Y.;  Zhao O.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang F.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, 62 medical staff of Zhongnan Hospital in Wuhan, China have been hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019. During the post-discharge surveillance after clinical recovery, swabs were positive in two asymptomatic cases (3.23%). Case 1 had presented typical clinical and radiological manifestations on admission, while manifestation in Case 2 was very mild. In conclusion, a small proportion of recovered patients may test positive after discharge, and post-discharge surveillance and isolation need to be strengthened.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000191

RECORD 86
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 7 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 14 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the seventh epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 14 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.23

RECORD 87
TITLE
  Chemotherapy strategy for colorectal cancer under the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.H.;  Shen L.;  Li J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (217-219). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) makes the medical treatment of colorectal cancers difficult. Cancer patients are more susceptible to infection and tumor history is defined as an important factor of poor prognosis, which challenges both doctors and patients. For metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, maintenance therapy is the optimal choice. The patients with tumor progression or poor biological behavior should receive or continue combination chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy should reduce the intensity of treatment and shorten the therapy time. Fever patients during chemotherapy need to receive differential diagnosis and screening according to national standards. Patients with stable diseases and good general conditions may delay imaging examination. Clinicians should make individual clinical decisions based on the specifics of each patient during epidemic situation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200225-00089

RECORD 88
TITLE
  First Pediatric Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park J.Y.;  Han M.S.;  Park K.U.;  Kim J.Y.;  Choi E.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:11 (e124). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries worldwide. Current epidemiologic knowledge suggests that relatively few cases are seen among children, which limits opportunities to address pediatric specific issues on infection control and the children’s contribution to viral spread in the community. Here, we report the first pediatric case of COVID-19 in Korea. The 10-year-old girl was a close contact of her uncle and her mother who were confirmed to have COVID-19. In this report, we present mild clinical course of her pneumonia that did not require antiviral treatment and serial viral test results from multiple specimens. Lastly, we raise concerns on the optimal strategy of self-quarantine and patient care in a negative isolation room for children.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e124

RECORD 89
TITLE
  Drive-Through Screening Center for COVID-19: a Safe and Efficient Screening System against Massive Community Outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kwon K.T.;  Ko J.H.;  Shin H.;  Sung M.;  Kim J.Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:11 (e123). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is ongoing, the number of individuals to be tested for COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. For safe and efficient screening for COVID-19, drive-through (DT) screening centers have been designed and implemented in Korea. Herein, we present the overall concept, advantages, and limitations of the COVID-19 DT screening centers. The steps of the DT centers include registration, examination, specimen collection, and instructions. The entire service takes about 10 minutes for one testee without leaving his or her cars. Increased testing capacity over 100 tests per day and prevention of cross-infection between testees in the waiting space are the major advantages, while protection of staff from the outdoor atmosphere is challenging. It could be implemented in other countries to cope with the global COVID-19 outbreak and transformed according to their own situations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e123

RECORD 90
TITLE
  Treatment strategies for colorectal cancer patients in tumor hospitals under the background of corona virus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu X.H.;  Niu W.B.;  Zhang J.F.;  Li B.K.;  Yu B.;  Zhang Z.Y.;  Zhou C.X.;  Zhang X.N.;  Gao Y.;  Wang G.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (201-208). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a new outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 began to occur. Its pathogen is 2019-nCoV, which has the characteristics of strong infectivity and general susceptibility. The current situation of prevention and control of new coronavirus pneumonia is severe. In this context, as front-line medical workers bearing important responsibilities and pressure, while through strict management strategy, we can minimize the risk of infection exposure. By summarizing the research progress and guidelines in recent years in the fields of colorectal cancer disease screening, treatment strategies (including early colorectal cancer, locally advanced colorectal cancer, obstructive colorectal cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer and the treatment of patients after neoadjuvant therapy), the choice of medication and time limit for adjuvant therapy, the protective measures for patients undergoing emergency surgery, the re-examination of postoperative patients and the protection of medical staff, etc., authors improve treatment strategies in order to provide more choices for patients to obtain the best treatment under the severe epidemic situation of new coronavirus pneumonia. Meanwhile we hope that it can also provide more timely treatment modeling schemes for colleagues.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200217-00058

RECORD 91
TITLE
  Standardized diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer during the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 in Renji hospital
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luo Y.;  Zhong M.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (211-216). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently raging in China. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be transmitted from human to human and cause hospital infection, which seriously threatens surgical staffs and inpatients. Although colorectal surgery is not a front-line subject in the fight against the epidemic, but in this special situation, it is a difficult task to provide the highest quality medical services and ensure the orderly clinical work, on the premise of maximizing the protection for patients and their families, health of medical staff, and the safety of wards and hospitals, We summarize how to carry out the clinical practice of colorectal surgery under the situation of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemiology, including the procedures of diagnose and treatment for emergency patients with colorectal tumor, and share the experiences of the diagnosis of colorectal tumor, the management of patients with colorectal cancer who are scheduled to be admitted for surgery, the protection of wards, the perioperative management. More importantly, we introduce in detail the operative management and perioperative management of colorectal surgery patients suspected or diagnosed with new coronary pneumonia, including prevention and control measures for medical staff, operating rooms and surgical instruments. The main points are as follows: (1) Multidisciplinary team (MDT) must be run through the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The members include not only routine departments, but also respiratory department and infectious department. (2) Colonoscopy examination may cause cross infection of COVID-19 to patients and doctors. Therefore, it is prior to examine the emergency cases and life-threatening patients (bleeding, obstruction, gastrointestinal foreign bodies, etc.). If the emergent patients (intestinal obstruction) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, the surgeons must perform emergency surgery, and intestinal decompressive tube through colonoscopy is not recommended. (3) The colorectal cancer patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be placed in the isolated room with separate medical devices, and the operative room with negative pressure (under -5 Pa) must be separated. All disposable medical items, body fluids and feces of the patients in perioperative periods must be unified disposed according to the medical waste standard. (4) The surgical medical workers who process colorectal cancer patients with COVID-19 must be protected by three-level. After operation, the medical workers must receive medical observation and be isolated for 14 days. We hope our “Renji experience” will be beneficial to colleagues.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200217-00057

RECORD 92
TITLE
  Rapid Progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Review of Current Understanding of Critical Illness from COVID-19 Infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Goh K.J.;  Choong M.C.;  Cheong E.H.;  Kalimuddin S.;  Duu Wen S.;  Phua G.C.;  Chan K.S.;  Haja Mohideen S.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-9). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak that started in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019 has now extended across the globe with >100,000 cases and 3,000 deaths reported in 93 countries as of 7 March 2020. We report a case of COVID-19 infection in a 64-year-old man who developed rapidly worsening respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that required intubation. As the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 ranges widely from mild illness to ARDS with a high risk of mortality, there is a need for more research to identify early markers of disease severity. Current evidence suggests that patients with advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities or dyspnoea should be closely monitored, especially at 1-2 weeks after symptom onset. It remains to be seen if laboratory findings such as lymphopenia or elevated lactate dehydrogenase may serve as early surrogates for critical illness or markers of disease recovery. Management of ARDS in COVID-19 remains supportive while we await results of drug trials. More studies are needed to understand the incidence and outcomes of ARDS and critical illness from COVID-19, which will be important for critical care management and resource planning.

RECORD 93
TITLE
  Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai J.;  Ma S.;  Wang Y.;  Cai Z.;  Hu J.;  Wei N.;  Wu J.;  Du H.;  Chen T.;  Li R.;  Tan H.;  Kang L.;  Yao L.;  Huang M.;  Wang H.;  Wang G.;  Liu Z.;  Hu S.
SOURCE
  JAMA Network Open (2020) Article Number: e203976. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Importance: Health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be psychologically stressed. Objective: To assess the magnitude of mental health outcomes and associated factors among health care workers treating patients exposed to COVID-19 in China. Design, Settings, and Participants: This cross-sectional, survey-based, region-stratified study collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 1257 health care workers in 34 hospitals from January 29, 2020, to February 3, 2020, in China. Health care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 were eligible. Main Outcomes and Measures: The degree of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and distress was assessed by the Chinese versions of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mental health outcomes. Results: A total of 1257 of 1830 contacted individuals completed the survey, with a participation rate of 68.7%. A total of 813 (64.7%) were aged 26 to 40 years, and 964 (76.7%) were women. Of all participants, 764 (60.8%) were nurses, and 493 (39.2%) were physicians; 760 (60.5%) worked in hospitals in Wuhan, and 522 (41.5%) were frontline health care workers. A considerable proportion of participants reported symptoms of depression (634 [50.4%]), anxiety (560 [44.6%]), insomnia (427 [34.0%]), and distress (899 [71.5%]). Nurses, women, frontline health care workers, and those working in Wuhan, China, reported more severe degrees of all measurements of mental health symptoms than other health care workers (eg, median [IQR] Patient Health Questionnaire scores among physicians vs nurses: 4.0 [1.0-7.0] vs 5.0 [2.0-8.0]; P =.007; median [interquartile range {IQR}] Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale scores among men vs women: 2.0 [0-6.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-7.0]; P <.001; median [IQR] Insomnia Severity Index scores among frontline vs second-line workers: 6.0 [2.0-11.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-8.0]; P <.001; median [IQR] Impact of Event Scale-Revised scores among those in Wuhan vs those in Hubei outside Wuhan and those outside Hubei: 21.0 [8.5-34.5] vs 18.0 [6.0-28.0] in Hubei outside Wuhan and 15.0 [4.0-26.0] outside Hubei; P <.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed participants from outside Hubei province were associated with lower risk of experiencing symptoms of distress compared with those in Wuhan (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.88; P =.008). Frontline health care workers engaged in direct diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with COVID-19 were associated with a higher risk of symptoms of depression (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.09; P =.01), anxiety (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.22-2.02; P <.001), insomnia (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.92-4.60; P <.001), and distress (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.25-2.04; P <.001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey of heath care workers in hospitals equipped with fever clinics or wards for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan and other regions in China, participants reported experiencing psychological burden, especially nurses, women, those in Wuhan, and frontline health care workers directly engaged in the diagnosis, treatment, and care for patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

RECORD 94
TITLE
  COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus 2019) – recent trends
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kannan S.;  Shaik Syed Ali P.;  Sheeza A.;  Hemalatha K.
SOURCE
  European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences (2020) 24:4 (2006-2011). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a warning that, although the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from Wuhan City (China), is not pandemic, it should be contained to prevent the global spread. The COVID-19 virus was known earlier as 2019-nCoV. As of 12 February 2020, WHO reported 45,171 cases and 1115 deaths related to COVID-19. COVID-19 is similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) virus in its pathogenicity, clinical spectrum, and epidemiology. Comparison of the genome sequences of COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) showed that COVID-19 has a better sequence identity with SARS-CoV compared to MERS CoV. However, the amino acid sequence of COVID-19 differs from other coronaviruses specifically in the regions of 1ab polyprotein and surface glycoprotein or S-protein. Although several animals have been speculated to be a reservoir for COVID-19, no animal reservoir has been already confirmed. COVID-19 causes COVID-19 disease that has similar symptoms as SARSCoV. Studies suggest that the human receptor for COVID-19 may be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor similar to that of SARSCoV. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of COVID-19 has nearly 90% amino acid sequence identity with SARS-CoV. The N protein antibodies of SARS-CoV may cross react with COVID-19 but may not provide cross-immunity. In a similar fashion to SARS-CoV, the N protein of COVID-19 may play an important role in suppressing the RNA interference (RNAi) to overcome the host defense. This mini-review aims at investigating the most recent trend of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202002_20378

RECORD 95
TITLE
  Treatment strategies of Budd-Chiari syndrome during the epidemic period of 2019 coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li L.H.;  Zhang G.;  Dang X.W.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58 (E007). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Prevention and control about the situation of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are grim at present. In addition to supporting the frontline actively, medical workers in general surgery spare no efforts in making good diagnosis and treatment of specialized diseases by optimizing treatment process, providing medical advice online, mastering indications of delayed operation and emergency operation reasonably, etc. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a complex disorder, and severity of the disease varies, serious cases can be life threatening. While fighting the epidemic, medical workers should also ensure the medical needs of patients. However, instead of continuing the traditional treatment, a new management system should be developed. Based on the characteristics of Budd-Chiari syndrome patients in China and our experience, we divide the patients into ordinary and critical cases, and treatment strategies suitable for the epidemic period of COVID-19 are put forward for reference and discussion by physicians.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112139-20200221-00109

RECORD 96
TITLE
  Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Adhikari S.P.;  Meng S.;  Wu Y.-J.;  Mao Y.-P.;  Ye R.-X.;  Wang Q.-Z.;  Sun C.;  Sylvia S.;  Rozelle S.;  Raat H.;  Zhou H.
SOURCE
  Infectious Diseases of Poverty (2020) 9:1 Article Number: 29. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O’Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors’ affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. Results: Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus’ origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Conclusions: There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x

RECORD 97
TITLE
  Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hanley B.;  Lucas S.B.;  Youd E.;  Swift B.;  Osborn M.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical pathology (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) outbreak in Wuhan, China, has now spread to many countries across the world including the UK with over 3000 deaths as of early March 2020. This will inevitably lead to an increase in the number of suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related deaths at autopsy. The Royal College of Pathologists has responded to this concern with the release of guidelines on autopsy practice relating to COVID-19. The following article is a summary and interpretation of these guidelines. It includes a description of hazard group 3 organisms to which SARS-CoV-2 has been assigned, a brief description of what is currently known about the pathological and autopsy findings in COVID-19, a summary of the recommendations for conducting autopsies in suspected COVID-19 cases and the techniques for making the diagnosis at autopsy. It concludes by considering the clinicopathological correlation and notification of such cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2020-206522

