​Epidemiology

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RECORD 1
TITLE
  Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pung R.;  Chiew C.J.;  Young B.E.;  Chin S.;  Chen M.I.-C.;  Clapham H.E.;  Cook A.R.;  Maurer-Stroh S.;  Toh M.P.H.S.;  Poh C.;  Low M.;  Lum J.;  Koh V.T.J.;  Mak T.M.;  Cui L.;  Lin R.V.T.P.;  Heng D.;  Leo Y.-S.;  Lye D.C.;  Lee V.J.M.;  Kam K.-Q.;  Kalimuddin S.;  Tan S.Y.;  Loh J.;  Thoon K.C.;  Vasoo S.;  Khong W.X.;  Suhaimi N.-A.;  Chan S.J.;  Zhang E.;  Oh O.;  Ty A.;  Tow C.;  Chua Y.X.;  Chaw W.L.;  Ng Y.;  Abdul-Rahman F.;  Sahib S.;  Zhao Z.;  Tang C.;  Low C.;  Goh E.H.;  Lim G.;  Hou Y.;  Roshan I.;  Tan J.;  Foo K.;  Nandar K.;  Kurupatham L.;  Chan P.P.;  Raj P.;  Lin Y.;  Said Z.;  Lee A.;  See C.;  Markose J.;  Tan J.;  Chan G.;  See W.;  Peh X.;  Cai V.;  Chen W.K.;  Li Z.;  Soo R.;  Chow A.L.;  Wei W.;  Farwin A.;  Ang L.W.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1039-1046). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Three clusters of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) linked to a tour group from China, a company conference, and a church were identified in Singapore in February, 2020. Methods: We gathered epidemiological and clinical data from individuals with confirmed COVID-19, via interviews and inpatient medical records, and we did field investigations to assess interactions and possible modes of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Open source reports were obtained for overseas cases. We reported the median (IQR) incubation period of SARS-CoV-2. Findings: As of Feb 15, 2020, 36 cases of COVID-19 were linked epidemiologically to the first three clusters of circumscribed local transmission in Singapore. 425 close contacts were quarantined. Direct or prolonged close contact was reported among affected individuals, although indirect transmission (eg, via fomites and shared food) could not be excluded. The median incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 was 4 days (IQR 3–6). The serial interval between transmission pairs ranged between 3 days and 8 days. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 is transmissible in community settings, and local clusters of COVID-19 are expected in countries with high travel volume from China before the lockdown of Wuhan and institution of travel restrictions. Enhanced surveillance and contact tracing is essential to minimise the risk of widespread transmission in the community. Funding: None.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30528-6

RECORD 2
TITLE
  Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) – United States, February 12-March 16, 2020
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (343-346). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Globally, approximately 170,000 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported, including an estimated 7,000 deaths in approximately 150 countries (1). On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic (2). Data from China have indicated that older adults, particularly those with serious underlying health conditions, are at higher risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness and death than are younger persons (3). Although the majority of reported COVID-19 cases in China were mild (81%), approximately 80% of deaths occurred among adults aged ≥60 years; only one (0.1%) death occurred in a person aged ≤19 years (3). In this report, COVID-19 cases in the United States that occurred during February 12-March 16, 2020 and severity of disease (hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], and death) were analyzed by age group. As of March 16, a total of 4,226 COVID-19 cases in the United States had been reported to CDC, with multiple cases reported among older adults living in long-term care facilities (4). Overall, 31% of cases, 45% of hospitalizations, 53% of ICU admissions, and 80% of deaths associated with COVID-19 were among adults aged ≥65 years with the highest percentage of severe outcomes among persons aged ≥85 years. In contrast, no ICU admissions or deaths were reported among persons aged ≤19 years. Similar to reports from other countries, this finding suggests that the risk for serious disease and death from COVID-19 is higher in older age groups.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e2

RECORD 3
TITLE
  COVID-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility – King County, Washington, February 27-March 9, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  McMichael T.M.;  Clark S.;  Pogosjans S.;  Kay M.;  Lewis J.;  Baer A.;  Kawakami V.;  Lukoff M.D.;  Ferro J.;  Brostrom-Smith C.;  Riedo F.X.;  Russell D.;  Hiatt B.;  Montgomery P.;  Rao A.K.;  Currie D.W.;  Chow E.J.;  Tobolowsky F.;  Bardossy A.C.;  Oakley L.P.;  Jacobs J.R.;  Schwartz N.G.;  Stone N.;  Reddy S.C.;  Jernigan J.A.;  Honein M.A.;  Clark T.A.;  Duchin J.S.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (339-342). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On February 28, 2020, a case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was identified in a woman resident of a long-term care skilled nursing facility (facility A) in King County, Washington.* Epidemiologic investigation of facility A identified 129 cases of COVID-19 associated with facility A, including 81 of the residents, 34 staff members, and 14 visitors; 23 persons died. Limitations in effective infection control and prevention and staff members working in multiple facilities contributed to intra- and interfacility spread. COVID-19 can spread rapidly in long-term residential care facilities, and persons with chronic underlying medical conditions are at greater risk for COVID-19-associated severe disease and death. Long-term care facilities should take proactive steps to protect the health of residents and preserve the health care workforce by identifying and excluding potentially infected staff members and visitors, ensuring early recognition of potentially infected patients, and implementing appropriate infection control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e1

RECORD 4
TITLE
  Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships – Worldwide, February-March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Moriarty L.F.;  Plucinski M.M.;  Marston B.J.;  Kurbatova E.V.;  Knust B.;  Murray E.L.;  Pesik N.;  Rose D.;  Fitter D.;  Kobayashi M.;  Toda M.;  Canty P.T.;  Scheuer T.;  Halsey E.S.;  Cohen N.J.;  Stockman L.;  Wadford D.A.;  Medley A.M.;  Green G.;  Regan J.J.;  Tardivel K.;  White S.;  Brown C.;  Morales C.;  Yen C.;  Wittry B.;  Freeland A.;  Naramore S.;  Novak R.T.;  Daigle D.;  Weinberg M.;  Acosta A.;  Herzig C.;  Kapella B.K.;  Jacobson K.R.;  Lamba K.;  Ishizumi A.;  Sarisky J.;  Svendsen E.;  Blocher T.;  Wu C.;  Charles J.;  Wagner R.;  Stewart A.;  Mead P.S.;  Kurylo E.;  Campbell S.;  Murray R.;  Weidle P.;  Cetron M.;  Friedman C.R.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:12 (347-352). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An estimated 30 million passengers are transported on 272 cruise ships worldwide each year* (1). Cruise ships bring diverse populations into proximity for many days, facilitating transmission of respiratory illness (2). SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread worldwide to at least 187 countries and territories. Widespread COVID-19 transmission on cruise ships has been reported as well (3). Passengers on certain cruise ship voyages might be aged ≥65 years, which places them at greater risk for severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection (4). During February-March 2020, COVID-19 outbreaks associated with three cruise ship voyages have caused more than 800 laboratory-confirmed cases among passengers and crew, including 10 deaths. Transmission occurred across multiple voyages of several ships. This report describes public health responses to COVID-19 outbreaks on these ships. COVID-19 on cruise ships poses a risk for rapid spread of disease, causing outbreaks in a vulnerable population, and aggressive efforts are required to contain spread. All persons should defer all cruise travel worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e3

RECORD 5
TITLE
  COVID-19 positive test result from private hospital laboratory, neglecting on reporting and problem on national infection control
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sriwijiatalai W.;  Wiwanitkit V.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.93

RECORD 6
TITLE
  Number of COVID-19 cases in Chile at 120 days with data at 21/03/2020 and threshold of daily effort to flatten the epi-curve
AUTHOR NAMES
  Córdova-Lepe F.;  Gutiérrez-Aguilar R.;  Gutiérrez-Jara J.P.
SOURCE
  Medwave (2020) 20:2 (e7861). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5867/medwave.2020.02.7861

RECORD 7
TITLE
  COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yi Y.;  Lagniton P.N.P.;  Ye S.;  Li E.;  Xu R.-H.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1753-1766). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of people in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 might also be transmitted from the bats and causes similar symptoms through a similar mechanism. However, COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youth and more men than women. In response to the rapidly increasing number of publications on the emerging disease, this article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the swiftly developing research subject. We will cover the basics about the epidemiology, etiology, virology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of the disease. Although many questions still require answers, we hope that this review helps in the understanding and eradication of the threatening disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45134

RECORD 8
TITLE
  The Late Arrival of COVID-19 in Africa – Mitigating Pan-Continental Spread
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nachega J.B.;  Seydi M.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa353

RECORD 9
TITLE
  The many estimates of the COVID-19 case fatality rate
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rajgor D.D.;  Lee M.H.;  Archuleta S.;  Bagdasarian N.;  Quek S.C.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30244-9

RECORD 10
TITLE
  The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen L.;  Li X.;  Chen M.;  Feng Y.;  Xiong C.
SOURCE
  Cardiovascular research (2020). Date of Publication: 30 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A new type of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks recently in China and spreads into many other countries. This disease, named as COVID-19, is similar to patients infected by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and nearly 20% of patients developed severe condition. Cardiac injury is a prevalent complication of severe patients, exacerbating the disease severity in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the key host cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, has been identified in multiple organs, but its cellular distribution in human heart is not illuminated clearly. This study performed the first state-of-art single cell atlas of adult human heart, and revealed that pericytes with high expression of ACE2 might act as the target cardiac cell of SARS-CoV-2. The pericytes injury due to virus infection may result in capillary endothelial cells dysfunction, inducing microvascular dysfunction. And patients with basic heart failure disease showed increased ACE2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, meaning that if infected by the virus these patients may have higher risk of heart attack and critically ill condition. The finding of this study explains the high rate of severe cases among COVID-19 patients with basic cardiovascular disease; and these results also perhaps provide important reference to clinical treatment of cardiac injury among severe patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa078

RECORD 11
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 8 (Reporting period from 19:00 AEDT 14 March to 23:59 AEDT 22 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the eighth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 23:59 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 22 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.28

RECORD 12
TITLE
  Perspectives on therapeutic neutralizing antibodies against the Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhou G.;  Zhao Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of biological sciences (2020) 16:10 (1718-1723). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A newly identified novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is causing pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome across the world. Epidemiology, genomics, and pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 show high homology with that of SARS-CoV. Current efforts are focusing on development of specific antiviral drugs. Therapeutic neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 will be greatly important therapeutic agents for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, the host immune responses against SARS-CoV discussed in this review provide implications for developing NAbs and understanding clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Further, we describe the benefits, challenges and considerations of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2. Although many challenges exist, NAbs still offer a therapeutic option to control the current pandemic and the possible re-emergence of the virus in the future, and their development therefore remains a high priority.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45123

RECORD 13
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak: An overview on dentistry
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spagnuolo G.;  De Vito D.;  Rengo S.;  Tatullo M.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:6 Article Number: 2094. Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062094

RECORD 14
TITLE
  Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak: What the Department of Radiology Should Know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kooraki S.;  Hosseiny M.;  Myers L.;  Gholamrezanezhad A.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American College of Radiology (2020) 17:4 (447-451). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China. Since then, this highly contagious COVID-19 has been spreading worldwide, with a rapid rise in the number of deaths. Novel COVID-19–infected pneumonia (NCIP) is characterized by fever, fatigue, dry cough, and dyspnea. A variety of chest imaging features have been reported, similar to those found in other types of coronavirus syndromes. The purpose of the present review is to briefly discuss the known epidemiology and the imaging findings of coronavirus syndromes, with a focus on the reported imaging findings of NCIP. Moreover, the authors review precautions and safety measures for radiology department personnel to manage patients with known or suspected NCIP. Implementation of a robust plan in the radiology department is required to prevent further transmission of the virus to patients and department staff members.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.02.008

RECORD 15
TITLE
  Mass masking in the COVID-19 epidemic: people need guidance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Leung C.C.;  Lam T.H.;  Cheng K.K.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (945). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30520-1

RECORD 16
TITLE
  COVID-19: the medium is the message
AUTHOR NAMES
  Garrett L.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (942-943). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30600-0

RECORD 17
TITLE
  Can a Paper-Based Device Trace COVID-19 Sources with Wastewater-Based Epidemiology?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mao K.;  Zhang H.;  Yang Z.
SOURCE
  Environmental Science and Technology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01174

RECORD 18
TITLE
  Initiation of a new infection control system for the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen X.;  Tian J.;  Li G.;  Li G.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020) 20:4 (397-398). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30110-9

RECORD 19
TITLE
  Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cai H.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e20). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30117-X

RECORD 20
TITLE
  The COVID-19 outbreak: Crucial role the psychiatrists can play
AUTHOR NAMES
  Banerjee D.
SOURCE
  Asian Journal of Psychiatry (2020) 50 Article Number: 102014. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102014

RECORD 21
TITLE
  Respiratory support for patients with COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ñamendys-Silva S.A.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (e18). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30110-7

RECORD 22
TITLE
  Covid-19: A puzzle with many missing pieces
AUTHOR NAMES
  Vetter P.;  Eckerle I.;  Kaiser L.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m627. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m627

RECORD 23
TITLE
  Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in complex humanitarian crises
AUTHOR NAMES
  Poole D.N.;  Escudero D.J.;  Gostin L.O.;  Leblang D.;  Talbot E.A.
SOURCE
  International Journal for Equity in Health (2020) 19:1 Article Number: 41. Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01162-y

RECORD 24
TITLE
  Covid-19 mass testing facilities could end the epidemic rapidly
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peto J.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368. Date of Publication: 22 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1163

RECORD 25
TITLE
  Considering inequalities in the school closure response to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Armitage R.;  Nellums L.B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Global health (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30116-9

RECORD 26
TITLE
  National UK programme of community health workers for COVID-19 response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haines A.;  de Barros E.F.;  Berlin A.;  Heymann D.L.;  Harris M.J.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30735-2

RECORD 27
TITLE
  Will COVID-19 be a litmus test for post-Ebola sub-Saharan Africa?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Agyeman A.A.;  Laar A.;  Ofori-Asenso R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25780

RECORD 28
TITLE
  Risk of COVID-19 for patients with cancer
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.;  Zhang L.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Oncology (2020) 21:4 (e181). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30149-2

RECORD 29
TITLE
  Prevalence and predictors of PTSS during COVID-19 outbreak in China hardest-hit areas: Gender differences matter
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu N.;  Zhang F.;  Wei C.;  Jia Y.;  Shang Z.;  Sun L.;  Wu L.;  Sun Z.;  Zhou Y.;  Wang Y.;  Liu W.
SOURCE
  Psychiatry Research (2020) 287 Article Number: 112921. Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of COVID-19 in China in December 2019 has been identified as a pandemic and a health emergency of global concern. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in China hardest-hit areas during COVID-19 outbreak, especially exploring the gender difference existing in PTSS. One month after the December 2019 COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan China, we surveyed PTSS and sleep qualities among 285 residents in Wuhan and surrounding cities using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and 4 items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Hierarchical regression analysis and non-parametric test were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that the prevalence of PTSS in China hardest-hit areas a month after the COVID-19 outbreak was 7%. Women reported significant higher PTSS in the domains of re-experiencing, negative alterations in cognition or mood, and hyper-arousal. Participants with better sleep quality or less frequency of early awakenings reported lower PTSS. Professional and effective mental health services should be designed in order to aid the psychological wellbeing of the population in affected areas, especially those living in hardest-hit areas, females and people with poor sleep quality.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112921

RECORD 30
TITLE
  Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jin Y.;  Yang H.;  Ji W.;  Wu W.;  Chen S.;  Zhang W.;  Duan G.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:4 Article Number: 372. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

RECORD 31
TITLE
  Global epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): disease incidence, daily cumulative index, mortality, and their association with country healthcare resources and economic status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Wang C.-Y.;  Wang Y.-H.;  Hsueh S.-C.;  Ko W.-C.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) Article Number: 105946. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  It has been 2 months since the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. So far, COVID-19 has affected 85 403 patients in 57 countries/territories and has caused 2924 deaths in 9 countries. However, epidemiological data differ between countries. Although China had higher morbidity and mortality than other sites, the number of new daily cases in China has been lower than outside of China since 26 February 2020. The incidence ranged from 61.44 per 1 000 000 people in the Republic of Korea to 0.0002 per 1 000 000 people in India. The daily cumulative index (DCI) of COVID-19 (cumulative cases/no. of days between the first reported case and 29 February 2020) was greatest in China (1320.85), followed by the Republic of Korea (78.78), Iran (43.11) and Italy (30.62). However, the DCIs in other countries/territories were <10 per day. Several effective measures including restricting travel from China, controlling the distribution of masks, extensive investigation of COVID-19 spread, and once-daily press conferences by the government to inform and educate people were aggressively conducted in Taiwan. This is probably the reason why there was only 39 cases (as of 29 February 2020) with a DCI of 1 case per day in Taiwan, which is much lower than that of nearby countries such as the Republic of Korea and Japan. In addition, the incidence and mortality were correlated with the DCI. However, further study and continued monitoring are needed to better understand the underlying mechanism of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105946

RECORD 32
TITLE
  Covid-19 fatality is likely overestimated
AUTHOR NAMES
  Niforatos J.D.;  Melnick E.R.;  Faust J.S.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1113. Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1113

RECORD 33
TITLE
  Challenges for NHS hospitals during covid-19 epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Willan J.;  King A.J.;  Jeffery K.;  Bienz N.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1117. Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1117

RECORD 34
TITLE
  Covid-19: Control measures must be equitable and inclusive
AUTHOR NAMES
  Berger Z.D.;  Evans N.G.;  Phelan A.L.;  Silverman R.D.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1141. Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1141

RECORD 35
TITLE
  An Effective Model for the Outpatient Management of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao Y.;  Tan C.;  Duan J.;  Wu A.;  Li C.
SOURCE
  Infection control and hospital epidemiology (2020) (1-4). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.92

RECORD 36
TITLE
  The time-varying serial interval of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its gender-specific difference: A data-driven analysis using public surveillance data in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China from January 10 to February 15, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao S.;  Cao P.;  Chong M.K.C.;  Gao D.;  Lou Y.;  Ran J.;  Wang K.;  Wang W.;  Yang L.;  He D.;  Wang M.H.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.64

RECORD 37
TITLE
  The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Prem K.;  Liu Y.;  Russell T.W.;  Kucharski A.J.;  Eggo R.M.;  Davies N.;  Jit M.;  Klepac P.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December, 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus, emerged in Wuhan, China. Since then, the city of Wuhan has taken unprecedented measures in response to the outbreak, including extended school and workplace closures. We aimed to estimate the effects of physical distancing measures on the progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, hoping to provide some insights for the rest of the world. METHODS: To examine how changes in population mixing have affected outbreak progression in Wuhan, we used synthetic location-specific contact patterns in Wuhan and adapted these in the presence of school closures, extended workplace closures, and a reduction in mixing in the general community. Using these matrices and the latest estimates of the epidemiological parameters of the Wuhan outbreak, we simulated the ongoing trajectory of an outbreak in Wuhan using an age-structured susceptible-exposed-infected-removed (SEIR) model for several physical distancing measures. We fitted the latest estimates of epidemic parameters from a transmission model to data on local and internationally exported cases from Wuhan in an age-structured epidemic framework and investigated the age distribution of cases. We also simulated lifting of the control measures by allowing people to return to work in a phased-in way and looked at the effects of returning to work at different stages of the underlying outbreak (at the beginning of March or April). FINDINGS: Our projections show that physical distancing measures were most effective if the staggered return to work was at the beginning of April; this reduced the median number of infections by more than 92% (IQR 66-97) and 24% (13-90) in mid-2020 and end-2020, respectively. There are benefits to sustaining these measures until April in terms of delaying and reducing the height of the peak, median epidemic size at end-2020, and affording health-care systems more time to expand and respond. However, the modelled effects of physical distancing measures vary by the duration of infectiousness and the role school children have in the epidemic. INTERPRETATION: Restrictions on activities in Wuhan, if maintained until April, would probably help to delay the epidemic peak. Our projections suggest that premature and sudden lifting of interventions could lead to an earlier secondary peak, which could be flattened by relaxing the interventions gradually. However, there are limitations to our analysis, including large uncertainties around estimates of R0 and the duration of infectiousness. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust, and Health Data Research UK.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-6

RECORD 38
TITLE
  Sound Science before Quick Judgement Regarding RAS Blockade in COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sparks M.A.;  South A.;  Welling P.;  Luther J.M.;  Cohen J.;  Byrd J.B.;  Burrell L.M.;  Batlle D.;  Tomlinson L.;  Bhalla V.;  Rheault M.N.;  Soler M.J.;  Swaminathan S.;  Hiremath S.
SOURCE
  Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.03530320

RECORD 39
TITLE
  Importing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into China after international air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang X.-A.;  Fan H.;  Qi R.-Z.;  Zheng W.;  Zheng K.;  Gong J.-H.;  Fang L.-Q.;  Liu W.
SOURCE
  Travel medicine and infectious disease (2020) (101620). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101620

RECORD 40
TITLE
  Clinical Characteristics of 54 medical staff with COVID-19: A retrospective study in a single center in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chu J.;  Yang N.;  Wei Y.;  Yue H.;  Zhang F.;  Zhao J.;  He L.;  Sheng G.;  Chen P.;  Li G.;  Wu S.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang S.;  Wang C.;  Miao X.;  Li J.;  Liu W.;  Zhang H.
SOURCE
  Journal of medical virology (2020). Date of Publication: 29 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: In December 2019, an outbreak of the SARS-Cov-2 infection occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread to worldwide, which has attracted many people’s concerns about the patients. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnels is still lacking. METHODS: 54 cases of SARS-Cov-2 infected medical staff from Tongji Hospital between January 7th to February 11th of 2020 were analyzed in this retrospective study. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were compared between different groups by statistical method. RESULTS: From January 7 to February 11, 2020, 54 medical staff of Tongji Hospital were hospitalized due to COVID-19. Most of them were from other clinical departments (72.2%) rather than emergency department (3.7%) or medical technology departments (18.5%). Among the 54 COVID-19 patients, the distribution of age had a significant difference between non-severe type and severe/critical cases (median age: 47 years vs. 38 years, p=0.0015). However, there was no statistical difference in terms of gender distribution and the first symptoms between theses two groups. Furthermore, we observed that the lesion regions in SARS-Cov-2 infected lungs with severe-/critical-type of medical staff were more likely to exhibit lesions in the right upper lobe (31.7% vs. 0%, P=0.028) and right lung (61% vs. 18.2%, P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings with medical staff infection data, we suggest training for all hospital staff to prevent infection and preparation of sufficient protection and disinfection materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25793

RECORD 41
TITLE
  A Case of Novel Coronavirus Disease 19 in a Chronic Hemodialysis Patient Presenting with Gastroenteritis and Developing Severe Pulmonary Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ferrey A.J.;  Choi G.;  Hanna R.M.;  Chang Y.;  Tantisattamo E.;  Ivaturi K.;  Park E.;  Nguyen L.;  Wang B.;  Tonthat S.;  Rhee C.M.;  Reddy U.;  Lau W.L.;  Huang S.S.;  Gohil S.;  Amin A.N.;  Hsieh L.;  Cheng T.T.;  Lee R.A.;  Kalantar-Zadeh K.
SOURCE
  American journal of nephrology (2020) (1-6). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious, rapidly spreading viral disease with an alarming case fatality rate up to 5%. The risk factors for severe presentations are concentrated in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis dependent. We report the first US case of a 56-year-old nondiabetic male with ESRD secondary to IgA nephropathy undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years, who developed COVID-19 infection. He has hypertension controlled with angiotensin receptor blocker losartan 100 mg/day and coronary artery disease status-post stent placement. During the first 5 days of his febrile disease, he presented to an urgent care, 3 emergency rooms, 1 cardiology clinic, and 2 dialysis centers in California and Utah. During this interval, he reported nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and low-grade fevers but was not suspected of COVID-19 infection until he developed respiratory symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. Imaging studies upon admission were consistent with bilateral interstitial pneumonia. He was placed in droplet-eye precautions while awaiting COVID-19 test results. Within the first 24 h, he deteriorated quickly and developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), requiring intubation and increasing respiratory support. Losartan was withheld due to hypotension and septic shock. COVID-19 was reported positive on hospital day 3. He remained in critical condition being treated with hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab in addition to the standard medical management for septic shock and ARDS. Our case is unique in its atypical initial presentation and highlights the importance of early testing.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507417

RECORD 42
TITLE
  Risk of COVID-19 importation to the Pacific islands through global air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Craig A.T.;  Heywood A.E.;  Hall J.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 30 January 2020, WHO declared coronavirus (COVID-19) a global public health emergency. As of 12 March 2020, 125,048 confirmed COVID-19 cases in 118 countries had been reported. On 12 March 2020, the first case in the Pacific islands was reported in French Polynesia; no other Pacific island country or territory has reported cases. The purpose of our analysis is to show how travellers may introduce COVID-19 into the Pacific islands and discuss the role robust health systems play in protecting health and reducing transmission risk. We analyse travel- A nd Global Health Security Index-data using a scoring tool to produce quantitative estimates of COVID-19 importation risk, by departing and arriving country. Our analysis indicates that, as of 12 March 2020, the highest risk air routes by which COVID-19 may be imported into the Pacific islands are from east Asian countries (specifically, China, Korea and Japan) to north Pacific airports (likely Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands or, to a less extent, Palau); or from China, Japan, Singapore, the United States of America or France to south Pacific ports (likely, Fiji, Papua New Guinea French Polynesia, or New Caledonia). Other importation routes include from other east Asian countries to Guam, and from Australia, New Zealand and other European countries to the south Pacific. The tool provides a useful method for assessing COVID-19 importation risk and may be useful in other settings.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000710

RECORD 43
TITLE
  Sars-cov-2 and coronavirus disease 2019: What we know so far
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rabi F.A.;  Al Zoubi M.S.;  Al-Nasser A.D.;  Kasasbeh G.A.;  Salameh D.M.
SOURCE
  Pathogens (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 231. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a cluster of fatal pneumonia cases presented in Wuhan, China. They were caused by a previously unknown coronavirus. All patients had been associated with the Wuhan Wholefood market, where seafood and live animals are sold. The virus spread rapidly and public health authorities in China initiated a containment effort. However, by that time, travelers had carried the virus to many countries, sparking memories of the previous coronavirus epidemics, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and causing widespread media attention and panic. Based on clinical criteria and available serological and molecular information, the new disease was called coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), and the novel coronavirus was called SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing its close relationship to the 2002 SARS virus (SARS-CoV). The scientific community raced to uncover the origin of the virus, understand the pathogenesis of the disease, develop treatment options, define the risk factors, and work on vaccine development. Here we present a summary of current knowledge regarding the novel coronavirus and the disease it causes.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9030231

RECORD 44
TITLE
  A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Singhal T.
SOURCE
  Indian Journal of Pediatrics (2020) 87:4 (281-286). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a new public health crises threatening the world with the emergence and spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through yet unknown intermediary animals in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. There have been around 96,000 reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and 3300 reported deaths to date (05/03/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 d. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breathlessness, fatigue, malaise among others. The disease is mild in most people; in some (usually the elderly and those with comorbidities), it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction. Many people are asymptomatic. The case fatality rate is estimated to range from 2 to 3%. Diagnosis is by demonstration of the virus in respiratory secretions by special molecular tests. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). The computerized tomographic chest scan is usually abnormal even in those with no symptoms or mild disease. Treatment is essentially supportive; role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. Prevention entails home isolation of suspected cases and those with mild illnesses and strict infection control measures at hospitals that include contact and droplet precautions. The virus spreads faster than its two ancestors the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but has lower fatality. The global impact of this new epidemic is yet uncertain.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6

RECORD 45
TITLE
  Lower mortality of COVID-19 by early recognition and intervention: experience from Jiangsu Province
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Q.;  Qiu H.;  Huang M.;  Yang Y.
SOURCE
  Annals of Intensive Care (2020) 10:1 Article Number: 33. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-020-00650-2

RECORD 46
TITLE
  A doubt of multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy: A preliminary overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giovanetti M.;  Angeletti S.;  Benvenuto D.;  Ciccozzi M.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of the novel betacoronavirus, recently renamed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised serious concerns due to the virus’s rapid dissemination worldwide. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Italy from surveillance studies. The shortage of complete genomic sequences available impairs our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 introduction and establishment in the country. To better understand its dynamics in Italy, we analyzed complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolates, obtained directly from clinical samples. Our phylogenetic reconstructions suggest possible multiple introduction of SARS-CoV-2. Continued genomic surveillance strategies are needed to improve monitoring and understanding of the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, which might help to attenuate public health impact of infectious diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25773

RECORD 47
TITLE
  COVID-19: Zoonotic aspects
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ahmad T.;  Khan M.;  Haroon ;  Musa T.H.;  Nasir S.;  Hui J.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101607. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101607

RECORD 48
TITLE
  How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Anderson R.M.;  Heesterbeek H.;  Klinkenberg D.;  Hollingsworth T.D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (931-934). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5