RECORD 98
TITLE
  A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang L.-S.;  Wang Y.-R.;  Ye D.-W.;  Liu Q.-Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105948). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the ongoing outbreak as a global public health emergency. Currently, the research on novel coronavirus is still in the primary stage. Based on the current published evidence, we systematically summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of knowledge surrounding COVID-19. This review in the hope of helping the public effectively recognize and deal with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and providing a reference for future studies.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948

RECORD 99
TITLE
  Comprehensive analysis for diagnosis of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lei P.;  Fan B.;  Mao J.;  Wang P.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.016

RECORD 100
TITLE
  COVID-19: time for WHO to reconsider its stance towards Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nelson C.W.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (193). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00693-2

RECORD 101
TITLE
  The establishment of reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 and variation analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang C.;  Liu Z.;  Chen Z.;  Huang X.;  Xu M.;  He T.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Starting around December 2019, an epidemic of pneumonia, which was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization, broke out in Wuhan, China, and is spreading throughout the world. A new coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the Coronavirus Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses was soon found to be the cause. At present, the sensitivity of clinical nucleic acid detection is limited, and it is still unclear whether it is related to genetic variation. In this study, we retrieved 95 full-length genomic sequences of SARAS-CoV-2 strains from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and GISAID databases, established the reference sequence by conducting multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses, and analyzed sequence variations along the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The homology among all viral strains was generally high, among them, 99.99% (99.91%-100%) at the nucleotide level and 99.99% (99.79%-100%) at the amino acid level. Although overall variation in open-reading frame (ORF) regions is low, 13 variation sites in 1a, 1b, S, 3a, M, 8, and N regions were identified, among which positions nt28144 in ORF 8 and nt8782 in ORF 1a showed mutation rate of 30.53% (29/95) and 29.47% (28/95), respectively. These findings suggested that there may be selective mutations in SARS-COV-2, and it is necessary to avoid certain regions when designing primers and probes. Establishment of the reference sequence for SARS-CoV-2 could benefit not only biological study of this virus but also diagnosis, clinical monitoring and intervention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25762

RECORD 102
TITLE
  COVID-19, a worldwide public health emergency
AUTHOR NAMES
  Palacios Cruz M.;  Santos E.;  Velázquez Cervantes M.A.;  León Juárez M.
SOURCE
  Revista Clinica Espanola (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new coronavirus outbreak emerged on the 31st of December 2019 in Wuhan, China, causing commotion among the medical community and the rest of the world. This new species of coronavirus has been termed 2019-nCoV and has caused a considerable number of cases of infection and deaths in China and, to a growing degree, beyond China, becoming a worldwide public health emergency. 2019-nCoV has high homology to other pathogenic coronaviruses, such as those originating from bat-related zoonosis (SARS-CoV), which caused approximately 646 deaths in China at the start of the decade. The mortality rate for 2019-nCoV is not as high (approximately 2-3%), but its rapid propagation has resulted in the activation of protocols to stop its spread. This pathogen has the potential to become a pandemic. It is therefore vital to follow the personal care recommendations issued by the World Health Organisation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rce.2020.03.001

RECORD 103
TITLE
  Laboratory readiness and response for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in expert laboratories in 30 EU/EEA countries, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Reusken C.B.E.M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Haagmans B.;  Meijer A.;  Corman V.M.;  Papa A.;  Charrel R.;  Drosten C.;  Koopmans M.;  Leitmeyer K.;  On Behalf Of Evd-LabNet And Erli-Net
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Timely detection of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection cases is crucial to interrupt the spread of this virus. We assessed the required expertise and capacity for molecular detection of 2019-nCoV in specialised laboratories in 30 European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries. Thirty-eight laboratories in 24 EU/EEA countries had diagnostic tests available by 29 January 2020. A coverage of all EU/EEA countries was expected by mid-February. Availability of primers/probes, positive controls and personnel were main implementation barriers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000082

RECORD 104
TITLE
  Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Yang Y.;  Zhang C.;  Huang F.;  Wang F.;  Yuan J.;  Wang Z.;  Li J.;  Li J.;  Feng C.;  Zhang Z.;  Wang L.;  Peng L.;  Chen L.;  Qin Y.;  Zhao D.;  Tan S.;  Yin L.;  Xu J.;  Zhou C.;  Jiang C.;  Liu L.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (364-374). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the 2019-nCoV infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and rapidly spread to many provinces in China as well as other countries. Here we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as potential biomarkers for predicting disease severity in 2019-nCoV-infected patients in Shenzhen, China. All 12 cases of the 2019-nCoV-infected patients developed pneumonia and half of them developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, decreased percentage of lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased CD8 count. The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury. Our results suggest a number of potential diagnosis biomarkers and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs for potential repurposing treatment of 2019-nCoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1643-8

RECORD 105
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dilcher M.;  Werno A.;  Jennings L.C.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (6-11). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 106
TITLE
  Letter to the editor: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Colson P.;  La Scola B.;  Esteves-Vieira V.;  Ninove L.;  Zandotti C.;  Jimeno M.-T.;  Gazin C.;  Bedotto M.;  Filosa V.;  Giraud-Gatineau A.;  Chaudet H.;  Brouqui P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000171

RECORD 107
TITLE
  Understanding COVID-19 new diagnostic guidelines – a message of reassurance from an internal medicine doctor in Shanghai
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bischof E.;  Chen G.;  Ferretti M.T.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20216). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20216

RECORD 108
TITLE
  The race to unravel the biggest coronavirus outbreak in the United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maxmen A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (181-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00676-3

RECORD 109
TITLE
  The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.-R.;  Cao Q.-D.;  Hong Z.-S.;  Tan Y.-Y.;  Chen S.-D.;  Jin H.-J.;  Tan K.-S.;  Wang D.-Y.;  Yan Y.
SOURCE
  Military Medical Research (2020) 7:1 (11). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

RECORD 110
TITLE
  Challenges and countermeasures on Chinese malaria elimination programme during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu G.D.;  Cao J.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control (2020) 32:1 (7-9). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been extensively epidemic in China, which not only seriously threatens the safety and health of Chinese people, but also challenges the management of other infectious diseases. Currently, there are still approximately three thousand malaria cases imported into China every year. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients’lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. This paper analyzes the challenges of the COVID-19 for Chinese malaria elimination programme, and proposes the countermeasures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, so as to provide the reference for healthcare professionals.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2020036

RECORD 111
TITLE
  CT image of novel coronavirus pneumonia: a case report
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang X.;  Song W.;  Liu X.;  Lyu L.
SOURCE
  Japanese journal of radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of CT characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia might be helpful to the early diagnosis and treatment of patients, and to control the spread of infection. METHODS: The chest CT images of the patient were collected to describe the CT manifestations and characteristics, and they were compared with the previous studies. RESULTS: Multiple patchy ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were seen in bilateral lung, mostly in subpleural areas. They progressed within 3 days, and nodular GGOs were also seen together with subpleural patchy GGOs. CONCLUSION: Our case of COVID-19 pneumonia showed multiple subpleural GGOs in bilateral lung, rapid progression, and it also accompanied nodular GGOs on chest CT. These findings were consistent with the previous reports, and they might be useful for early detection and evaluation of severity of COVID-19 pneumonia.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-00945-1

RECORD 112
TITLE
  2019-nCoV: The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool Applied to a Novel Emerging Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koenig K.L.;  Beÿ C.K.;  McDonald E.C.
SOURCE
  The western journal of emergency medicine (2020) 21:2 (184-190). Date of Publication: 31 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an emerging infectious disease closely related to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV that was first reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. As of January 2020, cases of 2019-nCoV are continuing to be reported in other Eastern Asian countries as well as in the United States, Europe, Australia, and numerous other countries. An unusually high volume of domestic and international travel corresponding to the beginning of the 2020 Chinese New Year complicated initial identification and containment of infected persons. Due to the rapidly rising number of cases and reported deaths, all countries should be considered at risk of imported 2019-nCoV. Therefore, it is essential for prehospital, clinic, and emergency department personnel to be able to rapidly assess 2019-nCoV risk and take immediate actions if indicated. The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool, originally conceived for the initial detection and management of Ebola virus and later adjusted for other infectious agents, can be adapted for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I Tool for use in the initial detection and management of patients under investigation for 2019-nCoV. After initial assessment for symptoms and epidemiological risk factors, including travel to affected areas and exposure to confirmed 2019-nCoV patients within 14 days, patients are classified in a risk-stratified system. Upon confirmation of a suspected 2019-nCoV case, affected persons must immediately be placed in airborne infection isolation and the appropriate public health agencies notified. This modified 3I Tool will assist emergency and primary care clinicians, as well as out-of-hospital providers, in effectively managing persons with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2020.1.46760

RECORD 113
TITLE
  Temporal Changes of CT Findings in 90 Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Longitudinal Study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Dong C.;  Hu Y.;  Li C.;  Ren Q.;  Zhang X.;  Shi H.;  Zhou M.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200843). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background CT may play a central role in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 pneumonia. Purpose To perform a longitudinal study to analyze the serial CT findings over time in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods During January 16 to February 17, 2020, 90 patients (male:female, 33:57; mean age, 45 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively enrolled and followed up until they were discharged or died, or until the end of the study. A total of 366 CT scans were acquired and reviewed by 2 groups of radiologists for the patterns and distribution of lung abnormalities, total CT scores and number of zones involved. Those features were analyzed for temporal change. Results CT scores and number of zones involved progressed rapidly, peaked during illness days 6-11 (median: 5 and 5), and followed by persistence of high levels. The predominant pattern of abnormalities after symptom onset was ground-glass opacity (35/78 [45%] to 49/79 [62%] in different periods). The percentage of mixed pattern peaked (30/78 [38%]) on illness days 12-17, and became the second most predominant pattern thereafter. Pure ground-glass opacity was the most prevalent sub-type of ground-glass opacity after symptom onset (20/50 [40%] to 20/28 [71%]). The percentage of ground-glass opacity with irregular linear opacity peaked on illness days 6-11 (14/50 [28%)]) and became the second most prevalent subtype thereafter. The distribution of lesions was predominantly bilateral and subpleural. 66/70 (94%) patients discharged had residual disease on final CT scans (median CT scores and zones involved: 4 and 4), with ground-glass opacity (42/70 [60%]) and pure ground-glass opacity (31/42 [74%]) the most common pattern and subtype. Conclusion The extent of lung abnormalities on CT peaked during illness days 6-11. The temporal changes of the diverse CT manifestations followed a specific pattern, which might indicate the progression and recovery of the illness.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200843

RECORD 114
TITLE
  COVID-19 Infection: Implications for Perioperative and Critical Care Physicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Greenland J.R.;  Michelow M.D.;  Wang L.;  London M.J.
SOURCE
  Anesthesiology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Healthcare systems worldwide are responding to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging infectious syndrome caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Patients with COVID-19 can progress from asymptomatic or mild illness to hypoxemic respiratory failure or multisystem organ failure, necessitating intubation and intensive care management. Healthcare providers, and particularly anesthesiologists, are at the frontline of this epidemic, and they need to be aware of the best available evidence to guide therapeutic management of patients with COVID-19 and to keep themselves safe while doing so. Here, the authors review COVID-19 pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, and potential therapeutics, with a focus on management of COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. The authors draw on literature from other viral epidemics, treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and recent publications on COVID-19, as well as guidelines from major health organizations. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the evidence currently available to guide management of critically ill patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003303

RECORD 115
TITLE
  The critical role of laboratory medicine during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other viral outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lippi G.;  Plebani M.
SOURCE
  Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated to COVID-19 and sustained by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is the latest biological hazard to assume the relevance of insidious worldwide threat. One obvious question that is now engaging the minds of many scientists and healthcare professionals is whether and eventually how laboratory medicine could efficiently contribute to counteract this and other (future) viral outbreaks. Despite there being evidence that laboratory tests are vital throughout many clinical pathways, there are at least three major areas where in vitro diagnostics can also provide essential contributions to diagnostic reasoning and managed care of patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. These include etiological diagnosis, patient monitoring, as well as epidemiologic surveillance. Nonetheless, some structural and practical aspects may generate substantial hurdles in providing timely and efficient response to this infectious emergency, which basically include inadequate (insufficient) environment and shortage of technical and human resources for facing enhanced volume of tests on many infected patients, some of whom are with severe disease. Some proactive and reactive strategies may hence be identified to confront this serious healthcare challenge, which entail major investments on conventional laboratory resources, reinforcement of regional networks of clinical laboratories, installation of mobile laboratories, as well as being proactive in establishing laboratory emergency plans.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-0240

RECORD 116
TITLE
  Chest CT manifestations of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a pictorial review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye Z.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang Y.;  Huang Z.;  Song B.
SOURCE
  European radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, first reported in Wuhan, China, has rapidly swept around the world just within a month, causing global public health emergency. In diagnosis, chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations can supplement parts of limitations of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the experience in the frontline, we aim to review the typical and relatively atypical CT manifestations with representative COVID-19 cases at our hospital, and hope to strengthen the recognition of these features with radiologists and help them make a quick and accurate diagnosis.Key Points • Ground glass opacities, consolidation, reticular pattern, and crazy paving pattern are typical CT manifestations of COVID-19. • Emerging atypical CT manifestations, including airway changes, pleural changes, fibrosis, nodules, etc., were demonstrated in COVID-19 patients. • CT manifestations may associate with the progression and prognosis of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-06801-0

RECORD 117
TITLE
  Eleven Faces of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dong X.;  Cao Y.-Y.;  Lu X.-X.;  Zhang J.-J.;  Du H.;  Yan Y.-Q.;  Akdis C.A.;  Gao Y.-D.
SOURCE
  Allergy (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has recently spread worldwide and been declared a pandemic. We aim to describe here the various clinical presentations of this disease by examining eleven cases. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 11 patients with COVID-19 were collected and demographics, clinical manifestations, outcomes, key laboratory results, and radiological images are discussed. RESULTS: The clinical course of the eleven cases demonstrated the complexity of the COVID-19 profile with different clinical presentations. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases to patients with mild and severe symptoms, with or without pneumonia. Laboratory detection of the viral nucleic acid can yield false-negative results, and serological testing of virus specific IgG and IgM antibodies should be used as an alternative for diagnosis. Patients with common allergic diseases did not develop distinct symptoms and severe courses. Cases with a pre-existing condition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or complicated with a secondary bacterial pneumonia were more severe. CONCLUSION: All different clinical characteristics of COVID-19 should be taken into consideration to identify patients that need to be in strict quarantine for the efficient containment of the pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14289

RECORD 118
TITLE
  Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng V.C.C.;  Wong S.-C.;  Chen J.H.K.;  Yip C.C.Y.;  Chuang V.W.M.;  Tsang O.T.Y.;  Sridhar S.;  Chan J.F.W.;  Ho P.-L.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background:To describe the infection control preparedness for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 [previously known as 2019-novel coronavirus] in the first 42 days after announcement of a cluster of pneumonia in China, on 31 December 2019 (day 1) in Hong Kong.Methods:A bundle approach of active and enhanced laboratory surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and contact tracing for healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure in the hospitals was implemented. Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases, environmental and air samples were collected and analyzed.Results:From day 1 to day 42, forty-two (3.3%) of 1275 patients fulfilling active (n=29) and enhanced laboratory surveillance (n=13) confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of locally acquired case significantly increased from 1 (7.7%) of 13 [day 22 to day 32] to 27 (93.1%) of 29 confirmed case [day 33 to day 42] (p<0.001). Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) came from 8 family clusters. Eleven (2.7%) of 413 HCWs caring these confirmed cases were found to have unprotected exposure requiring quarantine for 14 days. None of them was infected and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. Environmental surveillance performed in a patient with viral load of 3.3×106 copies/ml (pooled nasopharyngeal/ throat swab) and 5.9×106 copies/ml (saliva) respectively. SARS-CoV-2 revealed in 1 (7.7%) of 13 environmental samples, but not in 8 air samples collected at a distance of 10 cm from patient’s chin with or without wearing a surgical mask.Conclusion:Appropriate hospital infection control measures could prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.58

RECORD 119
TITLE
  Profiling Early Humoral Response to Diagnose Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo L.;  Ren L.;  Yang S.;  Xiao M.;  Chang ;  Yang F.;  Dela Cruz C.S.;  Wang Y.;  Wu C.;  Xiao Y.;  Zhang L.;  Han L.;  Dang S.;  Xu Y.;  Yang Q.;  Xu S.;  Zhu H.;  Xu Y.;  Jin Q.;  Sharma L.;  Wang L.;  Wang J.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. Current method of detection involves qPCR-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We here aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 including IgA, IgM and IgG response were examined by using an ELISA based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. Total 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but had typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection were 5 days (IQR 3-6), while IgG was detected on 14 days (IQR 10-18) after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7% and 77.9% respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR method after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combined IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compare with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid to the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa310

RECORD 120
TITLE
  Review and Prospect of Pathological Features of Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.J.;  Du S.H.;  Yue X.;  Chen C.X.
SOURCE
  Fa yi xue za zhi (2020) 36:1 (16-20). Date of Publication: 25 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Abstract: Since 2003, coronavirus has caused multiple major public health events that resulted in global epidemics such as, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Especially since COVID-19 has outbroken in Wuhan, Hubei, in December 2019, coronavirus has had a significant impact on people’s health and lives. But so far, the pathological diagnosis of COVID-19 has been relatively deficient: it is still confined to the pathological findings of punctured organs, and the majority of medical workers have poor awareness of its pathological characteristics. The COVID-19, as same as SARS and MERS, is caused by coronaviruses and can cause viral pneumonia. They have certain similarities. This article comprehensively reviews the pathological features observed in the autopsies of the aforementioned three diseases, in order to provide reference to the analysis of pathological changes of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2020.01.004

RECORD 121
TITLE
  CT manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019: A retrospective analysis of 73 cases by disease severity
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu K.-C.;  Xu P.;  Lv W.-F.;  Qiu X.-H.;  Yao J.-L.;  Gu J.-F.;  Wei W.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Radiology (2020) 126 Article Number: 108941. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: To report CT features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in patients with various disease severity. Methods: The CT manifestations and clinical data of 73 patients with COVID-19 were retrospectively collected in 6 hospitals from Jan 21 to Feb 3, 2020. We analyzed the initial and follow-up CT features of patients with disease severity, according to the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia. Results: Six patients (8%) were diagnosed as mild type pneumonia; these patients had no obvious abnormal CT findings or manifested mild changes of lung infection. All 43 patients (59 %) with common type presented unique or multiple ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the periphery of the lungs, with or without interlobular septal thickening. In the 21 patients (29 %) with severe type, extensive GGO and pulmonary consolidation were found in 16 cases (16/21, 76 %) and 5 cases (24 %), respectively. An extensive “white lung”, with atelectasis and pleural effusion were found in critical type patients (3, 4%). On the resolutive phase of the disease, CT abnormalities showed complete resolution, or demonstrated residual linear opacities. Conclusions: Different CT features are seen according to disease severity, which can help COVID-19 stratification.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108941

RECORD 122
TITLE
  China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking
AUTHOR NAMES
  Callaway E.;  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 577:7792 (605-607). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00166-6

RECORD 123
TITLE
  Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ki M.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and health (2020) 42 (e2020007). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020007

RECORD 124
TITLE
  Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Backer J.A.;  Klinkenberg D.;  Wallinga J.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is causing an outbreak of viral pneumonia that started in Wuhan, China. Using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases that were detected outside Wuhan in the early outbreak phase, we estimate the mean incubation period to be 6.4 days (95% credible interval: 5.6-7.7), ranging from 2.1 to 11.1 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentile). These values should help inform 2019-nCoV case definitions and appropriate quarantine durations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062

RECORD 125
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bernard Stoecklin S.;  Rolland P.;  Silue Y.;  Mailles A.;  Campese C.;  Simondon A.;  Mechain M.;  Meurice L.;  Nguyen M.;  Bassi C.;  Yamani E.;  Behillil S.;  Ismael S.;  Nguyen D.;  Malvy D.;  Lescure F.X.;  Georges S.;  Lazarus C.;  Tabaï A.;  Stempfelet M.;  Enouf V.;  Coignard B.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Investigation Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was identified on 7 January 2020. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and as at 12 February 2020, 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,116 deaths. Strengthened surveillance was implemented in France on 10 January 2020 in order to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. Three categories of risk exposure and follow-up procedure were defined for contacts. Three cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on 24 January, the first cases in Europe. Contact tracing was immediately initiated. Five contacts were evaluated as at low risk of exposure and 18 at moderate/high risk. As at 12 February 2020, two cases have been discharged and the third one remains symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission has been identified. Effective collaboration between all parties involved in the surveillance and response to emerging threats is required to detect imported cases early and to implement adequate control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000094

RECORD 126
TITLE
  Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao J.;  Tian Z.;  Yang X.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (72-73). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus is spreading rapidly, and scientists are endeavoring to discover drugs for its efficacious treatment in China. Chloroquine phosphate, an old drug for treatment of malaria, is shown to have apparent efficacy and acceptable safety against COVID-19 associated pneumonia in multicenter clinical trials conducted in China. The drug is recommended to be included in the next version of the Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pneumonia Caused by COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China for treatment of COVID-19 infection in larger populations in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01047

RECORD 127
TITLE
  COVID-19: Real-time dissemination of scientific information to fight a public health emergency of international concern
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song P.;  Karako T.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Rapidly sharing scientific information is an effective way to reduce public panic about COVID-19, and doing so is the key to providing real-time guidance to epidemiologists working to contain the outbreak, clinicians managing patients, and modelers helping to understand future developments and the possible effectiveness of various interventions. This issue has rapidly reviewed and published articles describing COVID-19, including the drug treatment options for SARS-CoV-2, its clinical characteristics, and therapies involving a combination of Chinese and Western medicine, the efficacy of chloroquine phosphate in the treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia according to clinical studies, and reflections on the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies. As an academic journal, we will continue to quickly and transparently share data with frontline healthcare workers who need to know the epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01056

RECORD 128
TITLE
  Audio interview: What clinicians need to know in diagnosing and treating covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rubin E.J.;  Baden L.R.;  Morrissey S.
SOURCE
  New England Journal of Medicine (2020) 382:10 (E19). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejme2004244

RECORD 129
TITLE
  Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bordi L.;  Nicastri E.;  Scorzolini L.;  Di Caro A.;  Capobianchi M.R.;  Castilletti C.;  Lalle E.;  On Behalf Of Inmi Covid-Study Group And Collaborating Centers
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative pathogen of an ongoing outbreak of respiratory disease, now named COVID-19. Most cases and sustained transmission occurred in China, but travel-associated cases have been reported in other countries, including Europe and Italy. Since the symptoms are similar to other respiratory infections, differential diagnosis in travellers arriving from countries with wide-spread COVID-19 must include other more common infections such as influenza and other respiratory tract diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000170

RECORD 130
TITLE
  Early transmission patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan to Thailand, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Okada P.;  Buathong R.;  Phuygun S.;  Thanadachakul T.;  Parnmen S.;  Wongboot W.;  Waicharoen S.;  Wacharapluesadee S.;  Uttayamakul S.;  Vachiraphan A.;  Chittaganpitch M.;  Mekha N.;  Janejai N.;  Iamsirithaworn S.;  Lee R.T.;  Maurer-Stroh S.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan, China to Thailand. Both were independent introductions on separate flights, discovered with thermoscanners and confirmed with RT-PCR and genome sequencing. Both cases do not seem directly linked to the Huanan Seafood Market in Hubei but the viral genomes are identical to four other sequences from Wuhan, suggesting early spread within the city already in the first week of January.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000097

RECORD 131
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus infection in a three-month-old baby
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang Y.H.;  Lin D.J.;  Xiao M.F.;  Wang J.C.;  Wei Y.;  Lei Z.X.;  Zeng Z.Q.;  Li L.;  Li H.A.;  Xiang W.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (182-184). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.004

RECORD 132
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 133
TITLE
  Proposed protocol to keep COVID-19 out of hospitals
AUTHOR NAMES
  Glauser W.
SOURCE
  CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne (2020) 192:10 (E264-E265). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.1095852

RECORD 134
TITLE
  Rapid establishment of laboratory diagnostics for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Bavaria, Germany, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Konrad R.;  Eberle U.;  Dangel A.;  Treis B.;  Berger A.;  Bengs K.;  Fingerle V.;  Liebl B.;  Ackermann N.;  Sing A.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The need for timely establishment of diagnostic assays arose when Germany was confronted with the first travel-associated outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Europe. We describe our laboratory experiences during a large contact tracing investigation, comparing previously published real-time RT-PCR assays in different PCR systems and a commercial kit. We found that assay performance using the same primers and probes with different PCR systems varied and the commercial kit performed well.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000173

RECORD 135
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 6 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 7 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the sixth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 7 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.21

RECORD 136
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 137
TITLE
  COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Barry M.;  Al Amri M.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of epidemiology and global health (2020) 10:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified as the etiologic agent currently named SARS-CoV-2. Most cases are in Mainland China with international spread to 25 countries. The novelty of the virus, the rapid national and international spread, and the lack of therapeutic and preventative strategies have led the WHO International Health Regulation emergency committee to declare the disease as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. As it relates to countries with the ongoing MERS-CoV community cases and hospital acquired infections, there will be a huge challenge for HCWs to deal with both coronaviruses, especially with the lack of standardized and approved point of care testing. This challenge will now be faced by the whole global health community dealing with COVID-19 since both coronaviruses have similar presentation. Those patients should now be tested for both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 simultaneously, and with the continuing wide international spread of SARS-CoV-2, the travel history to China in the last 14 days will be of less significance.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200218.003

RECORD 138
TITLE
  Management strategies for patients with gynecological malignancies during the outbreak of COVID19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.;  Peng P.;  Li X.;  Zha Y.F.;  Zhang G.N.;  Zhang Y.;  Xiang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi (2020) 55 (E011). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To explore the management strategies for patients with gynecological malignant tumors during the outbreak and transmission of COVID19. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics, treatment, and disease outcomes of three patients with gynecological malignancies associated with COVID19 in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University in January 2020, and proposed management strategies for patients with gynecological tumors under risk of COVID19. Results: Three patients were treated COVID19 based on the national diagnosis and treatment protocol as well as research progress. Meanwhile, these patients were appropriately adjusted the treatment plan in accordance with the clinical guidelines for gynecological tumors. Pneumonia was cured in 2 patients, and one patient died of COVID-19. Conclusions: Patients with gynecological malignant tumors are high-risk groups prone to COVID-19 infection, and gynecological oncologists need to carry out education, prevention, control and treatment according to specific conditions. While actively preventing and controlling COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment of gynecological malignant tumors should be carried out in an orderly and safe manner.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112141-20200302-00168

RECORD 139
TITLE
  2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia with Hemoptysis as the Initial Symptom: CT and Clinical Features
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shi F.;  Yu Q.;  Huang W.;  Tan C.
SOURCE
  Korean journal of radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, some global cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia have been caused by second- or third-generation transmission of the viral infection, resulting in no traceable epidemiological history. Owing to the complications of COVID-19 pneumonia, the first symptom and imaging features of patients can be very atypical and early diagnosis of COVID-19 infections remains a challenge. It would aid radiologists and clinicians to be aware of the early atypical symptom and imaging features of the disease and contribute to the prevention of infected patients being missed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0181