RECORD 49
TITLE
  COVID-19: protecting health-care workers
AUTHOR NAMES
  The Lancet
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10228 (922). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30644-9

RECORD 50
TITLE
  Comparison of clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as experienced in Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Su Y.-J.;  Lai Y.-C.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101625. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101625

RECORD 51
TITLE
  Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nishiura H.;  Linton N.M.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (284-286). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To estimate the serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from information on 28 infector-infectee pairs. Methods: We collected dates of illness onset for primary cases (infectors) and secondary cases (infectees) from published research articles and case investigation reports. We subjectively ranked the credibility of the data and performed analyses on both the full dataset (n = 28) and a subset of pairs with highest certainty in reporting (n = 18). In addition, we adjust for right truncation of the data as the epidemic is still in its growth phase. Results: Accounting for right truncation and analyzing all pairs, we estimated the median serial interval at 4.0 days (95% credible interval [CrI]: 3.1, 4.9). Limiting our data to only the most certain pairs, the median serial interval was estimated at 4.6 days (95% CrI: 3.5, 5.9). Conclusions: The serial interval of COVID-19 is close to or shorter than its median incubation period. This suggests that a substantial proportion of secondary transmission may occur prior to illness onset. The COVID-19 serial interval is also shorter than the serial interval of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), indicating that calculations made using the SARS serial interval may introduce bias.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.060

RECORD 52
TITLE
  Complete genome sequence of a 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) strain isolated in Nepal
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sah R.;  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Jha R.;  Chu D.K.W.;  Gu H.;  Peiris M.;  Bastola A.;  Lal B.K.;  Ojha H.C.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Costello A.;  Morita K.;  Pandey B.D.;  Poon L.L.M.
SOURCE
  Microbiology Resource Announcements (2020) 9:11 Article Number: e00169-20. Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A complete genome sequence was obtained for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated from an oropharyngeal swab specimen of a Nepalese patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who had returned to Nepal after traveling to Wuhan, China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00169-20

RECORD 53
TITLE
  Covid-19 and community mitigation strategies in a pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ebrahim S.H.;  Ahmed Q.A.;  Gozzer E.;  Schlagenhauf P.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m1066. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1066

RECORD 54
TITLE
  Canada and COVID-19: learning from SARS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Webster P.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020) 395:10228 (936-937). Date of Publication: 21 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30670-X

RECORD 55
TITLE
  Standardized management guideline for pediatric wards of hematology and oncology during the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019
SOURCE
  Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics (2020) 22:3 (177-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and growing knowledge of its diagnosis and treatment, it has been clear that children are also susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The children with hematological tumors are a special population with immunosuppression and special therapeutic characteristics. Here the management guideline for pediatric wards of hematology and oncology during COVID-19 epidemic is established based on the features of children with hematological tumors.

RECORD 56
TITLE
  Novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): An updated overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.L.;  Desai A.;  Duca A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:5 (1-28). Date of Publication: 1 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has quickly become a worldwide threat to health, travel, and commerce. This overview analyzes the best information from the early research, including epidemiologic and demographic features from SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses; lessons learned from the experience of an emergency physician in Northern Italy, where the outbreak has devastated the healthcare system; evidence on transmission and prevention through safe use of PPE; evidence and advice on SARS-CoV-2 testing and co-infection; management options; airway management options; steps for rapid sequence intubation in the ED and managing disaster ventilation; and information on managing pediatric and pregnant patients.

RECORD 57
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: Responding to a Rapidly Evolving Situation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rasmussen S.A.;  Jamieson D.J.
SOURCE
  Obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As the world confronts coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an illness caused by yet another emerging pathogen (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), obstetric care providers are asking what this means for pregnant women. The global spread has been swift, and many key questions remain. The case-fatality rate for persons cared for in the United States and whether asymptomatic persons transmit the virus are examples of questions that need to be answered to inform public health control measures. There are also unanswered questions specific to pregnant women, such as whether pregnant women are more severely affected and whether intrauterine transmission occurs. Although guidelines for pregnant women from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been rapidly developed based on the best available evidence, additional information is critically needed to inform key decisions, such as whether pregnant health care workers should receive special consideration, whether to temporarily separate infected mothers and their newborns, and whether it is safe for infected women to breastfeed. Some current recommendations are well supported, based largely on what we know from seasonal influenza: patients should avoid contact with ill persons, avoid touching their face, cover coughs and sneezes, wash hands frequently, disinfect contaminated surfaces, and stay home when sick. Prenatal clinics should ensure all pregnant women and their visitors are screened for fever and respiratory symptoms, and symptomatic women should be isolated from well women and required to wear a mask. As the situation with COVID-19 rapidly unfolds, it is critical that obstetricians keep up to date.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000003873

RECORD 58
TITLE
  Is There an Association Between COVID-19 Mortality and the Renin-Angiotensin System-a Call for Epidemiologic Investigations
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hanff T.C.;  Harhay M.O.;  Brown T.S.;  Cohen J.B.;  Mohareb A.M.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. These disorders share underlying pathophysiology related to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that may be clinically insightful. In particular, activity of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is dysregulated in cardiovascular disease, and this enzyme is used by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to initiate the infection. Cardiovascular disease and pharmacologic RAS inhibition both increase ACE2 levels, which may increase the virulence of SARS-CoV-2 within the lung and heart. Conversely, mechanistic evidence from related coronaviruses suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection may downregulate ACE2, leading to toxic overaccumulation of Angiotensin II that induces acute respiratory distress syndrome and fulminant myocarditis. RAS inhibition could mitigate this effect. With conflicting mechanistic evidence, we propose key clinical research priorities necessary to clarify the role of RAS inhibition in COVID-19 mortality that could be rapidly addressed by the international research community.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa329

RECORD 59
TITLE
  Epidemiology of Covid-19 in a Long-Term Care Facility in King County, Washington
AUTHOR NAMES
  McMichael T.M.;  Currie D.W.;  Clark S.;  Pogosjans S.;  Kay M.;  Schwartz N.G.;  Lewis J.;  Baer A.;  Kawakami V.;  Lukoff M.D.;  Ferro J.;  Brostrom-Smith C.;  Rea T.D.;  Sayre M.R.;  Riedo F.X.;  Russell D.;  Hiatt B.;  Montgomery P.;  Rao A.K.;  Chow E.J.;  Tobolowsky F.;  Hughes M.J.;  Bardossy A.C.;  Oakley L.P.;  Jacobs J.R.;  Stone N.D.;  Reddy S.C.;  Jernigan J.A.;  Honein M.A.;  Clark T.A.;  Duchin J.S.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities are high-risk settings for severe outcomes from outbreaks of Covid-19, owing to both the advanced age and frequent chronic underlying health conditions of the residents and the movement of health care personnel among facilities in a region. METHODS: After identification on February 28, 2020, of a confirmed case of Covid-19 in a skilled nursing facility in King County, Washington, Public Health-Seattle and King County, aided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, launched a case investigation, contact tracing, quarantine of exposed persons, isolation of confirmed and suspected cases, and on-site enhancement of infection prevention and control. RESULTS: As of March 18, a total of 167 confirmed cases of Covid-19 affecting 101 residents, 50 health care personnel, and 16 visitors were found to be epidemiologically linked to the facility. Most cases among residents included respiratory illness consistent with Covid-19; however, in 7 residents no symptoms were documented. Hospitalization rates for facility residents, visitors, and staff were 54.5%, 50.0%, and 6.0%, respectively. The case fatality rate for residents was 33.7% (34 of 101). As of March 18, a total of 30 long-term care facilities with at least one confirmed case of Covid-19 had been identified in King County. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of rapidly escalating Covid-19 outbreaks, proactive steps by long-term care facilities to identify and exclude potentially infected staff and visitors, actively monitor for potentially infected patients, and implement appropriate infection prevention and control measures are needed to prevent the introduction of Covid-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005412

RECORD 60
TITLE
  Perioperative COVID-19 Defense: An Evidence-Based Approach for Optimization of Infection Control and Operating Room Management
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dexter F.;  Parra M.C.;  Brown J.R.;  Loftus R.W.
SOURCE
  Anesthesia and analgesia (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We describe an evidence-based approach for optimization of infection control and operating room management during the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Confirmed modes of viral transmission are primarily contact with contaminated environmental surfaces and aerosolization. Evidence-based improvement strategies for attenuation of residual environmental contamination involve a combination of deep cleaning with surface disinfectants and ultraviolet light (UV-C). Clinician components include placing alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR) on the intravenous (IV) pole to the left of the provider and utilization of double glove techniques during induction. In addition, a wire basket lined with a zip closure plastic bag should be located on the IV pole to the right of the provider, and all contaminated instruments placed in the bag (i.e. laryngoscope blades and handles) and securely closed. Anesthesia professionals should designate and maintain clean and dirty areas in their work environment. After the induction of anesthesia, we recommend providers wipe down all equipment and surfaces with disinfection wipes that contain a quaternary ammonium compound and alcohol, using a top down cleaning sequence adequate to reduce the bioburden. We endorse cleaning operating rooms with use of UV-C lights. Patients should decolonize using pre-procedural chlorhexidine wipes, two doses of nasal povidone iodine within one hour of incision, and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse. All IV line ports must be closed and use vigorous hub disinfection. Lastly, end users need timely feedback of infectious data collected by surveillance of classic pathogen transmission.OR management should strive to reduce the use of surgical masks and minimize potential COVID-19 exposure by scheduling relatively long (e.g., 12-hour) staff shifts. For instance, if there are 8 essential cases to be done (each lasting 1-2 hours), the ideal solution is to have 2 teams complete the 8 cases, and to avoid 8 first case starts. The ideal schedule should accommodate one case in each operating room daily, with terminal cleaning after each case including UV-C light or equivalent. After emergence from anesthesia, it is best to have most patients recover in the room where they had surgery, a strategy quite common in Japan. This avoids having patients clustered into a large, pooled phase I post-anesthesia care unit, and minimizes the risk of contaminating more staff and the facility at large. In summary, these 8 programmatic recommendations stand on a substantial body of empirical evidence characterizing the epidemiology of perioperative transmission and infection transmission supported by grants from the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004829

RECORD 61
TITLE
  Epidemiology of Covid-19. Reply
AUTHOR NAMES
  Swerdlow D.L.;  Finelli L.;  Lipsitch M.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020) 382. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2005157

RECORD 62
TITLE
  Undocumented U.S. Immigrants and Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Page K.R.;  Venkataramani M.;  Beyrer C.;  Polk S.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2005953

RECORD 63
TITLE
  Epidemiology, Treatment, and Epidemic Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019: a Review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luan R.-S.;  Wang X.;  Sun X.;  Chen X.-S.;  Zhou T.;  Liu Q.-H.;  Lü X.;  Wu X.-P.;  Gu D.-Q.;  Tang M.-S.;  Cui H.-J.;  Shan X.-F.;  Ouyang J.;  Zhang B.;  Zhang W.;  Sichuan University Covid- E.R.G.
SOURCE
  Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition (2020) 51:2 (131-138). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This review summarizes the ongoing researches regarding etiology, epidemiology, transmission dynamics, treatment, and prevention and control strategies of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with comparison to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and pandemic H1N1 virus. SARS-CoV-2 may be originated from bats, and the patients and asymptomatic carriers are the source of epidemic infection. The virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people at all ages are susceptible to this virus. The main clinical symptoms of the patients are fever and cough, accompanied with leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Effective drugs have been not yet available thus far. In terms of the prevention and control strategies, vaccine development as the primary prevention should be accelerated. Regarding the secondary prevention, ongoing efforts of the infected patients and close contacts quarantine, mask wearing promotion, regular disinfection in public places should be continued. Meanwhile, rapid detection kit for serological monitoring of the virus in general population is expected so as to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early isolation and early treatment. In addition, public health education on this disease and prevention should be enhanced so as to mitigate panic and mobilize the public to jointly combat the epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200360505

RECORD 64
TITLE
  Epidemiology of Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang X.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020) 382. Date of Publication: 27 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2005157

RECORD 65
TITLE
  Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lewnard J.A.;  Lo N.C.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30190-0

RECORD 66
TITLE
  Epidemiological analysis on 1 052 cases of COVID-19 in epidemic clusters
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gan H.;  Zhang Y.;  Yuan M.;  Wu X.Y.;  Liu Z.R.;  Liu M.;  Wu J.B.;  Xu S.J.;  Gong L.;  Xu H.L.;  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:5 (E027). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics of the cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters, and explore the influence of family factors and social factors such as group activities on the spread of the disease. Methods: The data of cases of COVID-19 epidemic clusters from 19 January, 2020 to 25 February, 2020 were collected from the official platforms of 36 cities in 6 provinces in China. Descriptive statistical methods, χ(2) test and curve fitting were used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the clustered cases. Results: By 25 February, 2020, the data of 1 052 cases in 366 epidemic clusters were collected. In these clustered cases, 86.9%(914/1 050) occurred in families. Among the 1 046 cases with gender information, 513 were males (49.0%) and 533 were females (51.0%). The cases were mainly young adults between 18 and 59 years old, accounting for 68.5% (711/1 038). In the 366 epidemic clusters , the clusters in which the first confirmed cases with the history of sojourn in Wuhan or Hubei accounted for 47.0%(172/366). From 19 January to 3 February, 2020, the first confirmed cases with Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for 66.5%. From 4 to 25 February, the first confirmed cases who had Wuhan or Hubei sojourn history accounted for only 18.2%. The median of interval between the first generation case onset and the second generation case onset was 5 (2-8) days. The median of onset- diagnosis interval of the initial cases was 6 (3-9) days, and the median of onset-diagnosis interval of the secondary cases was 5 (3-8) days. Conclusions: Epidemic clusters of COVID-19 were common in many cities outside Wuhan and Hubei. Close contact in family was one of the main causes for the spread of household transmission of the virus. After 4 February, the epidemic clusters were mainly caused by the first generation or second generation cases in local areas, and the time for diagnosis became shorter.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200301-00223

RECORD 67
TITLE
  Early epidemiological analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak based on crowdsourced data: a population-level observational study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun K.;  Chen J.;  Viboud C.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Digital Health (2020) 2:4 (e201-e208). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: As the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progresses, epidemiological data are needed to guide situational awareness and intervention strategies. Here we describe efforts to compile and disseminate epidemiological information on COVID-19 from news media and social networks. Methods: In this population-level observational study, we searched DXY.cn, a health-care-oriented social network that is currently streaming news reports on COVID-19 from local and national Chinese health agencies. We compiled a list of individual patients with COVID-19 and daily province-level case counts between Jan 13 and Jan 31, 2020, in China. We also compiled a list of internationally exported cases of COVID-19 from global news media sources (Kyodo News, The Straits Times, and CNN), national governments, and health authorities. We assessed trends in the epidemiology of COVID-19 and studied the outbreak progression across China, assessing delays between symptom onset, seeking care at a hospital or clinic, and reporting, before and after Jan 18, 2020, as awareness of the outbreak increased. All data were made publicly available in real time. Findings: We collected data for 507 patients with COVID-19 reported between Jan 13 and Jan 31, 2020, including 364 from mainland China and 143 from outside of China. 281 (55%) patients were male and the median age was 46 years (IQR 35–60). Few patients (13 [3%]) were younger than 15 years and the age profile of Chinese patients adjusted for baseline demographics confirmed a deficit of infections among children. Across the analysed period, delays between symptom onset and seeking care at a hospital or clinic were longer in Hubei province than in other provinces in mainland China and internationally. In mainland China, these delays decreased from 5 days before Jan 18, 2020, to 2 days thereafter until Jan 31, 2020 (p=0·0009). Although our sample captures only 507 (5·2%) of 9826 patients with COVID-19 reported by official sources during the analysed period, our data align with an official report published by Chinese authorities on Jan 28, 2020. Interpretation: News reports and social media can help reconstruct the progression of an outbreak and provide detailed patient-level data in the context of a health emergency. The availability of a central physician-oriented social network facilitated the compilation of publicly available COVID-19 data in China. As the outbreak progresses, social media and news reports will probably capture a diminishing fraction of COVID-19 cases globally due to reporting fatigue and overwhelmed health-care systems. In the early stages of an outbreak, availability of public datasets is important to encourage analytical efforts by independent teams and provide robust evidence to guide interventions. Funding: Fogarty International Center, US National Institutes of Health.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30026-1

RECORD 68
TITLE
  Mental health care for international Chinese students affected by the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhai Y.;  Du X.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e22). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30089-4

RECORD 69
TITLE
  The neglected health of international migrant workers in the COVID-19 epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liem A.;  Wang C.;  Wariyanti Y.;  Latkin C.A.;  Hall B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e20). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30076-6

RECORD 70
TITLE
  Practical Strategies Against the Novel Coronavirus and COVID-19—the Imminent Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rahimi F.;  Talebi Bezmin Abadi A.
SOURCE
  Archives of Medical Research (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The last month of 2019 harbingered the emergence of a viral outbreak that is now a major public threat globally. COVID-19 was first diagnosed and confirmed in a couple of cases with unknown pneumonia; the patients lived in, or travelled to, Wuhan, the capital of China’s Hubei province. People now face a complex challenge that deserves urgent intervention by all involved in medical healthcare globally. Conventional antiviral therapies or vaccines are the most referred means of tackling the virus, but we think establishing these ideal management strategies is presently far-fetched. In-house isolation or quarantine of suspected cases to keep hospital admissions manageable and prevent in-hospital spread of the virus, and promoting general awareness about transmission routes are the practical strategies used to tackle the spread of COVID-19. Cases with weakened or compromised immune systems—for example, elderly individuals, young children, and those with pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, cancer, hypertension, and chronic respiratory diseases—are particularly more susceptible to COVID-19. Hopefully, cumulative data using whole-genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in parallel with mathematical modeling will help the molecular biologists to understand unknown features of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.03.005

RECORD 71
TITLE
  Covid-19: Are we getting the communications right?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowper A.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: m919. Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m919

RECORD 72
TITLE
  Getting ready for the next pandemic COVID-19: Why we need to be more prepared and less scared
AUTHOR NAMES
  Contreras G.W.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (87-89). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.046

RECORD 73
TITLE
  RCVS may relax guidance due to Covid-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Loeb J.
SOURCE
  Veterinary Record (2020) 186:10 (298). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.m1009

RECORD 74
TITLE
  COVID-19 epidemic in Switzerland: on the importance of testing, contact tracing and isolation
AUTHOR NAMES
  Salathé M.;  Althaus C.L.;  Neher R.;  Stringhini S.;  Hodcroft E.;  Fellay J.;  Zwahlen M.;  Senti G.;  Battegay M.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Eckerle I.;  Egger M.;  Low N.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20225). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Switzerland is among the countries with the highest number of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases per capita in the world. There are likely many people with undetected SARS-CoV-2 infection because testing efforts are currently not detecting all infected people, including some with clinical disease compatible with COVID-19. Testing on its own will not stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Testing is part of a strategy. The World Health Organization recommends a combination of measures: rapid diagnosis and immediate isolation of cases, rigorous tracking and precautionary self-isolation of close contacts. In this article, we explain why the testing strategy in Switzerland should be strengthened urgently, as a core component of a combination approach to control COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20225

RECORD 75
TITLE
  Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tai W.;  He L.;  Zhang X.;  Pu J.;  Voronin D.;  Jiang S.;  Zhou Y.;  Du L.
SOURCE
  Cellular & molecular immunology (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, calling for the development of safe and effective prophylactics and therapeutics against infection of its causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The CoV spike (S) protein plays the most important roles in viral attachment, fusion and entry, and serves as a target for development of antibodies, entry inhibitors and vaccines. Here, we identified the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 S protein and found that the RBD protein bound strongly to human and bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. SARS-CoV-2 RBD exhibited significantly higher binding affinity to ACE2 receptor than SARS-CoV RBD and could block the binding and, hence, attachment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD to ACE2-expressing cells, thus inhibiting their infection to host cells. SARS-CoV RBD-specific antibodies could cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein, and SARS-CoV RBD-induced antisera could cross-neutralize SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the potential to develop SARS-CoV RBD-based vaccines for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0400-4

RECORD 76
TITLE
  Routes for COVID-19 importation in Brazil
AUTHOR NAMES
  Candido D.D.S.;  Watts A.;  Abade L.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Pybus O.G.;  Croda J.;  Oliveira W.;  Khan K.;  Sabino E.C.;  Faria N.R.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The global outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a pandemic by the WHO. As the number of imported SARS-CoV-2 cases is on the rise in Brazil, we use incidence and historical air travel data to estimate the most important routes of importation into the country.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa042

RECORD 77
TITLE
  Health measures to travelers and cruise ships in response to COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mouchtouri V.A.;  Dirksen-Fischer M.;  Hadjichristodoulou C.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa043

RECORD 78
TITLE
  Epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak, real-time case information
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu B.;  Gutierrez B.;  Mekaru S.;  Sewalk K.;  Goodwin L.;  Loskill A.;  Cohn E.L.;  Hswen Y.;  Hill S.C.;  Cobo M.M.;  Zarebski A.E.;  Li S.;  Wu C.-H.;  Hulland E.;  Morgan J.D.;  Wang L.;  O’Brien K.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Brownstein J.S.;  Pybus O.G.;  Pigott D.M.;  Kraemer M.U.G.
SOURCE
  Scientific data (2020) 7:1 (106). Date of Publication: 24 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Cases of a novel coronavirus were first reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019 and have since spread across the world. Epidemiological studies have indicated human-to-human transmission in China and elsewhere. To aid the analysis and tracking of the COVID-19 epidemic we collected and curated individual-level data from national, provincial, and municipal health reports, as well as additional information from online reports. All data are geo-coded and, where available, include symptoms, key dates (date of onset, admission, and confirmation), and travel history. The generation of detailed, real-time, and robust data for emerging disease outbreaks is important and can help to generate robust evidence that will support and inform public health decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0448-0

RECORD 79
TITLE
  Letter to editor: Role of masks/respirator protection against 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang Q.;  Yu C.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.83

RECORD 80
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Iran; Actions and problems
AUTHOR NAMES
  Abdi M.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.86

RECORD 81
TITLE
  Reverse logistics network design for effective management of medical waste in epidemic outbreaks: Insights from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan (China)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yu H.;  Sun X.;  Solvang W.D.;  Zhao X.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1770. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of an epidemic disease may pose significant treats to human beings and may further lead to a global crisis. In order to control the spread of an epidemic, the effective management of rapidly increased medical waste through establishing a temporary reverse logistics system is of vital importance. However, no research has been conducted with the focus on the design of an epidemic reverse logistics network for dealing with medical waste during epidemic outbreaks, which, if improperly treated, may accelerate disease spread and pose a significant risk for both medical staffs and patients. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel multi-objective multi-period mixed integer program for reverse logistics network design in epidemic outbreaks, which aims at determining the best locations of temporary facilities and the transportation strategies for effective management of the exponentially increased medical waste within a very short period. The application of the model is illustrated with a case study based on the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. Even though the uncertainty of the future COVID-19 spread tendency is very high at the time of this research, several general policy recommendations can still be obtained based on computational experiments and quantitative analyses. Among other insights, the results suggest installing temporary incinerators may be an effective solution for managing the tremendous increase of medical waste during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, but the location selection of these temporary incinerators is of significant importance. Due to the limitation on available data and knowledge at present stage, more real-world information are needed to assess the effectiveness of the current solution.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051770

RECORD 82
TITLE
  Initial clinical features of suspected coronavirus disease 2019 in two emergency departments outside of Hubei, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu W.;  Xie K.;  Lu H.;  Xu L.;  Zhou S.;  Fang S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  With an increasing number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases outside of Hubei, emergency departments (EDs) and fever clinics are facing challenges posed by the large number of admissions of patients suspected to have COVID-19. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study the initial clinical features of patients, to better differentiate between infected and uninfected patients outside Hubei. A total of 116 patients suspected of having COVID-19 who presented to two emergency departments in Anhui for the first time between 24 January 2020 and 20 February 2020 were enrolled in the study. The initial clinical data of these patients, such as epidemiological features, symptoms, laboratory results, and chest computed tomography (CT) findings were collected using a standard case report form on admission. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19; the remaining 84 patients were referred to as negative cases. The median age of the diagnosed patients was 46 years, but only 35 years for negative cases. History of exposure to Wuhan or COVID-19 patients in the previous 2 weeks was observed in 63% of the diagnosed and 44% of negative cases. Median time from illness onset to ED admission was 5 days for all patients, diagnosed patients, and negative cases, respectively. Fever was observed in 27 (84%) and 57 (68%) diagnosed and negative cases, respectively. Nineteen (59%) diagnosed and 24 (29%) negative cases had lymphopenia on admission in ED. A chest CT scan on admission revealed the presence of pneumonia in the majority of the diagnosed patients (30 out of 32, 94%) and in 56 (67%) negative cases. Bilateral involvement and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were present in 91% and 47% of the diagnosed patients. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed with COVID-19; the remaining 84 patients were referred to as negative cases. The median age of the diagnosed patients was 46 years, but only 35 years for negative cases. History of exposure to Wuhan or COVID-19 patients in the previous 2 weeks was observed in 63% of the diagnosed and 44% of negative cases. Median time from illness onset to ED admission was 5 days for all patients, diagnosed patients, and negative cases, respectively. Fever was observed in 27 (84%) and 57 (68%) diagnosed and negative cases, respectively. Nineteen (59%) diagnosed and 24 (29%) negative cases had lymphopenia on admission in ED. A chest CT scan on admission revealed the presence of pneumonia in the majority of the diagnosed patients (30 out of 32, 94%) and in 56 (67%) negative cases. Bilateral involvement and GGO were present in 91% and 47% of the diagnosed patients.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25763

RECORD 83
TITLE
  Estimation of COVID-19 outbreak size in Italy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tuite A.R.;  Ng V.;  Rees E.;  Fisman D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30227-9

RECORD 84
TITLE
  COVID-19 in pregnant women
AUTHOR NAMES
  Schmid M.B.;  Fontijn J.;  Ochsenbein-Kölble N.;  Berger C.;  Bassler D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30175-4

RECORD 85
TITLE
  Emerging Viruses without Borders: The Wuhan Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu S.-L.;  Saif L.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:2. Date of Publication: 22 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recently emerged coronavirus in Wuhan, China has claimed at least two lives as of January 17 and infected hundreds if not thousands of individuals. The situation has drawn international attention, including from the virology community. We applaud the rapid release to the public of the genome sequence of the new virus by Chinese virologists, but we also believe that increased transparency on disease reporting and data sharing with international colleagues are crucial for curbing the spread of this newly emerging virus to other parts of the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020130

RECORD 86
TITLE
  Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wan Y.;  Shang J.;  Graham R.;  Baric R.S.;  Li F.
SOURCE
  Journal of virology (2020) 94:7. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Recently, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged from Wuhan, China, causing symptoms in humans similar to those caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Since the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002, extensive structural analyses have revealed key atomic-level interactions between the SARS-CoV spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. Here, we analyzed the potential receptor usage by 2019-nCoV, based on the rich knowledge about SARS-CoV and the newly released sequence of 2019-nCoV. First, the sequence of 2019-nCoV RBD, including its receptor-binding motif (RBM) that directly contacts ACE2, is similar to that of SARS-CoV, strongly suggesting that 2019-nCoV uses ACE2 as its receptor. Second, several critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Gln493) provide favorable interactions with human ACE2, consistent with 2019-nCoV’s capacity for human cell infection. Third, several other critical residues in 2019-nCoV RBM (particularly Asn501) are compatible with, but not ideal for, binding human ACE2, suggesting that 2019-nCoV has acquired some capacity for human-to-human transmission. Last, while phylogenetic analysis indicates a bat origin of 2019-nCoV, 2019-nCoV also potentially recognizes ACE2 from a diversity of animal species (except mice and rats), implicating these animal species as possible intermediate hosts or animal models for 2019-nCoV infections. These analyses provide insights into the receptor usage, cell entry, host cell infectivity and animal origin of 2019-nCoV and may help epidemic surveillance and preventive measures against 2019-nCoV.IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) puts the world on alert. 2019-nCoV is reminiscent of the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 to 2003. Our decade-long structural studies on the receptor recognition by SARS-CoV have identified key interactions between SARS-CoV spike protein and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV. One of the goals of SARS-CoV research was to build an atomic-level iterative framework of virus-receptor interactions to facilitate epidemic surveillance, predict species-specific receptor usage, and identify potential animal hosts and animal models of viruses. Based on the sequence of 2019-nCoV spike protein, we apply this predictive framework to provide novel insights into the receptor usage and likely host range of 2019-nCoV. This study provides a robust test of this reiterative framework, providing the basic, translational, and public health research communities with predictive insights that may help study and battle this novel 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00127-20