RECORD 140
TITLE
  The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: what we know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Wu T.;  Liu Q.;  Yang Z.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a current worldwide outbreak of the novel coronavirus Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019; the pathogen called SARS-CoV-2; previously 2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 6 continents including 66 countries, as of 24:00 on March 2, 2020. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak site and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatments and preventions of this new type of coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.004

RECORD 141
TITLE
  A 55-Day-Old Female Infant infected with COVID 19: presenting with pneumonia, liver injury, and heart damage
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cui Y.;  Tian M.;  Huang D.;  Wang X.;  Huang Y.;  Fan L.;  Wang L.;  Chen Y.;  Liu W.;  Zhang K.;  Wu Y.;  Yang Z.;  Tao J.;  Feng J.;  Liu K.;  Ye X.;  Wang R.;  Zhang X.;  Zha Y.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Previous studies on the pneumonia outbreak caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were mainly based on information from adult populations. Limited data are available for children with COVID-19, especially for infected infants. We report a 55-day-old case with COVID-19 confirmed in China and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of the patient, including the disease progression from day 7 to day 11 of illness. This case highlights that children with COVID-19 can also present with multiple organ damage and rapid disease changes. When managing such patients, frequent and careful clinical monitoring is essential.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa113

RECORD 142
TITLE
  Clinical features of pediatric patients with COVID-19: a report of two family cluster cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ji L.-N.;  Chao S.;  Wang Y.-J.;  Li X.-J.;  Mu X.-D.;  Lin M.-G.;  Jiang R.-M.
SOURCE
  World journal of pediatrics : WJP (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Coronovirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the globe. People of all ages are susceptible to COVID-19. However, literature reports on pediatric patients are limited. METHODS: To improve the recognition of COVID-19 infection in children, we retrospectively reviewed two confirmed pediatric cases from two family clusters. Both clinical features and laboratory examination results of the children and their family members were described. RESULTS: The two confirmed children only presented with mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms. Both of them had normal chest CT images. After general and symptomatic treatments, both children recovered quickly. Both families had travel histories to Hubei Province. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with COVID-19 are mostly owing to family cluster or with a close contact history. Infected children have relatively milder clinical symptoms than infected adults. We should attach importance to early recognition, early diagnosis, and early treatment of infected children.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-020-00356-2

RECORD 143
TITLE
  Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Geng M.;  Peng Y.;  Meng L.;  Lu S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a kind of viral pneumonia with an unusual outbreak in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been marked as the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the twenty-first century. In this minireview, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss current knowledge of molecular immune pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 on the base of the present understanding of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, which may be helpful in offering novel insights and potential therapeutic targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.03.001

RECORD 144
TITLE
  Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yen M.-Y.;  Schwartz J.;  Chen S.-Y.;  King C.-C.;  Yang G.-Y.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan’s 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector – the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.011

RECORD 145
TITLE
  Case of the Index Patient Who Caused Tertiary Transmission of COVID-19 Infection in Korea: the Application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19 Infected Pneumonia Monitored by Quantitative RT-PCR
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lim J.;  Jeon S.;  Shin H.Y.;  Kim M.J.;  Seong Y.M.;  Lee W.J.;  Choe K.W.;  Kang Y.M.;  Lee B.;  Park S.J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:6 (e79). Date of Publication: 17 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79

RECORD 146
TITLE
  Clinical Management of Lung Cancer Patients during the Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Y.;  Liu H.;  Hu K.;  Wang M.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer (2020) 23. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since late December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments, lung cancer patients are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. Furthermore, patients with cancer had poorer prognosis from infection. Lung cancer patients should be the priority group for COVID-19 prevention. The protection provisions and control measures aiming to protect lung cancer patients from COVID-19 have been increasingly concerned. During the COVID-19 outbreak period, it should be carefully differentiated for fever and respiratory symptoms for lung cancer patients receiving anti-tumor treatment, in order to evaluate the risk of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to carry out meticulous and individualized clinical management for lung cancer patients to effectively protect the patients from COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.03.02

RECORD 147
TITLE
  Preliminary Recommendations for Lung Surgery during 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic Period
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Liu M.;  Zhao Q.;  Liu R.;  Zhang H.;  Dong M.;  Xu S.;  Zhao H.;  Wei S.;  Song Z.;  Chen G.;  Chen J.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer (2020) 23. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, China diagnosed the first patient with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the following development of the epidemic had a huge impact on China and the whole world. For patients with lung occupying lesions, the whole process of diagnosis and treatment can not be carried out as usual due to the epidemic. For thoracic surgeons, the timing of surgical intervention should be very carefully considered. All thoracic surgeons in China should work together to develop the proper procedures for the diagnosis and treatment in this special situation, and continuously update the recommendations based on epidemic changes and further understanding of COVID-19. Here, we only offer some preliminary suggestions based on our own knowledge for further reference and discussion.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.03.01

RECORD 148
TITLE
  Management of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19): the Zhejiang experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu K.;  Cai H.;  Shen Y.;  Ni Q.;  Chen Y.;  Hu S.;  Li J.;  Wang H.;  Yu L.;  Huang H.;  Qiu Y.;  Wei G.;  Fang Q.;  Zhou J.;  Sheng J.;  Liang T.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current epidemic situation of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 inZhejiang Province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” for clinical practice. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinarypersonalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in10% patients’blood samples at acute periodand 50% of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifyingcytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategyeffectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favoredthe balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short periods of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be prescribed rationally and was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbialdysbiosis with decreasedprobiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, two weeks’ quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience above and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.

RECORD 149
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus COVID-19: an overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.;  Desai A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:2 Supplement 2 (1-21). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Prior to the global outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 were the only coronaviruses known to infect humans. Following the SARS outbreak, 5 additional coronaviruses have been discovered in humans, most recently the novel coronavirus COVID-19, believed to have originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV and MERSCoV are particularly pathogenic in humans and are associated with high mortality. In this review, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the recently discovered COVID-19 are reviewed, with a focus on best practices and the public health implications.

RECORD 150
TITLE
  Three Emerging Coronaviruses in Two Decades: The Story of SARS, MERS, and Now COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guarner J.
SOURCE
  American Journal of Clinical Pathology (2020) 153:4 (420-421). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa029

RECORD 151
TITLE
  Recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and control of the 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children (first interim edition)
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (169-174). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.001

RECORD 152
TITLE
  First case of severe childhood novel coronavirus pneumonia in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen F.;  Liu Z.S.;  Zhang F.R.;  Xiong R.H.;  Chen Y.;  Cheng X.F.;  Wang W.Y.;  Ren J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (179-182). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.003

RECORD 153
TITLE
  Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.;  Qi T.;  Liu L.;  Ling Y.;  Qian Z.;  Li T.;  Li F.;  Xu Q.;  Zhang Y.;  Xu S.;  Song Z.;  Zeng Y.;  Shen Y.;  Shi Y.;  Zhu T.;  Lu H.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P<0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P<0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR]=1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR=0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004

RECORD 154
TITLE
  New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Devaux C.A.;  Rolain J.-M.;  Colson P.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105938). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), officially known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in China. Despite drastic containment measures, the spread of this virus is ongoing. SARS-CoV-2 is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterised by pulmonary infection in humans. The efforts of international health authorities have since focused on rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients as well as the search for therapies able to counter the most severe effects of the disease. In the absence of a known efficient therapy and because of the situation of a public-health emergency, it made sense to investigate the possible effect of chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 since this molecule was previously described as a potent inhibitor of most coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1. Preliminary trials of chloroquine repurposing in the treatment of COVID-19 in China have been encouraging, leading to several new trials. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of chloroquine interference with the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938

RECORD 155
TITLE
  The effectiveness of quarantine and isolation determine the trend of the COVID-19 epidemics in the final phase of the current outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tang B.;  Xia F.;  Tang S.;  Bragazzi N.L.;  Li Q.;  Sun X.;  Liang J.;  Xiao Y.;  Wu J.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: Since January 23rd 2020, stringent measures for controlling the novel coronavirus epidemics have been gradually enforced and strengthened in mainland China. The detection and diagnosis have been improved as well. However, the daily reported cases staying in a high level make the epidemics trend prediction difficult. METHODS: Since the traditional SEIR model does not evaluate the effectiveness of control strategies, a novel model in line with the current epidemics process and control measures was proposed, utilizing multisource datasets including cumulative number of reported, death, quarantined and suspected cases. RESULTS: Results show that the trend of the epidemics mainly depends on quarantined and suspected cases. The predicted cumulative numbers of quarantined and suspected cases nearly reached static states and their inflection points have already been achieved, with the epidemics peak coming soon. The estimated effective reproduction numbers using model-free and model-based methods are decreasing, as well as new infections, while new reported cases are increasing. Most infected cases have been quarantined or put in suspected class, which has been ignored in existing models. CONCLUSIONS: The uncertainty analyses reveal that the epidemics is still uncertain and it is important to continue enhancing the quarantine and isolation strategy and improving the detection rate in mainland China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.018

RECORD 156
TITLE
  Potential preanalytical and analytical vulnerabilities in the laboratory diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lippi G.;  Simundic A.-M.;  Plebani M.
SOURCE
  Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel zoonotic coronavirus outbreak is spreading all over the world. This pandemic disease has now been defined as novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is sustained by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As the current gold standard for the etiological diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is (real time) reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on respiratory tract specimens, the diagnostic accuracy of this technique shall be considered a foremost prerequisite. Overall, potential RT-PCR vulnerabilities include general preanalytical issues such as identification problems, inadequate procedures for collection, handling, transport and storage of the swabs, collection of inappropriate or inadequate material (for quality or volume), presence of interfering substances, manual errors, as well as specific aspects such as sample contamination and testing patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Some analytical problems may also contribute to jeopardize the diagnostic accuracy, including testing outside the diagnostic window, active viral recombination, use of inadequately validated assays, insufficient harmonization, instrument malfunctioning, along with other specific technical issues. Some practical indications can hence be identified for minimizing the risk of diagnostic errors, encompassing the improvement of diagnostic accuracy by combining clinical evidence with results of chest computed tomography (CT) and RT-PCR, interpretation of RT-PCR results according to epidemiologic, clinical and radiological factors, recollection and testing of upper (or lower) respiratory specimens in patients with negative RT-PCR test results and high suspicion or probability of infection, dissemination of clear instructions for specimen (especially swab) collection, management and storage, together with refinement of molecular target(s) and thorough compliance with analytical procedures, including quality assurance.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-0285

RECORD 157
TITLE
  Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of 91 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China: A retrospective, multi-centre case series
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qian G.-Q.;  Yang N.-B.;  Ding F.;  Ma A.H.Y.;  Wang Z.-Y.;  Shen Y.-F.;  Shi C.-W.;  Lian X.;  Chu J.-G.;  Chen L.;  Wang Z.-Y.;  Ren D.-W.;  Li G.-X.;  Chen X.-Q.;  Shen H.-J.;  Chen X.-M.
SOURCE
  QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Recent studies have focused initial clinical and Epidemiologic characteristics on the COVID-19, mainly revealing situation in Wuhan, Hubei. AIM: To reveal more data on the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients outside of Wuhan, in Zhejiang, China. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: 88 cases of laboratory-confirmed and 3 cases of clinical-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to five hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. Data were collected from 20 January 2020 to 11 February 2020. RESULTS: Of all 91 patients, 88 (96.70%) were laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with throat swab samples that tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 while 3 (3.30%) were clinical-diagnosed COVID-19 cases. The median age of the patients was 50 (36.5-57) years, and female accounted for 59.34%. In this sample 40 (43.96%) patients had contracted the diseases from local cases, 31 (34.07%) patients had been to Wuhan/Hubei, 8 (8.79%) cases had contacted with people from Wuhan, 11 (12.09%) cases were confirmed aircraft transmission. In particular within the city of Ningbo, 60.52% cases can be traced back to an event held in a temple. The most common symptoms were fever (71.43%), cough (60.44%) and fatigue (43.96%). The median of incubation period was 6 (IQR, 3-8) days and the median time from first visit to a doctor to confirmed diagnosis was 1 (1-2) days. According to the Chest computed tomography scans, 67.03% cases had bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Social activity cluster, family cluster and travel by airplane were how COVID-19 patients get transmitted and could be rapidly diagnosed COVID-19 in Zhejiang.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa089

RECORD 158
TITLE
  Diagnostic Utility of Clinical Laboratory Data Determinations for Patients with the Severe COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gao Y.;  Li T.;  Han M.;  Li X.;  Wu D.;  Xu Y.;  Zhu Y.;  Liu Y.;  Wang X.;  Wang L.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The role of clinical laboratory data in the differential diagnosis of the severe forms of COVID-19 has not been definitely established. The aim of this study was to look for the warning index in severe COVID-19 patients. We investigated forty-three adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were classified into mild group (28 patients) and severe group (15 patients). Comparison of the haematological parameters between the mild and severe groups showed significant differences in IL-6, D-Dimer, GLU, TT, FIB and CRP (P <0.05). The optimal threshold and area under the ROC curve of IL-6 were 24.3 pg/mL and 0.795 respectively, while those of D-Dimer were 0.28 µg/L and 0.750, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of IL-6 combined with D-Dimer was 0.840. The specificity of predicting the severity of COVID-19 during IL-6 and D-Dimer tandem testing was up to 93.3%, while the sensitivity of IL-6 and D-Dimer by parallel test in the severe COVID-19 was 96.4%. IL-6 and D-Dimer were closely related to the occurrence of severe COVID-19 in the adult patients, and their combined detection had the highest specificity and sensitivity for early prediction of the severity of COVID-19 patients, which has important clinical value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25770

RECORD 159
TITLE
  A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus—A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yao T.-T.;  Qian J.-D.;  Zhu W.-Y.;  Wang Y.;  Wang G.-Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the past few decades, coronaviruses have risen as a global threat to public health. Currently, the outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from Wuhan caused a worldwide panic. There are no specific antiviral therapies for COVID-19. However, there are agents that were used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) epidemics. We could learn from SARS and MERS. Lopinavir (LPV) is an effective agent that inhibits the protease activity of coronavirus. In this review, we discuss the literature on the efficacy of LPV in vitro and in vivo, especially in patients with SARS and MERS, so that we might clarify the potential for the use of LPV in patients with COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25729

RECORD 160
TITLE
  The transmission and diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19): A Chinese perspective
AUTHOR NAMES
  Han Y.;  Yang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, China, has attracted the world’s attention over the last month. The Chinese government has taken emergency measures to control the outbreak and has undertaken initial steps in the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus infection disease (COVID-19). However, SARS-CoV-2 possesses powerful pathogenicity as well as transmissibility and still holds many mysteries that are yet to be solved, such as whether the virus can be transmitted by asymptomatic patients or by mothers to their infants. Our research presents selected available cases of COVID-19 in China to better understand the transmission and diagnosis regarding this infectious disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25749

RECORD 161
TITLE
  Fecal specimen diagnosis 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.;  Wang S.;  Xue Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia (COVID-19) from Wuhan, China, it has spread globally. We extracted the data on 14 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinhua Municipal Central hospital through 27 January 2020. We found that compared to pharyngeal swab specimens, nucleic acid detection of COVID-19 in fecal specimens was equally accurate. And we found that patients with a positive stool test did not experience gastrointestinal symptoms and had nothing to do with the severity of the lung infection. These results may help to understand the clinical diagnosis and the changes in clinical parameters of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25742

RECORD 162
TITLE
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Shih T.-P.;  Ko W.-C.;  Tang H.-J.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) 55:3 Article Number: 105924. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924

RECORD 163
TITLE
  2019-novel Coronavirus severe adult respiratory distress syndrome in two cases in Italy: An uncommon radiological presentation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Albarello F.;  Pianura E.;  Di Stefano F.;  Cristofaro M.;  Petrone A.;  Marchioni L.;  Palazzolo C.;  Schininà V.;  Nicastri E.;  Petrosillo N.;  Campioni P.;  Eskild P.;  Zumla A.;  Ippolito G.;  Abbonizio M.A.;  Agrati C.;  Amadei G.;  Amendola A.;  Antonini M.;  Barbaro R.;  Bartolini B.;  Benigni M.;  Bevilacqua N.;  Bordi L.;  Bordoni V.;  Branca M.;  Capobianchi M.R.;  Caporale C.;  Caravella I.;  Carletti F.;  Castilletti C.;  Chiappini R.;  Ciaralli C.;  Colavita F.;  Corpolongo A.;  Curiale S.;  D’Abramo A.;  Dantimi C.;  Angelis A.D.;  Angelis G.D.;  Lorenzo R.D.;  Stefano F.D.;  Ferraro F.;  Fiorentini L.;  Frustaci A.;  Gallì P.;  Garotto G.;  Giancola M.L.;  Giansante F.;  Giombini E.;  Greci M.C.;  Lalle E.;  Lanini S.;  Lapa D.;  Lepore L.;  Lucia A.;  Lufrani F.;  Macchione M.;  Marani A.;  Mariano A.;  Marini M.C.;  Maritti M.;  Matusali G.;  Meschi S.;  Montaldo F.M.C.;  Murachelli S.;  Noto R.;  Pallini E.;  Passeri V.;  Pelliccioni F.;  Petrecchia A.;  Pisciotta M.;  Pittalis S.;  Proietti C.;  Puro V.;  Rinonapoli G.;  Rueca M.;  Sacchi A.;  Sanasi F.;  Santagata C.;  Scarcia S.;  Scognamiglio P.;  Scorzolini L.;  Stazi G.;  Vaia F.;  Vairo F.;  Valli M.B.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (192-197). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: Several recent case reports have described common early chest imaging findings of lung pathology caused by 2019 novel Coronavirus (SARS-COV2) which appear to be similar to those seen previously in SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infected patients. Objective: We present some remarkable imaging findings of the first two patients identified in Italy with COVID-19 infection travelling from Wuhan, China. The follow-up with chest X-Rays and CT scans was also included, showing a progressive adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Results: Moderate to severe progression of the lung infiltrates, with increasing percentage of high-density infiltrates sustained by a bilateral and multi-segmental extension of lung opacities, were seen. During the follow-up, apart from pleural effusions, a tubular and enlarged appearance of pulmonary vessels with a sudden caliber reduction was seen, mainly found in the dichotomic tracts, where the center of a new insurgent pulmonary lesion was seen. It could be an early alert radiological sign to predict initial lung deterioration. Another uncommon element was the presence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy with short-axis oval nodes. Conclusions: Although only two patients have been studied, these findings are consistent with the radiological pattern described in literature. Finally, the pulmonary vessels enlargement in areas where new lung infiltrates develop in the follow-up CT scan, could describe an early predictor radiological sign of lung impairment.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.043

RECORD 164
TITLE
  Systematic comparison of two animal-to-human transmitted human coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu J.;  Zhao S.;  Teng T.;  Abdalla A.E.;  Zhu W.;  Xie L.;  Wang Y.;  Guo X.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:2 Article Number: 244. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in theWuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020244

RECORD 165
TITLE
  Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Legido-Quigley H.;  Asgari N.;  Teo Y.Y.;  Leung G.M.;  Oshitani H.;  Fukuda K.;  Cook A.R.;  Hsu L.Y.;  Shibuya K.;  Heymann D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (848-850). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30551-1

RECORD 166
TITLE
  Deciphering the power of isolation in controlling COVID-19 outbreaks
AUTHOR NAMES
  Niud Y.;  Xu F.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Global Health (2020) 8:4 (e452-e453). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30085-1

RECORD 167
TITLE
  COVID-19: delay, mitigate, and communicate
AUTHOR NAMES
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30128-4

RECORD 168
TITLE
  COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bedford J.;  Enria D.;  Giesecke J.;  Heymann D.L.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Kobinger G.;  Lane H.C.;  Memish Z.;  Oh M.-D.;  Sall A.A.;  Schuchat A.;  Ungchusak K.;  Wieler L.H.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1015-1018). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30673-5

RECORD 169
TITLE
  Africa prepares for coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Makoni M.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020) 395:10223 (483). Date of Publication: 15 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30355-X

RECORD 170
TITLE
  Covid-19: Preparedness, decentralisation, and the hunt for patient zero
AUTHOR NAMES
  Carinci F.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: 368m799. Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m799

RECORD 171
TITLE
  Construction and evaluation of a novel diagnosis process for 2019-Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiong Z.;  Fu L.;  Zhou H.;  Liu J.K.;  Wang A.M.;  Huang Y.;  Huang X.;  Yi B.;  Wu J.;  Li C.H.;  Quan J.;  Li M.;  Leng Y.S.;  Luo W.J.;  Hu C.P.;  Liao W.H.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yi xue za zhi (2020) 100 (E019). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To construct and evaluate a diagnosis process for 2019-Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19). Methods: A continuous cohort of adults and adolescent (≥12 years) who screened COVID-19 was included in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 23 to February 3, 2020 in which cases were divided the test library and the verification library. Their gender, age, onset time were recorded. Take epidemiological history, fever, and the blood lymphocytes decline as clinical indicators, used CT to evaluate the possibility of COVID-19 and range of lung involvement. According to the current national standards, throat swabs of suspected cases were collected and the nucleic acid of COVID-19 was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The Xiangya process was constructed according to multi-index, compared with clinical indicators, CT results and national standards, the efficiency of detecting confirmed cases were verified in the test and verification library. Results: A continuous cohort of 382 adults who screened COVID-19 was included in which 261 cases were in the test library and 121 cases were in the verification library. In the 382 cases, 192 were males (50.3%) and 190 were females (49.7%), with a median age of 35 years (range: 15-92 years). There were 183 cases (47.9%) with epidemiological history, 275 cases (72.0%) with fever, 212 cases (55.5%) with decreased hemolytic lymphocytes, CT positive 114 cases (29.8%), 43 cases (11.3%) with positive CT-COVID-19, and 30 cases (7.9%) with positive throat swab nucleic acid. Compared with clinical indicators, the sensitivity and specificity of CT were 0.950 and 0.704, respectively. The accuracy of CT to make a definite diagnosis was higher than that of epidemiological history, fever, and blood lymph count decline (0.809 vs 0.660, 0.532, 0.596, P=0.001, 0.002, 0.003, respectively). The sensitivity of this process and the program recommended by the Health Commission all were high (all were 1.000) , and the specificity and accuracy of the process were higher than the program recommended by the Health Commission (0.872 vs 0.765, 0.778 vs 0.592, both P<0.001). The CT-COVID-19 would have reduced the missed diagnosis rate caused by false negative of nucleic acid test (31 vs 64, difference rate 51.6%), the positive rate of nucleic acid test was 64.5% (20/31). In validation library, the specificity and accuracy of the Xiangya process was 0.967, the positive rate of nucleic acid test was 76.9% (10/13). Conclusions: The Xiangya process can predict the nucleic acid test results of COVID-19 well, and can be applied as a reliable basis for confirmed cases detection in adults and adolescent (≥12 years) in areas other than Hubei during the epidemic period of COVID-19. The cohort size needs to be increased for further validation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20200228-00499

RECORD 172
TITLE
  Which sampling method for the upper respiratory tract specimen should be taken to diagnose patient with COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ye B.;  Fan C.;  Pan Y.;  Ding R.;  Hu H.X.;  Xiang M.L.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery (2020) 55 (E003). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is raging in China, especially in Hubei Province, which has resulted great dangers in people’s life and national economy. According to the guidelines drafted by China’s Center for Disease prevention and Control (CDC), the positive nucleic acid test is need to the diagnosis of patient with COVID-19. Upper respiratory tract specimens are the main sources for nucleic acid detection. However, based on international guidelines of COVID-19 , no recommended level of upper respiratory tract sampling method is proposed. Therefore, which kind of sampling methods should be chosen to help the COVID-19 diagnosis and which way is the most secure for doctors and nurses is our concern. In this review, we analyzed a total of 10 literatures on the sampling methods of upper respiratory tract related to infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS), and influenza A (H1N1), which were spread worldwide in past years. Literatures were collected from the three dimensions of sampling method, sampling time, and sampling safety. It was found that among all the upper respiratory sampling methods, nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) had a higher positive rate within 2 weeks of symptom onset, while combined nasal and oropharyngeal swabs (NS + OPS) was the least harmful to medical staff during sampling. We wish this review is helpful for the prevention of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn115330-20200223-00116

RECORD 173
TITLE
  Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qin C.;  Zhou L.;  Hu Z.;  Zhang S.;  Yang S.;  Tao Y.;  Xie C.;  Ma K.;  Shang K.;  Wang W.;  Tian D.-S.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of all confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at Tongji Hospital from January 10 to February 12, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The data of laboratory examinations, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets, were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. RESULTS: Of the 452 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 286 were diagnosed as severe infection. The median age was 58 years and 235 were male. The most common symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, expectoration, fatigue, dry cough and myalgia. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocytes counts, higher leukocytes counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Most of severe cases demonstrated elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. The number of T cells significantly decreased, and more hampered in severe cases. Both helper T cells and suppressor T cells in patients with COVID-19 were below normal levels, and lower level of helper T cells in severe group. The percentage of naïve helper T cells increased and memory helper T cells decreased in severe cases. Patients with COVID-19 also have lower level of regulatory T cells, and more obviously damaged in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: The novel coronavirus might mainly act on lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes. Surveillance of NLR and lymphocyte subsets is helpful in the early screening of critical illness, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa248

RECORD 174
TITLE
  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 from Patient with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease, United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Harcourt J.;  Tamin A.;  Lu X.;  Kamili S.;  Sakthivel S.K.;  Murray J.;  Queen K.;  Tao Y.;  Paden C.R.;  Zhang J.;  Li Y.;  Uehara A.;  Wang H.;  Goldsmith C.;  Bullock H.A.;  Wang L.;  Whitaker B.;  Lynch B.;  Gautam R.;  Schindewolf C.;  Lokugamage K.G.;  Scharton D.;  Plante J.A.;  Mirchandani D.;  Widen S.G.;  Narayanan K.;  Makino S.;  Ksiazek T.G.;  Plante K.S.;  Weaver S.C.;  Lindstrom S.;  Tong S.;  Menachery V.D.;  Thornburg N.J.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200516

RECORD 175
TITLE
  A report of clinical diagnosis and treatment of 9 cases of coronavirus disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Q.;  Quan B.;  Li X.;  Gao G.;  Zheng W.;  Zhang J.;  Zhang Z.;  Liu C.;  Li L.;  Wang C.;  Zhang G.;  Li J.;  Dai Y.;  Yang J.;  Han W.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the important public health issue in the world. More than 78,000 cases were confirmed around the world. The main clinical manifestations were respiratory symptoms and occasional gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there is no unified standard for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. In retrospective analysis, we report nine cases of COVID-19, describe the history of contact, clinical manifestations, the course of diagnosis and clinical treatment before, during and after treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25755