RECORD 87
TITLE
  Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 by SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wei Y.Y.;  Lu Z.Z.;  Du Z.C.;  Zhang Z.J.;  Zhao Y.;  Shen S.P.;  Wang B.;  Hao Y.T.;  Chen F.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (470-475). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Fitting and forecasting the trend of COVID-19 epidemics. Methods: Based on SEIR dynamic model, considering the COVID-19 transmission mechanism, infection spectrum and prevention and control procedures, we developed SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model to fit the frequencies of laboratory confirmed cases obtained from the government official websites. The data from January 20, 2020 to February 7, 2020 were used to fit the model, while the left data between February 8-12 were used to evaluate the quality of forecasting. Results: According to the cumulative number of confirmed cases between January 29 to February 7, the fitting bias of SEIR(+ CAQ) model for overall China (except for cases of Hubei province), Hubei province (except for cases of Wuhan city) and Wuhan city was less than 5%. For the data of subsequent 5 days between February 8 to 12, which were not included in the model fitting, the prediction biases were less than 10%. Regardless of the cases diagnosed by clinical examines, the numbers of daily emerging cases of China (Hubei province not included), Hubei Province (Wuhan city not included) and Wuhan city reached the peak in the early February. Under the current strength of prevention and control, the total number of laboratory- confirmed cases in overall China will reach 80 417 till February 29, 2020, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed SEIR(+ CAQ) dynamic model fits and forecasts the trend of novel coronavirus pneumonia well and provides evidence for decision making.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200216-00106

RECORD 88
TITLE
  Study on assessing early epidemiological parameters of coronavirus disease epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Song Q.Q.;  Zhao H.;  Fang L.Q.;  Liu W.;  Zheng C.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (461-465). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To study the early dynamics of the epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China from 15 to 31 January, 2020, and estimate the corresponding epidemiological parameters (incubation period, generation interval and basic reproduction number) of the epidemic. Methods: By means of Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal distributions methods, we estimated the probability distribution of the incubation period and generation interval data obtained from the reported COVID-19 cases. Moreover, the AIC criterion was used to determine the optimal distribution. Considering the epidemic is ongoing, the exponential growth model was used to fit the incidence data of COVID-19 from 10 to 31 January, 2020, and exponential growth method, maximum likelihood method and SEIR model were used to estimate the basic reproduction number. Results: Early COVID-19 cases kept an increase in exponential growth manner before 26 January, 2020, then the increase trend became slower. The average incubation period was 5.01 (95%CI: 4.31-5.69) days; the average generation interval was 6.03 (95%CI: 5.20-6.91) days. The basic reproduction number was estimated to be 3.74 (95%CI: 3.63-3.87), 3.16 (95%CI: 2.90-3.43), and 3.91 (95%CI: 3.71-4.11) by three methods, respectively. Conclusions: The Gamma distribution fits both the generation interval and incubation period best, and the mean value of generation interval is 1.02 day longer than that of incubation period. The relatively high basic reproduction number indicates that the epidemic is still serious; Based on our analysis, the turning point of the epidemic would be seen on 26 January, the growth rate would be lower afterwards.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200205-00069

RECORD 89
TITLE
  What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lake M.A.
SOURCE
  Clinical medicine (London, England) (2020) 20:2 (124-127). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, health authorities in Wuhan, China, identified a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown aetiology linked to the city’s South China Seafood Market. Subsequent investigations revealed a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, as the causative agent now at the heart of a major outbreak. The rising case numbers have been accompanied by unprecedented public health action, including the wholesale isolation of Wuhan. Alongside this has been a robust scientific response, including early publication of the pathogen genome, and rapid development of highly specific diagnostics. This article will review the new knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 acute respiratory disease, and summarise its clinical features.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2019-coron

RECORD 90
TITLE
  New coronavirus outbreak: Framing questions for pandemic prevention
AUTHOR NAMES
  Layne S.P.;  Hyman J.M.;  Morens D.M.;  Taubenberger J.K.
SOURCE
  Science translational medicine (2020) 12:534. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We need to understand and quantify the dominant variables that govern the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, rather than relying exclusively on confirmed cases and their geospatial spread.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb1469

RECORD 91
TITLE
  Tabletop exercise to prepare institutions of higher education for an outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wendelboe A.M.;  Miller A.;  Drevets D.;  Salinas L.;  Miller E.J.;  Jackson D.;  Chou A.;  Raines J.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (183-184). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Preparing for public health emergencies is an ongoing process and involves a variety of approaches and tools. Tabletop exercises are one of the tools designed to simulate the emergence of a public health emergency and address some or all of the phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.1 They typically are designed to include participation of stakeholders from diverse and complementary backgrounds, including command, operations, logistics, planning, and finance.2 Effective tabletop exercises provide a plausible scenario that require cooperation and communication from these functional areas. Tabletops also require forward thinking and planning in a variety of scenarios. When a public health emergency occurs, decision makers may be overwhelmed with decisions that need their immediate attention. Tabletop exercises can provide a framework to help decision makers anticipate future challenges, which may provide the mental model encompassing knowledge and insights that inform both current and future decisions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0463

RECORD 92
TITLE
  Tabletop exercise to prepare institutions of higher education for an outbreak of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wendelboe A.M.;  Miller A.;  Drevets D.;  Salinas L.;  Miller E.J.;  Jackson D.;  Chou A.;  Raines J.
SOURCE
  Journal of emergency management (Weston, Mass.) (2020) 18:2 (S1-S20). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Complete Table Top Exercise Manual.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2020.0464

RECORD 93
TITLE
  Report on the Epidemiological Features of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in the Republic of Korea from January 19 to March 2, 2020
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:10 (e112). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the first case of coronavirus disease19 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China, as of March 2, 2020, the total number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 was 89,069 cases in 67 countries and regions. As of 0 am, March 2, 2020, the Republic of Korea had the second-largest number of confirmed cases (n = 4,212) after China (n = 80,026). This report summarizes the epidemiologic features and the snapshots of the outbreak in the Republic of Korea from January 19 and March 2, 2020.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e112

RECORD 94
TITLE
  Retrospective analysis of the possibility of predicting the COVID-19 outbreak from Internet searches and social media data, China, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li C.;  Chen L.J.;  Chen X.;  Zhang M.;  Pang C.P.;  Chen H.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The peak of Internet searches and social media data about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurred 10-14 days earlier than the peak of daily incidences in China. Internet searches and social media data had high correlation with daily incidences, with the maximum r > 0.89 in all correlations. The lag correlations also showed a maximum correlation at 8-12 days for laboratory-confirmed cases and 6-8 days for suspected cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000199

RECORD 95
TITLE
  Host susceptibility to severe COVID-19 and establishment of a host risk score: findings of 487 cases outside Wuhan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shi Y.;  Yu X.;  Zhao H.;  Wang H.;  Zhao R.;  Sheng J.
SOURCE
  Critical care (London, England) (2020) 24:1 (108). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-2833-7

RECORD 96
TITLE
  2019-nCoV: new challenges from coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tian H.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54:3 (235-238). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The outbreak of pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, Hubei province of China, at the end of 2019 shaped tremendous challenges to China’s public health and clinical treatment. The virus belongs to the β genus Coronavirus in the family Corornaviridae, and is closely related to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, causing severe symptoms of pneumonia. The virus is transmitted through droplets, close contact, and other means, and patients in the incubation period could potentially transmit the virus to other persons. According to current observations, 2019-nCoV is weaker than SARS in pathogenesis, but has stronger transmission competence; it’s mechanism of cross-species spread might be related with angiotensin-converting enzyme Ⅱ (ACE2), which is consistent with the receptor SARS-CoV. After the outbreak of this disease, Chinese scientists invested a lot of energy to carry out research by developing rapid diagnostic reagents, identifying the characters of the pathogen, screening out clinical drugs that may inhibit the virus, and are rapidly developing vaccines. The emergence of 2019-nCoV reminds us once again of the importance of establishing a systematic coronavirus surveillance network. It also poses new challenges to prevention and control of the emerging epidemic and rapidly responses on scientific research.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.03.002

RECORD 97
TITLE
  On the possibility of interrupting the coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic based on the best available scientific evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Silva A.A.M.D.
SOURCE
  Revista brasileira de epidemiologia = Brazilian journal of epidemiology (2020) 23 (e200021). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720200021

RECORD 98
TITLE
  The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergency and the role of timely and effective national health surveillance
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lana R.M.;  Coelho F.C.;  Gomes M.F.D.C.;  Cruz O.G.;  Bastos L.S.;  Villela D.A.M.;  Codeço C.T.
SOURCE
  Cadernos de saude publica (2020) 36:3 (e00019620). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311×00019620

RECORD 99
TITLE
  Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: increased transmission in the EU/EEA and the UK
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2003121

RECORD 100
TITLE
  Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Kagaya K.;  Zarebski A.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:10. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On 5 February 2020, in Yokohama, Japan, a cruise ship hosting 3,711 people underwent a 2-week quarantine after a former passenger was found with COVID-19 post-disembarking. As at 20 February, 634 persons on board tested positive for the causative virus. We conducted statistical modelling to derive the delay-adjusted asymptomatic proportion of infections, along with the infections’ timeline. The estimated asymptomatic proportion was 17.9% (95% credible interval (CrI): 15.5-20.2%). Most infections occurred before the quarantine start.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

RECORD 101
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 7 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 14 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the seventh epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 14 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.23

RECORD 102
TITLE
  Social Capital and Sleep Quality in Individuals Who Self-Isolated for 14 Days During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in January 2020 in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao H.;  Zhang Y.;  Kong D.;  Li S.;  Yang N.
SOURCE
  Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research (2020) 26 (e923921). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND From the end of December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began to spread in central China. Social capital is a measure of social trust, belonging, and participation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of social capital on sleep quality and the mechanisms involved in people who self-isolated at home for 14 days in January 2020 during the COVID-19 epidemic in central China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Individuals (n=170) who self-isolated at home for 14 days in central China, completed self-reported questionnaires on the third day of isolation. Individual social capital was assessed using the Personal Social Capital Scale 16 (PSCI-16) questionnaire. Anxiety was assessed using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) questionnaire, stress was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction (SASR) questionnaire, and sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Path analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between a dependent variable (social capital) and two or more independent variables, using Pearson’s correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM). RESULTS Low levels of social capital were associated with increased levels of anxiety and stress, but increased levels of social capital were positively associated with increased quality of sleep. Anxiety was associated with stress and reduced sleep quality, and the combination of anxiety and stress reduced the positive effects of social capital on sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS During a period of individual self-isolation during the COVID-19 virus epidemic in central China, increased social capital improved sleep quality by reducing anxiety and stress.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923921

RECORD 103
TITLE
  Are We Ready for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Arriving at Schools?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Choe Y.J.;  Choi E.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:11 (e127). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e127

RECORD 104
TITLE
  Covid-19: The right amount of wolf
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ørstavik R.E.
SOURCE
  Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke (2020) 140:4. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.20.0190

RECORD 105
TITLE
  Standardized diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer during the outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 in Renji hospital
AUTHOR NAMES
  Luo Y.;  Zhong M.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery (2020) 23:3 (211-216). Date of Publication: 25 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently raging in China. It has been proven that COVID-19 can be transmitted from human to human and cause hospital infection, which seriously threatens surgical staffs and inpatients. Although colorectal surgery is not a front-line subject in the fight against the epidemic, but in this special situation, it is a difficult task to provide the highest quality medical services and ensure the orderly clinical work, on the premise of maximizing the protection for patients and their families, health of medical staff, and the safety of wards and hospitals, We summarize how to carry out the clinical practice of colorectal surgery under the situation of the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemiology, including the procedures of diagnose and treatment for emergency patients with colorectal tumor, and share the experiences of the diagnosis of colorectal tumor, the management of patients with colorectal cancer who are scheduled to be admitted for surgery, the protection of wards, the perioperative management. More importantly, we introduce in detail the operative management and perioperative management of colorectal surgery patients suspected or diagnosed with new coronary pneumonia, including prevention and control measures for medical staff, operating rooms and surgical instruments. The main points are as follows: (1) Multidisciplinary team (MDT) must be run through the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer. The members include not only routine departments, but also respiratory department and infectious department. (2) Colonoscopy examination may cause cross infection of COVID-19 to patients and doctors. Therefore, it is prior to examine the emergency cases and life-threatening patients (bleeding, obstruction, gastrointestinal foreign bodies, etc.). If the emergent patients (intestinal obstruction) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19, the surgeons must perform emergency surgery, and intestinal decompressive tube through colonoscopy is not recommended. (3) The colorectal cancer patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should be placed in the isolated room with separate medical devices, and the operative room with negative pressure (under -5 Pa) must be separated. All disposable medical items, body fluids and feces of the patients in perioperative periods must be unified disposed according to the medical waste standard. (4) The surgical medical workers who process colorectal cancer patients with COVID-19 must be protected by three-level. After operation, the medical workers must receive medical observation and be isolated for 14 days. We hope our “Renji experience” will be beneficial to colleagues.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn.441530-20200217-00057

RECORD 106
TITLE
  The Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hsu L.Y.;  Chia P.Y.;  Lim J.F.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020

RECORD 107
TITLE
  Mental Health Strategies to Combat the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Beyond Paranoia and Panic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ho C.S.;  Chee C.Y.;  Ho R.C.
SOURCE
  Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore (2020) 49:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020

RECORD 108
TITLE
  Impact of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the risk of maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 during natural birth
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Peng L.;  Siddique R.;  Nabi G.;  Nawsherwan ;  Xue M.;  Liu J.;  Han G.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Little is known about the maternal-to-neonatal intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 via vaginal route. In this study, we report the adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women infected with COVID-19 pneumonia and the risk of intrapartum transmission of COVID-19 via vaginal route. None of the three neonates were infected with COVID-19 delivered via natural birth. Only one neonate was delivered prematurely. No neonatal death and stillbirth were observed in pregnant women infected with COVID-19. Moreover, all of the neonates had normal birth weight, birth length, and normal Apgar score.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.84

RECORD 109
TITLE
  Involving Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in COVID-19 Response Efforts: All Hands on Deck
AUTHOR NAMES
  Stevens M.P.;  Patel P.K.;  Nori P.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.69

RECORD 110
TITLE
  Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Feng S.;  Shen C.;  Xia N.;  Song W.;  Fan M.;  Cowling B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Respiratory medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30134-X

RECORD 111
TITLE
  Aggregated mobility data could help fight COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Buckee C.O.;  Balsari S.;  Chan J.;  Crosas M.;  Dominici F.;  Gasser U.;  Grad Y.H.;  Grenfell B.;  Halloran M.E.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Lipsitch M.;  Metcalf C.J.E.;  Meyers L.A.;  Perkins T.A.;  Santillana M.;  Scarpino S.V.;  Viboud C.;  Wesolowski A.;  Schroeder A.
SOURCE
  Science (New York, N.Y.) (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abb8021

RECORD 112
TITLE
  Updated approaches against SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li H.;  Zhou Y.;  Zhang M.;  Wang H.;  Zhao Q.;  Liu J.
SOURCE
  Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lies behind the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies. However, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug or vaccine has been officially approved due to the absence of adequate evidence. Scientists are racing towards the development of treatment for COVID-19. Recent studies have revealed many attractive threptic options, even if some of them remain to be further confirmed in rigorous preclinical models and clinical trials. In this minireview, we aim to summarize the updated potential approaches against SARS-CoV-2. We emphasize that further efforts are warranted to develop the safest and most effective approach.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00483-20

RECORD 113
TITLE
  Are my patients with rheumatic diseases at higher risk of COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Figueroa-Parra G.;  Aguirre-Garcia G.M.;  Gamboa-Alonso C.M.;  Camacho-Ortiz A.;  Galarza-Delgado D.A.
SOURCE
  Annals of the rheumatic diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 22 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217322

RECORD 114
TITLE
  COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus 2019) – recent trends
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kannan S.;  Shaik Syed Ali P.;  Sheeza A.;  Hemalatha K.
SOURCE
  European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences (2020) 24:4 (2006-2011). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a warning that, although the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) from Wuhan City (China), is not pandemic, it should be contained to prevent the global spread. The COVID-19 virus was known earlier as 2019-nCoV. As of 12 February 2020, WHO reported 45,171 cases and 1115 deaths related to COVID-19. COVID-19 is similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) virus in its pathogenicity, clinical spectrum, and epidemiology. Comparison of the genome sequences of COVID-19, SARS-CoV, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) showed that COVID-19 has a better sequence identity with SARS-CoV compared to MERS CoV. However, the amino acid sequence of COVID-19 differs from other coronaviruses specifically in the regions of 1ab polyprotein and surface glycoprotein or S-protein. Although several animals have been speculated to be a reservoir for COVID-19, no animal reservoir has been already confirmed. COVID-19 causes COVID-19 disease that has similar symptoms as SARSCoV. Studies suggest that the human receptor for COVID-19 may be angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor similar to that of SARSCoV. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of COVID-19 has nearly 90% amino acid sequence identity with SARS-CoV. The N protein antibodies of SARS-CoV may cross react with COVID-19 but may not provide cross-immunity. In a similar fashion to SARS-CoV, the N protein of COVID-19 may play an important role in suppressing the RNA interference (RNAi) to overcome the host defense. This mini-review aims at investigating the most recent trend of COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.26355/eurrev_202002_20378

RECORD 115
TITLE
  Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen Q.;  Liang M.;  Li Y.;  Guo J.;  Fei D.;  Wang L.;  He L.;  Sheng C.;  Cai Y.;  Li X.;  Wang J.;  Zhang Z.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7:4 (e15-e16). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078-X

RECORD 116
TITLE
  Early epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 28 cases of coronavirus disease in South Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kong I.;  Park Y.;  Woo Y.;  Lee J.;  Cha J.;  Choi J.;  Kim Y.;  Kim J.;  Park S.;  Yum M.;  Kim T.;  Jo J.;  Kim M.;  Lee D.;  Kim J.;  Park S.;  Bahk H.;  Yu J.;  Kwon J.;  Kim H.;  Shin N.;  Lee S.;  In H.;  Jung J.;  Cho S.;  Jeon B.;  Kim D.;  Jin G.;  Kim S.;  Kim S.;  Kim Y.;  Kim E.;  Kim B.I.;  Kim H.;  Lee H.;  Jin Y.;  Kim J.;  Kim H.;  Ryu B.;  Shin S.;  Shin E.;  Lee J.;  Lee S.;  Jang Y.;  Choi E.;  Hyun J.;  Ko D.;  Seo G.;  Kwon S.;  Park E.;  Choi S.;  Hwang S.;  Lee S.;  Kang B.;  Park J.;  Lee D.;  Jo S.;  Choi S.;  Lee J.;  Cho S.;  Park J.;  Kim J.;  Lee E.;  Kim J.;  Kim S.;  Kim U.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (8-14). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in South Korea was reported in January 2020, with 28 confirmed cases reported as of February 14th, 2020. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all 28 cases were analyzed in response to this disease. Methods: The epidemiological characteristics and early clinical features of the 28 patients from Korea with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed using COVID-19 reporting and surveillance data and the epidemiological investigation reports prepared by the rapid response team. Results: There were 16 patients that entered Korea from foreign countries: Wuhan, China (11 patients), Zhuhai, China, (1 patient), Singapore (2 patients), Japan (1 patient), and Thailand (1 patient). The early symptoms were fever, sore throat, cough or sputum production, chills, and muscle ache. Three patients were asymptomatic, however, 18 developed pneumonia. Of the 28 cases, 16 were index cases imported from abroad, with 10 cases of secondary infection originating in Korea, and the route of transmission still under investigation for 2 patients. The 10 patients with secondary infection were infected from contact with family members or acquaintances of primary patients, and the suspected sites of transmission were mostly at home. Conclusion: COVID-19 in Korea was spread by 16 infected individuals traveling from other countries, leading to second-generation cases. The initial symptoms were mostly minor, but the disease was infectious at this stage, resulting from close contact, particularly at home. Establishing an early detection strategy for COVID-19 is crucial for managing the transmission of the disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.03

RECORD 117
TITLE
  Early estimation of the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in mainland China: A data-driven analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang S.;  Cao P.;  Du P.;  Wu Z.;  Zhuang Z.;  Yang L.;  Yu X.;  Zhou Q.;  Feng X.;  Wang X.;  Li W.;  Liu E.;  Chen J.;  Chen Y.;  He D.
SOURCE
  Annals of Translational Medicine (2020) 8:4. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2], named COVID-19, hit a major city of China, Wuhan in December 2019 and subsequently spread to other provinces/regions of China and overseas. Several studies have been done to estimate the basic reproduction number in the early phase of this outbreak, yet there are no reliable estimates of case fatality rate (CFR) for COVID-19 to date. Methods: In this study, we used a purely data-driven statistical method to estimate the CFR in the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Daily numbers of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths were collected from January 10 to February 3, 2020 and divided into three clusters: Wuhan city, other cities of Hubei province, and other provinces of mainland China. Simple linear regression model was applied to estimate the CFR from each cluster. Results: We estimated that CFR during the first weeks of the epidemic ranges from 0.15% (95% CI: 0.120.18%) in mainland China excluding Hubei through 1.41% (95% CI: 1.381.45%) in Hubei province excluding the city of Wuhan to 5.25% (95% CI: 4.985.51%) in Wuhan. Conclusions: Our early estimates suggest that the CFR of COVID-19 is lower than the previous coronavirus epidemics caused by SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.66

RECORD 118
TITLE
  Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review
AUTHOR NAMES
  Adhikari S.P.;  Meng S.;  Wu Y.-J.;  Mao Y.-P.;  Ye R.-X.;  Wang Q.-Z.;  Sun C.;  Sylvia S.;  Rozelle S.;  Raat H.;  Zhou H.
SOURCE
  Infectious Diseases of Poverty (2020) 9:1 Article Number: 29. Date of Publication: 17 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. As of 31 January 2020, this epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11 791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths. The World Health Organization has declared it a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Methods: A scoping review was conducted following the methodological framework suggested by Arksey and O’Malley. In this scoping review, 65 research articles published before 31 January 2020 were analyzed and discussed to better understand the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. The research domains, dates of publication, journal language, authors’ affiliations, and methodological characteristics were included in the analysis. All the findings and statements in this review regarding the outbreak are based on published information as listed in the references. Results: Most of the publications were written using the English language (89.2%). The largest proportion of published articles were related to causes (38.5%) and a majority (67.7%) were published by Chinese scholars. Research articles initially focused on causes, but over time there was an increase of the articles related to prevention and control. Studies thus far have shown that the virus’ origination is in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal associations have not been confirmed. Reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines have been discussed as ways to reduce transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment has proven effective; hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Conclusions: There has been a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19. During this early period, published research primarily explored the epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus. Although these studies are relevant to control the current public emergency, more high-quality research is needed to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both the short- and long-term.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x

RECORD 119
TITLE
  What Does the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Mean for Families?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Thompson L.A.;  Rasmussen S.A.
SOURCE
  JAMA Pediatrics (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0828

RECORD 120
TITLE
  COVID-19 and the consequences of isolating the elderly
AUTHOR NAMES
  Armitage R.;  Nellums L.B.
SOURCE
  The Lancet. Public health (2020). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30061-X

RECORD 121
TITLE
  Systematic review of COVID-19 in children show milder cases and a better prognosis than adults
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ludvigsson J.F.
SOURCE
  Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  AIM: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected hundreds of thousands of people. Data on symptoms and prognoses in children are rare. METHODS: A systematic literature review was carried out to identify papers on COVID-19, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), using the Medline and EMBASE databases between 1 January and 18 March 2020. RESULTS: The search identified 45 relevant scientific papers and letters. The review showed that children have so far accounted for 1-5% of diagnosed COVID-19 cases, they often have milder disease than adults and deaths have been extremely rare. Diagnostic findings have been similar to adults, with fever and respiratory symptoms being prevalent, but fewer children seem to have developed severe pneumonia. Elevated inflammatory markers were less common in children and lymphocytopenia seemed rare. Newborn infants have developed symptomatic COVID-19, but evidence of vertical intrauterine transmission was scarce. Suggested treatment included providing oxygen, inhalations, nutritional support and maintaining fluids and electrolyte balances. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has occurred in children, but they seemed to have a milder disease course and better prognoses than adults. Deaths were extremely rare.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15270

RECORD 122
TITLE
  A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang L.-S.;  Wang Y.-R.;  Ye D.-W.;  Liu Q.-Q.
SOURCE
  International journal of antimicrobial agents (2020) (105948). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China in December 2019 is a highly contagious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the ongoing outbreak as a global public health emergency. Currently, the research on novel coronavirus is still in the primary stage. Based on the current published evidence, we systematically summarizes the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of knowledge surrounding COVID-19. This review in the hope of helping the public effectively recognize and deal with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), and providing a reference for future studies.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948

RECORD 123
TITLE
  Prudent public health intervention strategies to control the coronavirus disease 2019 transmission in India: A mathematical model-based approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mandal S.;  Bhatnagar T.;  Arinaminpathy N.;  Agarwal A.;  Chowdhury A.;  Murhekar M.;  Gangakhedkar R.R.;  Sarkar S.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background & objectives: :Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has raised urgent questions about containment and mitigation, particularly in countries where the virus has not yet established human-to-human transmission. The objectives of this study were to find out if it was possible to prevent, or delay, the local outbreaks of COVID-19 through restrictions on travel from abroad and if the virus has already established in-country transmission, to what extent would its impact be mitigated through quarantine of symptomatic patients?” Methods: :These questions were addressed in the context of India, using simple mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. While there remained important uncertainties in the natural history of COVID-19, using hypothetical epidemic curves, some key findings were illustrated that appeared insensitive to model assumptions, as well as highlighting critical data gaps. Results: :It was assumed that symptomatic quarantine would identify and quarantine 50 per cent of symptomatic individuals within three days of developing symptoms. In an optimistic scenario of the basic reproduction number (R00) being 1.5, and asymptomatic infections lacking any infectiousness, such measures would reduce the cumulative incidence by 62 per cent. In the pessimistic scenario of R0=4, and asymptomatic infections being half as infectious as symptomatic, this projected impact falls to two per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: :Port-of-entry-based entry screening of travellers with suggestive clinical features and from COVID-19-affected countries, would achieve modest delays in the introduction of the virus into the community. Acting alone, however, such measures would be insufficient to delay the outbreak by weeks or longer. Once the virus establishes transmission within the community, quarantine of symptomatics may have a meaningful impact on disease burden. Model projections are subject to substantial uncertainty and can be further refined as more is understood about the natural history of infection of this novel virus. As a public health measure, health system and community preparedness would be critical to control any impending spread of COVID-19 in the country.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_504_20

RECORD 124
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: the harms of exaggerated information and non-evidence-based measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ioannidis J.P.A.
SOURCE
  European journal of clinical investigation (2020) (e13223). Date of Publication: 23 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1 is certainly cause for concern. Proper communication and optimal decision-making is an ongoing challenge, as data evolve. The challenge is compounded, however, by exaggerated information. This can lead to inappropriate actions. It is important to differentiate promptly the true epidemic from an epidemic of false claims and potentially harmful actions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13223

RECORD 125
TITLE
  Lopinavir/ritonavir combination therapy amongst symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 patients in India: Protocol for restricted public health emergency use
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bhatnagar T.;  Murhekar M.V.;  Soneja M.;  Gupta N.;  Giri S.;  Wig N.;  Gangakhedkar R.
SOURCE
  The Indian journal of medical research (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of February 29, 2020, more than 85,000 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported from China and 53 other countries with 2,924 deaths. On January 30, 2020, the first laboratory-confirmed case of COVID was reported from Kerala, India. In view of the earlier evidence about effectiveness of repurposed lopinavir/ritonavir against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV), as well as preliminary docking studies conducted by the ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization approved the restricted public health use of lopinavir/ritonavir combination amongst symptomatic COVID-19 patients detected in the country. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with any one of the following criteria will be eligible to receive lopinavir/ritonavir for 14 days after obtaining written informed consent: (i) respiratory distress with respiratory rate ≥22/min or SpO2 of <94 per cent; (ii) lung parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-ray; (iii) hypotension defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or need for vasopressor/inotropic medication; (iv) new-onset organ dysfunction; and (v) high-risk groups – age >60 yr, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, chronic lung disease and immunocompromised persons. Patients will be monitored to document clinical (hospital length of stay and mortality at 14, 28 and 90 days), laboratory (presence of viral RNA in serial throat swab samples) and safety (adverse events and serious adverse events) outcomes. Treatment outcomes amongst initial cases would be useful in providing guidance about the clinical management of patients with COVID-19. If found useful in managing initial SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, further evaluation using a randomized control trial design is warranted to guide future therapeutic use of this combination.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_20

RECORD 126
TITLE
  COVID-19: time for WHO to reconsider its stance towards Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Nelson C.W.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (193). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00693-2