RECORD 176
TITLE
  A comparative study on the clinical features of COVID-19 pneumonia to other pneumonias
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao D.;  Yao F.;  Wang L.;  Zheng L.;  Gao Y.;  Ye J.;  Guo F.;  Zhao H.;  Gao R.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has raised world concern since it emerged in Wuhan Hubei China in December, 2019. The infection may result into severe pneumonia with clusters illness onsets. Its impacts on public health make it paramount to clarify the clinical features with other pneumonias. METHODS: Nineteen 2019-nCoV pneumonia (NCOVID-19) and fifteen other pneumonia patients (NON-NCOVID-19) in out of Hubei places were involved in this study. Both NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19 patients were confirmed to be infected in throat swabs or/and sputa with or without 2019-nCoV by real-time RT-PCR. We analyzed the demographic, epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features from those patients, and compared the difference between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. RESULTS: All patients had a history of exposure to confirmed case of 2019-nCoV or travel to Hubei before illness. The median duration, respectively, was 8 (IQR:6~11) and 5 (IQR:4~11) days from exposure to onset in NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The clinical symptoms were similar between NCOVID-19 and NON-NCOVID-19. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. Fifteen (78.95%) NCOVID-19 but 4 (26.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had bilateral involvement while 17 (89.47%) NCOVID-19 but 1 (6.67%) NON-NCOVID-19 patients had multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity of chest CT images. Compared to NON-NCOVID-19, NCOVID-19 present remarkably more abnormal laboratory tests including AST, ALT, γ-GT, LDH and α-HBDH. CONCLUSION: The 2019-nCoV infection caused similar onsets to other pneumonias. CT scan may be a reliable test for screening NCOVID-19 cases. Liver function damage is more frequent in NCOVID-19 than NON-NCOVID-19 patients. LDH and α-HBDH may be considerable markers for evaluation of NCOVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa247

RECORD 177
TITLE
  Can Lung US Help Critical Care Clinicians in the Early Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Poggiali E.;  Dacrema A.;  Bastoni D.;  Tinelli V.;  Demichele E.;  Mateo Ramos P.;  Marcianò T.;  Silva M.;  Vercelli A.;  Magnacavallo A.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200847). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200847

RECORD 178
TITLE
  Combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine in treating a family case of COVID-19 in Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ni L.;  Zhou L.;  Zhou M.;  Zhao J.;  Wang D.W.
SOURCE
  Frontiers of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. By February 14, 2020, it has led to 66 492 confirmed patients in China and high mortality up to ∼2.96% (1123/37 914) in Wuhan. Here we report the first family case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed in Wuhan and treated using the combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL). This report describes the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of three cases from a family, suggests the expected therapeutic effects of SHL on COVID-19, and warrants further clinical trials.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0757-x

RECORD 179
TITLE
  The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak – A Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khot W.Y.;  Nadkar M.Y.
SOURCE
  The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (2020) 68:3 (67-71). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 Novel Corona virus infection (COVID 19) is an ongoing public health emergency of international significance. There are significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, investigation tools and management. In this article, we review the available evidence about this disease. Every decade has witnessed the evolution of a new coronavirus epidemic since the last three decades. The varying transmission patterns, namely, nosocomial transmission and spread through mildly symptomatic cases is an area of concern. There is a spectrum of clinical features from mild to severe life threatening disease with major complications like severe pneumonia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury and septic shock. Presence of bilateral ground glass opacity and consolidation on imaging in appropriate clinical background should raise a suspicion about COVID 19. Poor prognostic factors include Multilobular infiltration on chest imaging, Lymphopenia, Bacterial co-infection, Smoking history, Chronic medical conditions like Hypertension and age >60 years (MuLBSTA score). Diagnosis is confirmed with PCR based testing of appropriate respiratory samples. Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation. Role of steroids is still inconclusive. Standard infection control and prevention techniques should be followed. Vigilant screening of suspected cases and their contacts is important. Isolation of symptomatic cases and home quarantine of asymptomatic contacts is recommended. To conclude, controlling this highly transmissible disease requires international co-ordination.

RECORD 180
TITLE
  Diagnosis and Management of First Case of COVID-19 in Canada: Lessons applied from SARS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Marchand-Senécal X.;  Kozak R.;  Mubareka S.;  Salt N.;  Gubbay J.B.;  Eshaghi A.;  Allen V.;  Li Y.;  Bastien N.;  Gilmour M.;  Ozaldin O.;  Leis J.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report diagnosis and management of the first laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in Toronto, Canada. No healthcare-associated transmission occurred. In the face of a potential pandemic of COVID-19, we suggest sustainable and scalable control measures developed based on lessons learned from SARS.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa227

RECORD 181
TITLE
  Positive rate of RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 4880 cases from one hospital in Wuhan, China, from Jan to Feb 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu R.;  Han H.;  Liu F.;  Lv Z.;  Wu K.;  Liu Y.;  Feng Y.;  Zhu C.
SOURCE
  Clinica Chimica Acta (2020) 505 (172-175). Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: There’s an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection since December 2019, first in China, and currently with more than 80 thousand confirmed infection globally in 29 countries till March 2, 2020. Identification, isolation and caring for patients early are essential to limit human-to-human transmission including reducing secondary infections among close contacts and health care workers, preventing transmission amplification events. The RT-PCR detection of viral nucleic acid test (NAT) was one of the most quickly established laboratory diagnosis method in a novel viral pandemic, just as in this COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: 4880 cases that had respiratory infection symptoms or close contact with COVID-19 patients in hospital in Wuhan, China, were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by use of quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) on samples from the respiratory tract. Positive rates were calculated in groups divided by genders or ages. Results: The positive rate was about 38% for the total 4880 specimens. Male and older population had a significant higher positive rates. However, 57% was positive among the specimens from the Fever Clinics. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age, not gender, was the risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection in fever clinics. Conclusions: Therefore, we concluded that viral NAT played an important role in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.009

RECORD 182
TITLE
  Diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19: acute kidney injury cannot be ignored
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang X.H.;  Sun R.H.;  Chen D.C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yi xue za zhi (2020) 100 (E017). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20200229-00520

RECORD 183
TITLE
  Li Wenliang, a face to the frontline healthcare worker. The first doctor to notify the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2, (COVID-19), outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Petersen E.;  Hui D.;  Hamer D.H.;  Blumberg L.;  Madoff L.C.;  Pollack M.;  Lee S.S.;  McLellan S.;  Memish Z.;  Praharaj I.;  Wasserman S.;  Ntoumi F.;  Azhar E.I.;  Mchugh T.D.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.;  Koopmans M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (205-207). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.052

RECORD 184
TITLE
  Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 – United States, January-February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Burke R.M.;  Midgley C.M.;  Dratch A.;  Fenstersheib M.;  Haupt T.;  Holshue M.;  Ghinai I.;  Jarashow M.C.;  Lo J.;  McPherson T.D.;  Rudman S.;  Scott S.;  Hall A.J.;  Fry A.M.;  Rolfes M.A.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:9 (245-246). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contact† with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6909e1

RECORD 185
TITLE
  Combination of RT-qPCR testing and clinical features for diagnosis of COVID-19 facilitates management of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Kang H.;  Liu X.;  Tong Z.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25721

RECORD 186
TITLE
  Rapid random access detection of the novel SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously 2019-nCoV) using an open access protocol for the Panther Fusion
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cordes A.K.;  Heim A.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Virology (2020) 125 Article Number: 104305. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104305

RECORD 187
TITLE
  Q&A: The novel coronavirus outbreak causing COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fisher D.;  Heymann D.
SOURCE
  BMC Medicine (2020) 18:1 Article Number: 57. Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01533-w

RECORD 188
TITLE
  Improved molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 by the novel, highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay validated in vitro and with clinical specimens
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chan J.F.-W.;  Yip C.C.-Y.;  To K.K.-W.;  Tang T.H.-C.;  Wong S.C.-Y.;  Leung K.-H.;  Fung A.Y.-F.;  Ng A.C.-K.;  Zou Z.;  Tsoi H.-W.;  Choi G.K.-Y.;  Tam A.R.;  Cheng V.C.-C.;  Chan K.-H.;  Tsang O.T.-Y.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organization was informed of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China. Subsequent investigations identified a novel coronavirus, now named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from the affected patients. Highly sensitive and specific laboratory diagnostics are important for controlling the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2-associated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. In this study, we developed and compared the performance of three novel real-time RT-PCR assays targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)/helicase (Hel), spike (S), and nucleocapsid (N) genes of SARS-CoV-2 with that of the reported RdRp-P2 assay which is used in >30 European laboratories. Among the three novel assays, the COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay had the lowest limit of detection in vitro (1.8 TCID50/ml with genomic RNA and 11.2 RNA copies/reaction with in vitro RNA transcripts). Among 273 specimens from 15 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Hong Kong, 77 (28.2%) were positive by both the COVID-19-RdRp/Hel and RdRp-P2 assays. The COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay was positive for an additional 42 RdRd-P2-negative specimens [119/273 (43.6%) vs 77/273 (28.2%), P<0.001], including 29/120 (24.2%) respiratory tract specimens and 13/153 (8.5%) non-respiratory tract specimens. The mean viral load of these specimens was 3.21×104 RNA copies/ml (range, 2.21×102 to 4.71×105 RNA copies/ml). The COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay did not cross-react with other human-pathogenic coronaviruses and respiratory pathogens in cell culture and clinical specimens, whereas the RdRp-P2 assay cross-reacted with SARS-CoV in cell culture. The highly sensitive and specific COVID-19-RdRp/Hel assay may help to improve the laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00310-20

RECORD 189
TITLE
  Recent advances and perspectives of nucleic acid detection for coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shen M.;  Zhou Y.;  Ye J.;  Abdullah AL-maskri A.A.;  Kang Y.;  Zeng S.;  Cai S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent pneumonia outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Chinais posing a great threat to global public health. Therefore, rapid and a accurate identification of pathogenic viruses plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments, saving people’s lives and preventing epidemics. It is important to establish a quick standard diagnostic test for the detection of the infectious disease (COVID-19) to prevent subsequent secondary spread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as a gold standard test for the molecular diagnosis of viral and bacterial infections with high sensitivity and specificity. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is considered to be a highly promising candidate method due to its fundamental advantage in quick procedure time at constant temperature without thermocycler operation. A variety of improved or new approaches also have been developed. This review summarizes the currently available detection methods for coronavirus nucleic acid. It is anticipated that this will assist researchers and clinicians in developing better techniques for timely and effective detection of coronavirus infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2020.02.010

RECORD 190
TITLE
  CT Imaging and Differential Diagnosis of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dai W.-C.;  Zhang H.-W.;  Yu J.;  Xu H.-J.;  Chen H.;  Luo S.-P.;  Zhang H.;  Liang L.-H.;  Wu X.-L.;  Lei Y.;  Lin F.
SOURCE
  Canadian Association of Radiologists journal = Journal l’Association canadienne des radiologistes (2020) (846537120913033). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the beginning of 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China. This study explains the findings from lung computed tomography images of some patients with COVID-19 treated in this medical institution and discusses the difference between COVID-19 and other lung diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0846537120913033

RECORD 191
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of Chest CT in Diagnosis and Management
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Y.;  Xia L.
SOURCE
  AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2020) (1-7). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to determine the misdiagnosis rate of radiologists for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluate the performance of chest CT in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. The CT features of COVID-19 are reported and compared with the CT features of other viruses to familiarize radiologists with possible CT patterns. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study included the first 51 patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection confirmed by nucleic acid testing (23 women and 28 men; age range, 26-83 years) and two patients with adenovirus (one woman and one man; ages, 58 and 66 years). We reviewed the clinical information, CT images, and corresponding image reports of these 53 patients. The CT images included images from 99 chest CT examinations, including initial and follow-up CT studies. We compared the image reports of the initial CT study with the laboratory test results and identified CT patterns suggestive of viral infection. RESULTS. COVID-19 was misdiagnosed as a common infection at the initial CT study in two inpatients with underlying disease and COVID-19. Viral pneumonia was correctly diagnosed at the initial CT study in the remaining 49 patients with COVID-19 and two patients with adenovirus. These patients were isolated and obtained treatment. Ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidation with or without vascular enlargement, interlobular septal thickening, and air bronchogram sign are common CT features of COVID-19. The The “reversed halo” sign and pulmonary nodules with a halo sign are uncommon CT features. The CT findings of COVID-19 overlap with the CT findings of adenovirus infection. There are differences as well as similarities in the CT features of COVID-19 compared with those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. CONCLUSION. We found that chest CT had a low rate of missed diagnosis of COVID-19 (3.9%, 2/51) and may be useful as a standard method for the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 to optimize the management of patients. However, CT is still limited for identifying specific viruses and distinguishing between viruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22954

RECORD 192
TITLE
  The differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu W.J.;  Wang J.;  He X.H.;  Qin Y.;  Yang S.;  Hu X.S.;  Wang H.Y.;  Huang J.;  Zhou A.P.;  Ma F.;  Shi Y.K.;  Zhou S.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] (2020) 42 (E008). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized as GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man diagnosed as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection and without fever and other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed as viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applicated in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112152-20200303-00166

RECORD 193
TITLE
  Characteristics, causes, diagnosis and treatment of coagulation dysfunction in patients with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mei H.;  Hu Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi (2020) 41 (E002). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2020.0002

RECORD 194
TITLE
  Unique epidemiological and clinical features of the emerging 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) implicate special control measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Y.;  Wang Y.;  Chen Y.;  Qin Q.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  By Feb 27th , 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused 82623 confirmed cases and 2858 deaths globally, more than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) (8273 cases, 775 deaths) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) (1139 cases, 431 deaths) caused in 2003 and 2013 respectively. COVID-19 has spread to 46 countries internationally. Total fatality rate of COVID-19 is estimated at 3.46% by far based on published data from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). Average incubation period of COVID-19 is around 6.4 days, ranges from 0-24 days. The basic reproductive number (R0 ) of COVID-19 ranges from 2-3.5 at the early phase regardless of different prediction models, which is higher than SARS and MERS. A study from China CDC showed majority of patients (80.9%) were considered asymptomatic or mild pneumonia but released large amounts of viruses at the early phase of infection, which posed enormous challenges for containing the spread of COVID-19. Nosocomial transmission was another severe problem. 3019 health workers were infected by Feb 12, 2020, which accounted for 3.83% of total number of infections, and extremely burdened the health system, especially in Wuhan. Limited epidemiological and clinical data suggest that the disease spectrum of COVID-19 may differ from SARS or MERS. We summarize latest literatures on genetic, epidemiological, and clinical features of COVID-19 in comparison to SARS and MERS and emphasize special measures on diagnosis and potential interventions. This review will improve our understanding of the unique features of COVID-19 and enhance our control measures in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25748

RECORD 195
TITLE
  Clinical and computed tomographic imaging features of novel coronavirus pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Y.-H.;  Dong J.-H.;  An W.-M.;  Lv X.-Y.;  Yin X.-P.;  Zhang J.-Z.;  Dong L.;  Ma X.;  Zhang H.-J.;  Gao B.-L.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection (2020) 80:4 (394-400). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: To investigate the clinical and imaging characteristics of computed tomography (CT) in novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) caused by SARS-CoV-2. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the imaging findings of patients confirmed with COVID-19 pneumonia who had chest CT scanning and treatment after disease onset. The clinical and imaging data were analyzed. Results: Fifty patients were enrolled, including mild type in nine, common in 28, severe in 10 and critically severe in the rest three. Mild patients (29 years) were significantly (P<0.03) younger than either common (44.5 years) or severe (54.7) and critically severe (65.7 years) patients, and common patients were also significantly (P<0.03) younger than severe and critically severe patients. Mild patients had low to moderate fever (<39.1 °C), 49 (98%) patients had normal or slightly reduced leukocyte count, 14 (28%) had decreased counts of lymphocytes, and 26 (52%) patients had increased C-reactive protein. Nine mild patients were negative in CT imaging. For all the other types of NCP, the lesion was in the right upper lobe in 30 cases, right middle lobe in 22, right lower lobe in 39, left upper lobe in 33 and left lower lobe in 36. The lesion was primarily located in the peripheral area under the pleura with possible extension towards the pulmonary hilum. Symmetrical lesions were seen in 26 cases and asymmetrical in 15. The density of lesion was mostly uneven with ground glass opacity as the primary presentation accompanied by partial consolidation and fibrosis. Conclusion: CT imaging presentations of NCP are mostly patchy ground glass opacities in the peripheral areas under the pleura with partial consolidation which will be absorbed with formation of fibrotic stripes if improved. CT scanning provides important bases for early diagnosis and treatment of NCP.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.017

RECORD 196
TITLE
  Hospital Emergency Management Plan During the COVID-19 Epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cao Y.;  Li Q.;  Chen J.;  Guo X.;  Miao C.;  Yang H.;  Chen Z.;  Li C.
SOURCE
  Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The confirmed and suspected cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have increased not only in Wuhan, Hubei Province but also China and the world. Enormous demand for handling the COVID-19 outbreak challenged both the healthcare personnel and medical supply system. In West China Hospital, Emergency Department (ED) undertook the mission of clinical reception, primary diagnosis, and interim treatment for the suspected cases of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13951

RECORD 197
TITLE
  Management and clinical thinking of Coronavirus Disease 2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ma K.;  Chen T.;  Han M.F.;  Guo W.;  Ning Q.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology (2020) 28 (E002). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP, officially named Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19) by the World Health Organization) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, and it quickly spread to the whole country and abroad. The situation was at stake. The sudden and serious COVID-19 epidemic has brought us a lot of urgent problems. How to effectively control the spread of COVID-19? When does the population infection rate rise to its peak? What will eventually be the number of infected patients? How to make early diagnosis? What effective antiviral drugs are available? How to effectively treat with existing drugs? Can it successfully improve the survival rate of critically patients? In response to the above questions, we put forward corresponding suggestions and reflections from the perspective of the infectious clinician.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2020.0002

RECORD 198
TITLE
  Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu X.;  Yu C.;  Qu J.;  Zhang L.;  Jiang S.;  Huang D.;  Chen B.;  Zhang Z.;  Guan W.;  Ling Z.;  Jiang R.;  Hu T.;  Ding Y.;  Lin L.;  Gan Q.;  Luo L.;  Tang X.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2020) 47:5 (1275-1280). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) recently break out in Wuhan, China, and was named as COVID-19. With the spread of the disease, similar cases have also been confirmed in other regions of China. We aimed to report the imaging and clinical characteristics of these patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China. Methods: All patients with laboratory-identified SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were collected between January 23, 2020, and February 4, 2020, in a designated hospital (Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital). This analysis included 90 patients (39 men and 51 women; median age, 50 years (age range, 18–86 years). All the included SARS-CoV-2-infected patients underwent non-contrast enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. In addition, after 1–6 days (mean 3.5 days), follow-up chest CT images were evaluated to assess radiological evolution. Findings: The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in Wuhan or to infected patients and mostly presented with fever and cough. More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved. Of all included patients, COVID-19 pneumonia presented with ground glass opacities in 65 (72%), consolidation in 12 (13%), crazy paving pattern in 11 (12%), interlobular thickening in 33 (37%), adjacent pleura thickening in 50 (56%), and linear opacities combined in 55 (61%). Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lymphadenopathy were uncommon findings. In addition, baseline chest CT did not show any abnormalities in 21 patients (23%), but 3 patients presented bilateral ground glass opacities on the second CT after 3–4 days. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be confirmed based on the patient’s history, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, and laboratory tests. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Multiple patchy ground glass opacities in bilateral multiple lobular with periphery distribution are typical chest CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04735-9

RECORD 199
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of Imported Cases of COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province: A Multicenter Descriptive Study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu J.;  Liu J.;  Zhao X.;  Liu C.;  Wang W.;  Wang D.;  Xu W.;  Zhang C.;  Yu J.;  Jiang B.;  Cao H.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of imported coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with WHO interim guidance in three Grade ⅢA hospitals of Jiangsu from Jan 22 to Feb 14, 2020. Real time RT-PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. RESULTS: Of the 80 patients infected with COVID-19, 41 patients were female, with a median age of 46.1 years. Except for 3 severe patients, the rest of the 77 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. 9 patients were unconfirmed until a third-time nucleic acid test. 38 cases had a history of chronic diseases. The main clinical manifestations of the patients were fever and cough, which accounted for 63 cases (78.75%) and 51 cases (-63.75%) respectively. Only 3 patients (3.75%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 55 patients (-68.75%) showed abnormal, 25 cases (31.25%) had no abnormal density shadow in the parenchyma of both lungs. Up to now, 21 cases were discharged from the hospital, and no patient died. The average length of stay for discharged patients was 8 days. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the cases in Wuhan, the cases in Jiangsu exhibited mild or moderate symptoms and no obvious gender susceptivity. The proportion of patients having liver dysfunction and abnormal CT imaging was relatively lower than that of Wuhan. Notably, infected patients may be falsely excluded based on two consecutively negative respiratory pathogenic nucleic acid test results.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa199

RECORD 200
TITLE
  Asymptomatic novel coronavirus pneumonia patient outside Wuhan: The value of CT images in the course of the disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin C.;  Ding Y.;  Xie B.;  Sun Z.;  Li X.;  Chen Z.;  Niu M.
SOURCE
  Clinical Imaging (2020) 63 (7-9). Date of Publication: 1 Jul 2020
ABSTRACT
  The purpose of this case report is to describe the imaging and associated clinical features of an asymptomatic novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) patient outside Wuhan, China. The principle findings are that in this patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, CT findings preceded symptoms and included bilateral pleural effusions, previously not reported in association with COVID-19. The role of this case report is promotion of potential recognition amongst radiologists of this new disease, which has been declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.02.008

RECORD 201
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang J.-J.;  Dong X.;  Cao Y.-Y.;  Yuan Y.-D.;  Yang Y.-B.;  Yan Y.-Q.;  Akdis C.A.;  Gao Y.-D.
SOURCE
  Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, were extracted and analyzed. Results: An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community-acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases were not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) patients and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground-glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) was the most common sign of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r =.486, P <.001) and nonsevere (r =.469, P <.001) patients after hospital admission. Significantly higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with severe patients compared to nonsevere patients (all P <.001). Conclusion: Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14238

RECORD 202
TITLE
  Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ai T.;  Yang Z.;  Hou H.;  Zhan C.;  Chen C.;  Lv W.;  Tao Q.;  Sun Z.;  Xia L.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200642). Date of Publication: 26 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background Chest CT is used for diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic value and consistency of chest CT as compared with comparison to RT-PCR assay in COVID-19. Methods From January 6 to February 6, 2020, 1014 patients in Wuhan, China who underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR tests were included. With RT-PCR as reference standard, the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed. Besides, for patients with multiple RT-PCR assays, the dynamic conversion of RT-PCR results (negative to positive, positive to negative, respectively) was analyzed as compared with serial chest CT scans for those with time-interval of 4 days or more. Results Of 1014 patients, 59% (601/1014) had positive RT-PCR results, and 88% (888/1014) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT in suggesting COVID-19 was 97% (95%CI, 95-98%, 580/601 patients) based on positive RT-PCR results. In patients with negative RT-PCR results, 75% (308/413) had positive chest CT findings; of 308, 48% were considered as highly likely cases, with 33% as probable cases. By analysis of serial RT-PCR assays and CT scans, the mean interval time between the initial negative to positive RT-PCR results was 5.1 ± 1.5 days; the initial positive to subsequent negative RT-PCR result was 6.9 ± 2.3 days). 60% to 93% of cases had initial positive CT consistent with COVID-19 prior (or parallel) to the initial positive RT-PCR results. 42% (24/57) cases showed improvement in follow-up chest CT scans before the RT-PCR results turning negative. Conclusion Chest CT has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19. Chest CT may be considered as a primary tool for the current COVID-19 detection in epidemic areas.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200642

RECORD 203
TITLE
  Development and Clinical Application of A Rapid IgM-IgG Combined Antibody Test for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Diagnosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li Z.;  Yi Y.;  Luo X.;  Xiong N.;  Liu Y.;  Li S.;  Sun R.;  Wang Y.;  Hu B.;  Chen W.;  Zhang Y.;  Wang J.;  Huang B.;  Lin Y.;  Yang J.;  Cai W.;  Wang X.;  Cheng J.;  Chen Z.;  Sun K.;  Pan W.;  Zhan Z.;  Chen L.;  Ye F.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quickly spread all over China and to more than 20 other countries. Although the virus (SARS-Cov-2) nucleic acid RT-PCR test has become the standard method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, these real-time PCR test kits have many limitations. In addition, high false negative rates were reported. There is an urgent need for an accurate and rapid test method to quickly identify large number of infected patients and asymptomatic carriers to prevent virus transmission and assure timely treatment of patients. We have developed a rapid and simple point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay which can detect IgM and IgG antibodies simultaneously against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 15 minutes which can detect patients at different infection stages. With this test kit, we carried out clinical studies to validate its clinical efficacy uses. The clinical detection sensitivity and specificity of this test were measured using blood samples collected from 397 PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients and 128 negative patients at 8 different clinical sites. The overall testing sensitivity was 88.66% and specificity was 90.63%. In addition, we evaluated clinical diagnosis results obtained from different types of venous and fingerstick blood samples. The results indicated great detection consistency among samples from fingerstick blood, serum and plasma of venous blood. The IgM-IgG combined assay has better utility and sensitivity compared with a single IgM or IgG test. It can be used for the rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers, symptomatic or asymptomatic, in hospitals, clinics, and test laboratories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25727

RECORD 204
TITLE
  Corona Virus International Public Health Emergencies: Implications for Radiology Management
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang H.-W.;  Yu J.;  Xu H.-J.;  Lei Y.;  Pu Z.-H.;  Dai W.-C.;  Lin F.;  Wang Y.-L.;  Wu X.-L.;  Liu L.-H.;  Li M.;  Mo Y.-Q.;  Zhang H.;  Luo S.-P.;  Chen H.;  Lyu G.-W.;  Zhou Z.-G.;  Liu W.-M.;  Liu X.-L.;  Song H.-Y.;  Chen F.-Z.;  Zeng L.;  Zhong H.;  Guo T.-T.;  Hu Y.-Q.;  Yang X.-X.;  Liu P.-N.;  Li D.-F.
SOURCE
  Academic Radiology (2020) 27:4 (463-467). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019 and has spread internationally. This article discusses how radiology departments can most effectively respond to this public health emergency.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.02.003

RECORD 205
TITLE
  The treatment proposal for the patients with breast diseases in the central epidemic area of 2019 coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao L.;  Zhang L.;  Liu J.W.;  Yang Z.F.;  Shen W.Z.;  Li X.R.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery] (2020) 58 (E005). Date of Publication: 25 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Currently, the epidemic of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still ongoing. The characteristics including high contagiousness, herd susceptibility and clinical phenotype diversity, made a serious influence on people’s daily life and rountine therapy for other diseases. Breast dieases are clinical common diseases. In the central epidemic area of COVID-19, Hubei province, especially Wuhan, the clinical specialists of breast diseases should consider all of the following factors comprehensively: the prevention of COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment of breast diseases and the accessibility of medical resources. Besides, we should select the appropriate therapy and optimize treatment process so as to prevent the propagation and cross infection of COVID-19 as well as manage the breast diseases without delay. Therefore, we carried out some management proposals of the patients with breast diseases in the central epidemic area during the epidemic of COVID-19 on the basis of conventional treatment guidelines and clinical experiences. The suggestions and corrections from colleagues will be welcomed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112139-20200221-00116