RECORD 127
TITLE
  COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun J.;  He W.-T.;  Wang L.;  Lai A.;  Ji X.;  Zhai X.;  Li G.;  Suchard M.A.;  Tian J.;  Zhou J.;  Veit M.;  Su S.
SOURCE
  Trends in Molecular Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The recent outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan turned into a public health emergency of international concern. With no antiviral drugs nor vaccines, and the presence of carriers without obvious symptoms, traditional public health intervention measures are significantly less effective. Here, we report the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak. Originated in bats, 2019-nCoV/ severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 likely experienced adaptive evolution in intermediate hosts before transfer to humans at a concentrated source of transmission. Similarities of receptor sequence binding to 2019-nCoV between humans and animals suggest a low species barrier for transmission of the virus to farm animals. We propose, based on the One Health model, that veterinarians and animal specialists should be involved in a cross-disciplinary collaboration in the fight against this epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008

RECORD 128
TITLE
  Pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is currently an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China. Although there are still several unanswered questions about this infection, we evaluate the potential for international dissemination of this disease via commercial air travel should the outbreak continue.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa008

RECORD 129
TITLE
  Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bogoch I.I.;  Watts A.;  Thomas-Bachli A.;  Huber C.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Khan K.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa011

RECORD 130
TITLE
  Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu X.;  Chen P.;  Wang J.;  Feng J.;  Zhou H.;  Li X.;  Zhong W.;  Hao P.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020) 63:3 (457-460). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5

RECORD 131
TITLE
  Travellers give wings to novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilson M.E.;  Chen L.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa015

RECORD 132
TITLE
  2019-novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): estimating the case fatality rate – a word of caution
AUTHOR NAMES
  Battegay M.;  Kuehl R.;  Tschudin-Sutter S.;  Hirsch H.H.;  Widmer A.F.;  Neher R.A.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20203). Date of Publication: 27 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20203

RECORD 133
TITLE
  The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu Y.;  Gayle A.A.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Rocklöv J.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa021

RECORD 134
TITLE
  Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wilder-Smith A.;  Freedman D.O.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa020

RECORD 135
TITLE
  Quantifying the association between domestic travel and the exportation of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases from Wuhan, China in 2020: a correlational analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhao S.;  Zhuang Z.;  Cao P.;  Ran J.;  Gao D.;  Lou Y.;  Yang L.;  Cai Y.;  Wang W.;  He D.;  Wang M.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020) 27:2. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa022

RECORD 136
TITLE
  COVID-19: another infectious disease emerging at the animal-human interface
AUTHOR NAMES
  Murdoch D.R.;  French N.P.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (12-15). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 137
TITLE
  SARS-CoV-2: a novel deadly virus in a globalised world
AUTHOR NAMES
  Dilcher M.;  Werno A.;  Jennings L.C.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1510 (6-11). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020

RECORD 138
TITLE
  Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The importance of recognising possible early ocular manifestation and using protective eyewear
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li J.-P.O.;  Lam D.S.C.;  Chen Y.;  Ting D.S.W.
SOURCE
  British Journal of Ophthalmology (2020) 104:3 (297-298). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-315994

RECORD 139
TITLE
  Therapeutic strategies in an outbreak scenario to treat the novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kruse R.L.
SOURCE
  F1000Research (2020) 9 (72). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) originating in Wuhan, China presents a potential respiratory viral pandemic to the world population. Current efforts are focused on containment and quarantine of infected individuals. Ultimately, the outbreak could be controlled with a protective vaccine to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. While vaccine research should be pursued intensely, there exists today no therapy to treat 2019-nCoV upon infection, despite an urgent need to find options to help these patients and preclude potential death. Herein, I review the potential options to treat 2019-nCoV in patients, with an emphasis on the necessity for speed and timeliness in developing new and effective therapies in this outbreak. I consider the options of drug repurposing, developing neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy, and an oligonucleotide strategy targeting the viral RNA genome, emphasizing the promise and pitfalls of these approaches. Finally, I advocate for the fastest strategy to develop a treatment now, which could be resistant to any mutations the virus may have in the future. The proposal is a biologic that blocks 2019-nCoV entry using a soluble version of the viral receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), fused to an immunoglobulin Fc domain, providing a neutralizing antibody with maximal breath to avoid any viral escape, while also helping to recruit the immune system to build lasting immunity. The sequence of the ACE2-Fc protein is provided to investigators, allowing its possible use in recombinant protein expression systems to start producing drug today to treat patients under compassionate use, while formal clinical trials are later undertaken. Such a treatment could help infected patients before a protective vaccine is developed and widely available in the coming months to year(s).
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.22211.2

RECORD 140
TITLE
  Extended US travel ban harms global science
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ndodo N.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (9). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00588-2

RECORD 141
TITLE
  Open peer-review platform for COVID-19 preprints
AUTHOR NAMES
  Johansson M.A.;  Saderi D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7797 (29). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00613-4

RECORD 142
TITLE
  Letter to the editor: Plenty of coronaviruses but no SARS-CoV-2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Colson P.;  La Scola B.;  Esteves-Vieira V.;  Ninove L.;  Zandotti C.;  Jimeno M.-T.;  Gazin C.;  Bedotto M.;  Filosa V.;  Giraud-Gatineau A.;  Chaudet H.;  Brouqui P.;  Lagier J.-C.;  Raoult D.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000171

RECORD 143
TITLE
  Understanding COVID-19 new diagnostic guidelines – a message of reassurance from an internal medicine doctor in Shanghai
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bischof E.;  Chen G.;  Ferretti M.T.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20216). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20216

RECORD 144
TITLE
  The race to unravel the biggest coronavirus outbreak in the United States
AUTHOR NAMES
  Maxmen A.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7798 (181-182). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00676-3

RECORD 145
TITLE
  Potential global pandemics: the role of the WHO and other public health bodies
AUTHOR NAMES
  Glasper A.
SOURCE
  British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) (2020) 29:5 (322-323). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In light of the emergence of the new coronavirus in China, Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the response strategies adopted by international and national public health agencies.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2020.29.5.322

RECORD 146
TITLE
  The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guo Y.-R.;  Cao Q.-D.;  Hong Z.-S.;  Tan Y.-Y.;  Chen S.-D.;  Jin H.-J.;  Tan K.-S.;  Wang D.-Y.;  Yan Y.
SOURCE
  Military Medical Research (2020) 7:1 (11). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic and large-scale epidemic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. As of 1 March 2020, a total of 87,137 confirmed cases globally, 79,968 confirmed in China and 7169 outside of China, with 2977 deaths (3.4%) had been reported by WHO. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV, and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms. The elderly and people with underlying diseases are susceptible to infection and prone to serious outcomes, which may be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and cytokine storm. Currently, there are few specific antiviral strategies, but several potent candidates of antivirals and repurposed drugs are under urgent investigation. In this review, we summarized the latest research progress of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and discussed the current treatment and scientific advancements to combat the epidemic novel coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-020-00240-0

RECORD 147
TITLE
  Potential impact of seasonal forcing on a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Neher R.A.;  Dyrdak R.;  Druelle V.;  Hodcroft E.B.;  Albert J.
SOURCE
  Swiss medical weekly (2020) 150 (w20224). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first detected in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly since December 2019, causing more than 100,000 confirmed infections and 4000 fatalities (as of 10 March 2020). The outbreak has been declared a pandemic by the WHO on Mar 11, 2020. Here, we explore how seasonal variation in transmissibility could modulate a SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Data from routine diagnostics show a strong and consistent seasonal variation of the four endemic coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, OC43) and we parameterise our model for SARS-CoV-2 using these data. The model allows for many subpopulations of different size with variable parameters. Simulations of different scenarios show that plausible parameters result in a small peak in early 2020 in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and a larger peak in winter 2020/2021. Variation in transmission and migration rates can result in substantial variation in prevalence between regions. While the uncertainty in parameters is large, the scenarios we explore show that transient reductions in the incidence rate might be due to a combination of seasonal variation and infection control efforts but do not necessarily mean the epidemic is contained. Seasonal forcing on SARS-CoV-2 should thus be taken into account in the further monitoring of the global transmission. The likely aggregated effect of seasonal variation, infection control measures, and transmission rate variation is a prolonged pandemic wave with lower prevalence at any given time, thereby providing a window of opportunity for better preparation of health care systems.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20224

RECORD 148
TITLE
  Don’t rush to deploy COVID-19 vaccines and drugs without sufficient safety guarantees
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jiang S.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 579:7799 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00751-9

RECORD 149
TITLE
  Serial Interval of COVID-19 among Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Du Z.;  Xu X.;  Wu Y.;  Wang L.;  Cowling B.J.;  Meyers L.A.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  We estimate the distribution of serial intervals for 468 confirmed cases of 2019 novel coronavirus disease reported in China as of February 8, 2020. The mean interval was 3.96 days (95% CI 3.53-4.39 days), SD 4.75 days (95% CI 4.46-5.07 days); 12.6% of case reports indicated presymptomatic transmission.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200357

RECORD 150
TITLE
  Challenges and countermeasures on Chinese malaria elimination programme during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu G.D.;  Cao J.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo xue xi chong bing fang zhi za zhi = Chinese journal of schistosomiasis control (2020) 32:1 (7-9). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been extensively epidemic in China, which not only seriously threatens the safety and health of Chinese people, but also challenges the management of other infectious diseases. Currently, there are still approximately three thousand malaria cases imported into China every year. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients’lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. This paper analyzes the challenges of the COVID-19 for Chinese malaria elimination programme, and proposes the countermeasures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, so as to provide the reference for healthcare professionals.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.16250/j.32.1374.2020036

RECORD 151
TITLE
  2019-nCoV: The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool Applied to a Novel Emerging Coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koenig K.L.;  Beÿ C.K.;  McDonald E.C.
SOURCE
  The western journal of emergency medicine (2020) 21:2 (184-190). Date of Publication: 31 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an emerging infectious disease closely related to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV that was first reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. As of January 2020, cases of 2019-nCoV are continuing to be reported in other Eastern Asian countries as well as in the United States, Europe, Australia, and numerous other countries. An unusually high volume of domestic and international travel corresponding to the beginning of the 2020 Chinese New Year complicated initial identification and containment of infected persons. Due to the rapidly rising number of cases and reported deaths, all countries should be considered at risk of imported 2019-nCoV. Therefore, it is essential for prehospital, clinic, and emergency department personnel to be able to rapidly assess 2019-nCoV risk and take immediate actions if indicated. The Identify-Isolate-Inform (3I) Tool, originally conceived for the initial detection and management of Ebola virus and later adjusted for other infectious agents, can be adapted for any emerging infectious disease. This paper reports a modification of the 3I Tool for use in the initial detection and management of patients under investigation for 2019-nCoV. After initial assessment for symptoms and epidemiological risk factors, including travel to affected areas and exposure to confirmed 2019-nCoV patients within 14 days, patients are classified in a risk-stratified system. Upon confirmation of a suspected 2019-nCoV case, affected persons must immediately be placed in airborne infection isolation and the appropriate public health agencies notified. This modified 3I Tool will assist emergency and primary care clinicians, as well as out-of-hospital providers, in effectively managing persons with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2020.1.46760

RECORD 152
TITLE
  Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surveillance and Containment Measures for the First 100 Patients with COVID-19 in Singapore – January 2-February 29, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ng Y.;  Li Z.;  Chua Y.X.;  Chaw W.L.;  Zhao Z.;  Er B.;  Pung R.;  Chiew C.J.;  Lye D.C.;  Heng D.;  Lee V.J.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:11 (307-311). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has since spread globally, resulting in >95,000 confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide by March 5, 2020 (1). Singapore adopted a multipronged surveillance strategy that included applying the case definition at medical consults, tracing contacts of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, enhancing surveillance among different patient groups (all patients with pneumonia, hospitalized patients in intensive care units [ICUs] with possible infectious diseases, primary care patients with influenza-like illness, and deaths from possible infectious etiologies), and allowing clinician discretion (i.e., option to order a test based on clinical suspicion, even if the case definition was not met) to identify COVID-19 patients. Containment measures, including patient isolation and quarantine, active monitoring of contacts, border controls, and community education and precautions, were performed to minimize disease spread. As of March 5, 2020, a total of 117 COVID-19 cases had been identified in Singapore. This report analyzes the first 100 COVID-19 patients in Singapore to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance and containment measures. COVID-19 patients were classified by the primary means by which they were detected. Application of the case definition and contact tracing identified 73 patients, 16 were detected by enhanced surveillance, and 11 were identified by laboratory testing based on providers’ clinical discretion. Effectiveness of these measures was assessed by calculating the 7-day moving average of the interval from symptom onset to isolation in hospital or quarantine, which indicated significant decreasing trends for both local and imported COVID-19 cases. Rapid identification and isolation of cases, quarantine of close contacts, and active monitoring of other contacts have been effective in suppressing expansion of the outbreak and have implications for other countries experiencing outbreaks.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6911e1

RECORD 153
TITLE
  SARS-CoV2: should inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system be withdrawn in patients with COVID-19?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kuster G.M.;  Pfister O.;  Burkard T.;  Zhou Q.;  Twerenbold R.;  Haaf P.;  Widmer A.F.;  Osswald S.
SOURCE
  European heart journal (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa235

RECORD 154
TITLE
  The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection in Hangzhou: An experience to share
AUTHOR NAMES
  Diao M.;  Zhang S.;  Chen D.;  Hu W.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.62

RECORD 155
TITLE
  The difference in the incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection between travelers to Hubei and non-travelers: The need of a longer quarantine period
AUTHOR NAMES
  Leung C.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Data collected from the individual cases reported by the media were used to estimate the distribution of the incubation period of travelers to Hubei and non-travelers. Upon the finding of longer and more volatile incubation period in travelers, the duration of quarantine should be extended to three weeks.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.81

RECORD 156
TITLE
  Initial Investigation of Transmission of COVID-19 Among Crew Members During Quarantine of a Cruise Ship – Yokohama, Japan, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kakimoto K.;  Kamiya H.;  Yamagishi T.;  Matsui T.;  Suzuki M.;  Wakita T.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:11 (312-313). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among passengers and crew on a cruise ship led to quarantine of approximately 3,700 passengers and crew that began on February 3, 2020, and lasted for nearly 4 weeks at the Port of Yokohama, Japan (1). By February 9, 20 cases had occurred among the ship’s crew members. By the end of quarantine, approximately 700 cases of COVID-19 had been laboratory-confirmed among passengers and crew. This report describes findings from the initial phase of the cruise ship investigation into COVID-19 cases among crew members during February 4-12, 2020.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6911e2

RECORD 157
TITLE
  On a knife’s edge of a COVID-19 pandemic: is containment still possible?
AUTHOR NAMES
  MacIntyre C.R.
SOURCE
  Public health research & practice (2020) 30:1. Date of Publication: 10 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.17061/phrp3012000