RECORD 206
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in 2019: Computed tomographic findings in two cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lin X.;  Gong Z.;  Xiao Z.;  Xiong J.;  Fan B.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Korean Journal of Radiology (2020) 21:3 (365-368). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019, there have been a few reports of its imaging findings. Here, we report two confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV pneumonia with chest computed tomography findings of multiple regions of patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. These findings were characteristically located along the bronchial bundle or subpleural lungs.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2020.0078

RECORD 207
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Taiwan: Reports of two cases from Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Huang W.-H.;  Teng L.-C.;  Yeh T.-K.;  Chen Y.-J.;  Lo W.-J.;  Wu M.-J.;  Chin C.-S.;  Tsan Y.-T.;  Lin T.-C.;  Chai J.-W.;  Lin C.-F.;  Tseng C.-H.;  Liu C.-W.;  Wu C.-M.;  Chen P.-Y.;  Shi Z.-Y.;  Liu P.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We reported two cases with community-acquired pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who returned from Wuhan, China in January, 2020. The reported cases highlight non-specific clinical presentations of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as well as the importance of rapid laboratory-based diagnosis.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.009

RECORD 208
TITLE
  Chest CT Findings in Patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 and its Relationship with Clinical Features
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu J.;  Wu X.;  Zeng W.;  Guo D.;  Fang Z.;  Chen L.;  Huang H.;  Li C.
SOURCE
  Investigative radiology (2020). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with confirmed corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to evaluate its relationship with clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study sample consisted of 80 patients diagnosed as COVID-19 from January to February 2020. The chest CT images and clinical data were reviewed and the relationship between them was analyzed. RESULTS: Totally 80 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. With regards to the clinical manifestations, 58/80 (73%) of patients had cough, 61/80 (76%) of patients had high temperature levels. The most frequent CT abnormalities observed were ground glass opacity (GGO) (73/80 cases, 91%), consolidation (50/80 cases, 63%) and interlobular septal thickening (47/80, 59%). Most of the lesions were multiple, with an average of 12±6 lung segments involved. The most common involved lung segments were the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe (69/80, 86%), the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe (68/80, 85%), the lateral basal segment of the right lower lobe (64/80, 80%), the dorsal segment of the left lower lobe (61/80, 76%) and the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe (65/80, 81%). The average pulmonary inflammation index (PII) value was (34%±20%) for all the patients. Correlation analysis showed that the PII value was significantly correlated with the values of lymphocyte count, monocyte count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, days from illness onset and body temperature (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The common chest CT findings of COVID-19 are multiple GGO, consolidation and interlobular septal thickening in both lungs, which are mostly distributed under the pleura. There are significant correlations between the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the main clinical symptoms and laboratory results. CT plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of this emerging global health emergency.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000670

RECORD 209
TITLE
  The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peeri N.C.;  Shrestha N.;  Rahman M.S.;  Zaki R.;  Tan Z.;  Bibi S.;  Baghbanzadeh M.;  Aghamohammadi N.;  Zhang W.;  Haque U.
SOURCE
  International journal of epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 22 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the three major deadly coronaviruses and identify areas for improvement of future preparedness plans, as well as provide a critical assessment of the risk factors and actionable items for stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks, as well as initial reports from the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. Comparisons between the viruses were made. RESULTS: Inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and into proximal and distant countries. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the North, South, East and West of China via railways and a major international airport. The availability of connecting flights, the timing of the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate throughout China, and eventually, globally. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa033

RECORD 210
TITLE
  Characteristics of and public health responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng S.-Q.;  Peng H.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 575. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the Huanan Seafood Market were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified to be accountable for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is confirmed, and this disease (named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO)) spread rapidly around the country and the world. As of 18 February 2020, the number of confirmed cases had reached 75,199 with 2009 fatalities. The COVID-19 resulted in a much lower case-fatality rate (about 2.67%) among the confirmed cases, compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases collected from the released official reports, the top four are fever, cough, short of breath, and chest tightness/pain. The major comorbidities of the fatality cases include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, and chronic bronchitis. The source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease are still unconfirmed. No specific therapeutic drug has been found. The Chinese Government has initiated a level-1 public health response to prevent the spread of the disease. Meanwhile, it is also crucial to speed up the development of vaccines and drugs for treatment, which will enable us to defeat COVID-19 as soon as possible.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020575

RECORD 211
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zu Z.Y.;  Jiang M.D.;  Xu P.P.;  Chen W.;  Ni Q.Q.;  Lu G.M.;  Zhang L.J.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200490). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since most COVID-19 infected patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and characteristic CT imaging patterns, radiological examinations have become vital in early diagnosis and assessment of disease course. To date, CT findings have been recommended as major evidence for clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 in Hubei, China. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms of COVID-19, while highlighting the role of chest CT in prevention and disease control. A full translation of this article in Chinese is available.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200490

RECORD 212
TITLE
  18F-FDG PET/CT findings of COVID-19: a series of four highly suspected cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Qin C.;  Liu F.;  Yen T.-C.;  Lan X.
SOURCE
  European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Purpose: The aim of this case series is to illustrate the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings of patients with acute respiratory disease caused by COVID-19 in Wuhan, Hubei province of China. Methods: We describe the 18F-FDG PET/CT results from four patients who were admitted to the hospital with respiratory symptoms and fever between January 13 and January 20, 2020, when the COVID-19 outbreak was still unrecognized and the virus infectivity was unknown. A retrospective review of the patients’ medical history, clinical and laboratory data, as well as imaging findings strongly suggested a diagnosis of COVID-19. Results: All patients had peripheral ground-glass opacities and/or lung consolidations in more than two pulmonary lobes. Lung lesions were characterized by a high 18F-FDG uptake and there was evidence of lymph node involvement. Conversely, disseminated disease was absent, a finding suggesting that COVID-19 has pulmonary tropism. Conclusions: Although 18F-FDG PET/CT cannot be routinely used in an emergency setting and is generally not recommended for infectious diseases, our pilot data shed light on the potential clinical utility of this imaging technique in the differential diagnosis of complex cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04734-w

RECORD 213
TITLE
  Virus Isolation from the First Patient with SARS-CoV-2 in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Park W.B.;  Kwon N.J.;  Choi S.J.;  Kang C.K.;  Choe P.G.;  Kim J.Y.;  Yun J.;  Lee G.W.;  Seong M.W.;  Kim N.J.;  Seo J.S.;  Oh M.D.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:7 (e84). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is found to cause a large outbreak started from Wuhan since December 2019 in China and SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported with epidemiological linkage to China in 25 countries until now. We isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the oropharyngeal sample obtained from the patient with the first laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Korea. Cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in the Vero cell cultures were confluent 3 days after the first blind passage of the sample. Coronavirus was confirmed with spherical particle having a fringe reminiscent of crown on transmission electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analyses of whole genome sequences showed that it clustered with other SARS-CoV-2 reported from Wuhan.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e84

RECORD 214
TITLE
  Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Z.;  Shi L.;  Wang Y.;  Zhang J.;  Huang L.;  Zhang C.;  Liu S.;  Zhao P.;  Liu H.;  Zhu L.;  Tai Y.;  Bai C.;  Gao T.;  Song J.;  Xia P.;  Dong J.;  Zhao J.;  Wang F.-S.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (420-422). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30076-X

RECORD 215
TITLE
  Coronavirus COVID-19 impacts to dentistry and potential salivary diagnosis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sabino-Silva R.;  Jardim A.C.G.;  Siqueira W.L.
SOURCE
  Clinical oral investigations (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03248-x

RECORD 216
TITLE
  Preliminary study of the relationship between novel coronavirus pneumonia and liver function damage: a multicenter study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu C.;  Jiang Z.C.;  Shao C.X.;  Zhang H.G.;  Yue H.M.;  Chen Z.H.;  Ma B.Y.;  Liu W.Y.;  Huang H.H.;  Yang J.;  Wang Y.;  Liu H.Y.;  Xu D.;  Wang J.T.;  Yang J.Y.;  Pan H.Q.;  Zou S.Q.;  Li F.J.;  Lei J.Q.;  Li X.;  He Q.;  Gu Y.;  Qi X.L.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology (2020) 28:2 (148-152). Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of cases of novel coronavirus pneumonia and a preliminary study to explore the relationship between different clinical classification and liver damage. Methods: Consecutively confirmed novel coronavirus infection cases admitted to seven designated hospitals during January 23, 2020 to February 8, 2020 were included. Clinical classification (mild, moderate, severe, and critical) was carried out according to the diagnosis and treatment program of novel coronavirus pneumonia (Trial Fifth Edition) issued by the National Health Commission. The research data were analyzed using SPSS19.0 statistical software. Quantitative data were expressed as median (interquartile range), and qualitative data were expressed as frequency and rate. Results: 32 confirmed cases that met the inclusion criteria were included. 28 cases were of mild or moderate type (87.50%), and four cases (12.50%) of severe or critical type. Four cases (12.5%) were combined with one underlying disease (bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, malignant tumor, chronic kidney disease), and one case (3.13%) was simultaneously combined with high blood pressure and malignant tumor. The results of laboratory examination showed that the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB), and total bilirubin (TBil) for entire cohort were 26.98 (16.88 ~ 46.09) U/L and 24.75 (18.71 ~ 31.79) U/L, 39.00 (36.20 ~ 44.20) g/L and 16.40 (11.34- ~ 21.15) mmol/L, respectively. ALT, AST, ALB and TBil of the mild or moderate subgroups were 22.75 (16.31- ~ 37.25) U/L, 23.63 (18.71 ~ 26.50) U/L, 39.70 (36.50 ~ 46.10) g/L, and 15.95 (11.34 ~ 20.83) mmol/L, respectively. ALT, AST, ALB and TBil of the severe or critical subgroups were 60.25 (40.88 ~ 68.90) U/L, 37.00 (20.88 ~ 64.45) U/L, 35.75 (28.68 ~ 42.00) g/L, and 20.50 (11.28 ~ 25.00) mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this multicenter retrospective study suggests that novel coronavirus pneumonia combined with liver damage is more likely to be caused by adverse drug reactions and systemic inflammation in severe patients receiving medical treatment. Therefore, liver function monitoring and evaluation should be strengthened during the treatment of such patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2020.02.003

RECORD 217
TITLE
  An update on the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumoniaCOVID-19
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:2 (139-144). Date of Publication: 14 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Through literature review and group discussion, Special Expert Group for Control of the Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association formulated an update on the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). The initial source of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, with pangolins as a potential animal host. Currently the main source of infection is NCP patients, and asymptomatic carriers may also be infectious. The virus is believed transmitted mostly via droplets or contact. People are all generally susceptible to the virus. The average incubation period was 5.2 days, and the basic reproductive number R(0) was 2.2 at the onset of the outbreak. Most NCP patients were clinically mild cases. The case fatality rate was 2.38%, and elderly men with underlying diseases were at a higher risk of death. Strategies for prevention and control of NCP include improving epidemic surveillance, quarantining the source of infection, speeding up the diagnosis of suspected cases, optimizing the management of close contacts, tightening prevention and control of cluster outbreaks and hospital infection, preventing possible rebound of the epidemic after people return to work from the Chinese Spring Festival holiday, and strengthening community prevention and control.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.002

RECORD 218
TITLE
  Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Quilty B.J.;  Clifford S.;  Flasche S.;  Eggo R.M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We evaluated effectiveness of thermal passenger screening for 2019-nCoV infection at airport exit and entry to inform public health decision-making. In our baseline scenario, we estimated that 46% (95% confidence interval: 36 to 58) of infected travellers would not be detected, depending on incubation period, sensitivity of exit and entry screening, and proportion of asymptomatic cases. Airport screening is unlikely to detect a sufficient proportion of 2019-nCoV infected travellers to avoid entry of infected travellers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000080

RECORD 219
TITLE
  Time Course of Lung Changes On Chest CT During Recovery From 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pan F.;  Ye T.;  Sun P.;  Gui S.;  Liang B.;  Li L.;  Zheng D.;  Wang J.;  Hesketh R.L.;  Yang L.;  Zheng C.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200370). Date of Publication: 13 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background Chest CT is used to assess the severity of lung involvement in COVID-19 pneumonia. Purpose To determine the change in chest CT findings associated with COVID-19 pneumonia from initial diagnosis until patient recovery. Materials and Methods This retrospective review included patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection presenting between 12 January 2020 to 6 February 2020. Patients with severe respiratory distress and/ or oxygen requirement at any time during the disease course were excluded. Repeat Chest CT was obtained at approximately 4 day intervals. The total CT score was the sum of lung involvement (5 lobes, score 1-5 for each lobe, range, 0 none, 25 maximum) was determined. Results Twenty one patients (6 males and 15 females, age 25-63 years) with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. These patients under went a total of 82 pulmonary CT scans with a mean interval of 4±1 days (range: 1-8 days). All patients were discharged after a mean hospitalized period of 17±4 days (range: 11-26 days). Maximum lung involved peaked at approximately 10 days (with the calculated total CT score of 6) from the onset of initial symptoms (R2=0.25), p<0.001). Based on quartiles of patients from day 0 to day 26 involvement, 4 stages of lung CT were defined: Stage 1 (0-4 days): ground glass opacities (GGO) in 18/24 (75%) patients with the total CT score of 2±2; (2)Stage-2 (5-8d days): increased crazy-paving pattern 9/17 patients (53%) with a increase in total CT score (6±4, p=0.002); (3) Stage-3 (9-13days): consolidation 19/21 (91%) patients with the peak of total CT score (7±4); (4) Stage-4 (≥14 days): gradual resolution of consolidation 15/20 (75%) patients with a decreased total CT score (6±4) without crazy-paving pattern. Conclusion In patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia (without severe respiratory distress during the disease course), lung abnormalities on chest CT showed greatest severity approximately 10 days after initial onset of symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200370