RECORD 158
TITLE
  WHO IHR Emergency Committee for the COVID-19 Outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jee Y.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and health (2020) (e2020013). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Not available.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020013

RECORD 159
TITLE
  Public health measures to slow community spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowling B.J.;  Aiello A.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infectious diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa123

RECORD 160
TITLE
  Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng V.C.C.;  Wong S.-C.;  Chen J.H.K.;  Yip C.C.Y.;  Chuang V.W.M.;  Tsang O.T.Y.;  Sridhar S.;  Chan J.F.W.;  Ho P.-L.;  Yuen K.-Y.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background:To describe the infection control preparedness for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 [previously known as 2019-novel coronavirus] in the first 42 days after announcement of a cluster of pneumonia in China, on 31 December 2019 (day 1) in Hong Kong.Methods:A bundle approach of active and enhanced laboratory surveillance, early airborne infection isolation, rapid molecular diagnostic testing, and contact tracing for healthcare workers (HCWs) with unprotected exposure in the hospitals was implemented. Epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases, environmental and air samples were collected and analyzed.Results:From day 1 to day 42, forty-two (3.3%) of 1275 patients fulfilling active (n=29) and enhanced laboratory surveillance (n=13) confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection. The number of locally acquired case significantly increased from 1 (7.7%) of 13 [day 22 to day 32] to 27 (93.1%) of 29 confirmed case [day 33 to day 42] (p<0.001). Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) came from 8 family clusters. Eleven (2.7%) of 413 HCWs caring these confirmed cases were found to have unprotected exposure requiring quarantine for 14 days. None of them was infected and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not observed. Environmental surveillance performed in a patient with viral load of 3.3×106 copies/ml (pooled nasopharyngeal/ throat swab) and 5.9×106 copies/ml (saliva) respectively. SARS-CoV-2 revealed in 1 (7.7%) of 13 environmental samples, but not in 8 air samples collected at a distance of 10 cm from patient’s chin with or without wearing a surgical mask.Conclusion:Appropriate hospital infection control measures could prevent nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.58

RECORD 161
TITLE
  Case report of COVID-19 in a kidney transplant recipient: Does immunosuppression alter the clinical presentation?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guillen E.;  Pineiro G.J.;  Revuelta I.;  Rodriguez D.;  Bodro M.;  Moreno A.;  Campistol J.M.;  Diekmann F.;  Ventura-Aguiar P.
SOURCE
  American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (2020). Date of Publication: 20 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  COVID-19 is novel infectious disease with an evolving understanding of its epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Immunocompromised patients often present atypical presentations of viral diseases. Herein we report a case of a COVID-19 infection in a solid organ transplant recipient, in which the first clinical symptoms were of gastrointestinal viral disease and fever, which further progressed to respiratory symptoms in 48h. In these high risk populations, protocols for screening for SARS-Cov2 may be needed to be re-evaluated.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15874

RECORD 162
TITLE
  The potential chemical structure of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lung J.;  Lin Y.-S.;  Yang Y.-H.;  Chou Y.-L.;  Shu L.-H.;  Cheng Y.-C.;  Liu H.T.;  Wu C.-Y.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan and it has rapidly spread to almost all parts of the world. For coronaviruses, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is an important protease that catalyzes the replication of RNA from RNA template and is an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, we screened these chemical structures from traditional Chinese medicinal compounds proven to show antiviral activity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the similar chemical structures through a molecular docking study to target RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We found that theaflavin has a lower idock score in the catalytic pocket of RdRp in SARS-CoV-2 (−9.11 kcal/mol), SARS-CoV (−8.03 kcal/mol), and MERS-CoV (−8.26 kcal/mol) from idock. To confirm the result, we discovered that theaflavin has lower binding energy of −8.8 kcal/mol when it docks in the catalytic pocket of SARS-CoV-2 RdRp by using the Blind Docking server. Regarding contact modes, hydrophobic interactions contribute significantly in binding and additional hydrogen bonds were found between theaflavin and RdRp. Moreover, one π-cation interaction was formed between theaflavin and Arg553 from the Blind Docking server. Our results suggest that theaflavin could be a potential SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitor for further study.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25761

RECORD 163
TITLE
  Is Africa prepared for tackling the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic. Lessons from past outbreaks, ongoing pan-African public health efforts, and implications for the future
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kapata N.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Ntoumi F.;  Raji T.;  Chanda-Kapata P.;  Mwaba P.;  Mukonka V.;  Bates M.;  Tembo J.;  Corman V.;  Mfinanga S.;  Asogun D.;  Elton L.;  Arruda L.B.;  Thomason M.J.;  Mboera L.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Haider N.;  Simons D.;  Hollmann L.;  Lule S.A.;  Veas F.;  Abdel Hamid M.M.;  Dar O.;  Edwards S.;  Vairo F.;  McHugh T.D.;  Drosten C.;  Kock R.;  Ippolito G.;  Zumla A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (233-236). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.049

RECORD 164
TITLE
  Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Cardona-Ospina J.A.;  Gutiérrez-Ocampo E.;  Villamizar-Peña R.;  Holguin-Rivera Y.;  Escalera-Antezana J.P.;  Alvarado-Arnez L.E.;  Bonilla-Aldana D.K.;  Franco-Paredes C.;  Henao-Martinez A.F.;  Paniz-Mondolfi A.;  Lagos-Grisales G.J.;  Ramírez-Vallejo E.;  Suárez J.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Villamil-Gómez W.E.;  Balbin-Ramon G.J.;  Rabaan A.A.;  Harapan H.;  Dhama K.;  Nishiura H.;  Kataoka H.;  Ahmad T.;  Sah R.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101623. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Introduction: An epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in December 2019 in China leading to a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features have been partially characterized in some observational studies. No systematic reviews on COVID-19 have been published to date. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess clinical, laboratory, imaging features, and outcomes of COVID-19 confirmed cases. Observational studies and also case reports, were included, and analyzed separately. We performed a random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate pooled prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: 660 articles were retrieved for the time frame (1/1/2020-2/23/2020). After screening, 27 articles were selected for full-text assessment, 19 being finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. Additionally, 39 case report articles were included and analyzed separately. For 656 patients, fever (88.7%, 95%CI 84.5–92.9%), cough (57.6%, 95%CI 40.8–74.4%) and dyspnea (45.6%, 95%CI 10.9–80.4%) were the most prevalent manifestations. Among the patients, 20.3% (95%CI 10.0–30.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU), 32.8% presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (95%CI 13.7–51.8), 6.2% (95%CI 3.1–9.3) with shock. Some 13.9% (95%CI 6.2–21.5%) of hospitalized patients had fatal outcomes (case fatality rate, CFR). Conclusion: COVID-19 brings a huge burden to healthcare facilities, especially in patients with comorbidities. ICU was required for approximately 20% of polymorbid, COVID-19 infected patients and hospitalization was associated with a CFR of >13%. As this virus spreads globally, countries need to urgently prepare human resources, infrastructure and facilities to treat severe COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101623

RECORD 165
TITLE
  China coronavirus: Six questions scientists are asking
AUTHOR NAMES
  Callaway E.;  Cyranoski D.
SOURCE
  Nature (2020) 577:7792 (605-607). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-00166-6

RECORD 166
TITLE
  Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Riou J.;  Althaus C.L.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:4. Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, China has been experiencing a large outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) which can cause respiratory disease and severe pneumonia. We estimated the basic reproduction number R0 of 2019-nCoV to be around 2.2 (90% high density interval: 1.4-3.8), indicating the potential for sustained human-to-human transmission. Transmission characteristics appear to be of similar magnitude to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and pandemic influenza, indicating a risk of global spread.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058

RECORD 167
TITLE
  Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.200131e

RECORD 168
TITLE
  2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, Australia: Epidemiology Report 1 (Reporting week 26 January – 1 February 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 6 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the first epidemiological report of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) acute respiratory disease infections reported in Australia at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 1 February 2020. It includes data on Australian cases notified during the week 26 January to 1 February 2020 and in the previous week (19 to 25 January 2020), the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread of the 2019-nCoV infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2019.44.13

RECORD 169
TITLE
  Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ki M.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and health (2020) 42 (e2020007). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020007

RECORD 170
TITLE
  Epidemiological research priorities for public health control of the ongoing global novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cowling B.J.;  Leung G.M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000110

RECORD 171
TITLE
  Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Backer J.A.;  Klinkenberg D.;  Wallinga J.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is causing an outbreak of viral pneumonia that started in Wuhan, China. Using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases that were detected outside Wuhan in the early outbreak phase, we estimate the mean incubation period to be 6.4 days (95% credible interval: 5.6-7.7), ranging from 2.1 to 11.1 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentile). These values should help inform 2019-nCoV case definitions and appropriate quarantine durations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062

RECORD 172
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 2 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 8 February 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 12 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the second epidemiological report for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), previously known as novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 8 February 2020. It includes data on Australian cases notified during the week ending 19:00 AEDT 8 February 2020, the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread of the COVID-19 infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.14

RECORD 173
TITLE
  Outbreak of COVID-19 – an urgent need for good science to silence our fears?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lum L.H.W.;  Tambyah P.A.
SOURCE
  Singapore medical journal (2020) 61:2 (55-57). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2020018

RECORD 174
TITLE
  Challenges to the system of reserve medical supplies for public health emergencies: reflections on the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang X.;  Zhang X.;  He J.
SOURCE
  Bioscience trends (2020) 14:1 (3-8). Date of Publication: 16 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission announced an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), China is now at a critical period in the control of the epidemic. The Chinese Government has been taking a series of rapid, comprehensive, and effective prevention and control measures. As the pandemic has developed, a fact has become apparent: there is a serious dearth of emergency medical supplies, and especially an extreme shortage of personal protective equipment such as masks and medical protective clothing. This is one of the major factors affecting the progress of epidemic prevention and control. Although China has made great efforts to strengthen the ability to quickly respond to public health emergencies since the SARS outbreak in 2003 and it has clarified requirements for emergency supplies through legislation, the emergency reserve supplies program has not been effectively implemented, and there are also deficiencies in the types, quantity, and availability of emergency medical supplies. A sound system of emergency reserve supplies is crucial to the management of public health emergencies. Based on international experiences with pandemic control, the world should emphasize improving the system of emergency reserve medical supplies in the process of establishing and improving public health emergency response systems, and it should promote the establishment of international cooperative programs to jointly deal with public health emergencies of international concern in the future.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.01043

RECORD 175
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bernard Stoecklin S.;  Rolland P.;  Silue Y.;  Mailles A.;  Campese C.;  Simondon A.;  Mechain M.;  Meurice L.;  Nguyen M.;  Bassi C.;  Yamani E.;  Behillil S.;  Ismael S.;  Nguyen D.;  Malvy D.;  Lescure F.X.;  Georges S.;  Lazarus C.;  Tabaï A.;  Stempfelet M.;  Enouf V.;  Coignard B.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Investigation Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was identified on 7 January 2020. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and as at 12 February 2020, 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,116 deaths. Strengthened surveillance was implemented in France on 10 January 2020 in order to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. Three categories of risk exposure and follow-up procedure were defined for contacts. Three cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on 24 January, the first cases in Europe. Contact tracing was immediately initiated. Five contacts were evaluated as at low risk of exposure and 18 at moderate/high risk. As at 12 February 2020, two cases have been discharged and the third one remains symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission has been identified. Effective collaboration between all parties involved in the surveillance and response to emerging threats is required to detect imported cases early and to implement adequate control measures.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000094

RECORD 176
TITLE
  Latest updates on COVID-19 from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:6. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2002131

RECORD 177
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 3 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 15 February 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the third epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), previously known as novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), from the virus now known as SARS-CoV-2, reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 15 February 2020. It includes data on the COVID-19 Australian cases, the international situation and current information on the severity, transmission and spread.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.15

RECORD 178
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 4 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 22 February 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 26 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the fourth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 22 February 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.17

RECORD 179
TITLE
  Differential diagnosis of illness in patients under investigation for the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), Italy, February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bordi L.;  Nicastri E.;  Scorzolini L.;  Di Caro A.;  Capobianchi M.R.;  Castilletti C.;  Lalle E.;  On Behalf Of Inmi Covid-Study Group And Collaborating Centers
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causative pathogen of an ongoing outbreak of respiratory disease, now named COVID-19. Most cases and sustained transmission occurred in China, but travel-associated cases have been reported in other countries, including Europe and Italy. Since the symptoms are similar to other respiratory infections, differential diagnosis in travellers arriving from countries with wide-spread COVID-19 must include other more common infections such as influenza and other respiratory tract diseases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000170

RECORD 180
TITLE
  Early transmission patterns of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan to Thailand, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Okada P.;  Buathong R.;  Phuygun S.;  Thanadachakul T.;  Parnmen S.;  Wongboot W.;  Waicharoen S.;  Wacharapluesadee S.;  Uttayamakul S.;  Vachiraphan A.;  Chittaganpitch M.;  Mekha N.;  Janejai N.;  Iamsirithaworn S.;  Lee R.T.;  Maurer-Stroh S.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:8. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We report two cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in travellers from Wuhan, China to Thailand. Both were independent introductions on separate flights, discovered with thermoscanners and confirmed with RT-PCR and genome sequencing. Both cases do not seem directly linked to the Huanan Seafood Market in Hubei but the viral genomes are identical to four other sequences from Wuhan, suggesting early spread within the city already in the first week of January.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.8.2000097

RECORD 181
TITLE
  Public health round-up
SOURCE
  Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2020) 98:3 (155-156). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.010320

RECORD 182
TITLE
  Machine Learning, COVID-19 (2019-nCoV), and multi-OMICS
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020) 97:3 (215-216). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23990

RECORD 183
TITLE
  Effectiveness for the response to CoviD-19: The MERS outbreak containment procedures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cho H.-W.
SOURCE
  Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives (2020) :1 (1-2). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.24171/j.phrp.2020.11.1.01

RECORD 184
TITLE
  2019 novel coronavirus infection in a three-month-old baby
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang Y.H.;  Lin D.J.;  Xiao M.F.;  Wang J.C.;  Wei Y.;  Lei Z.X.;  Zeng Z.Q.;  Li L.;  Li H.A.;  Xiang W.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (182-184). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.004

RECORD 185
TITLE
  Potential scenarios for the progression of a COVID-19 epidemic in the European Union and the European Economic Area, March 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Johnson H.C.;  Gossner C.M.;  Colzani E.;  Kinsman J.;  Alexakis L.;  Beauté J.;  Würz A.;  Tsolova S.;  Bundle N.;  Ekdahl K.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Two months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the possibility of established and widespread community transmission in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) is becoming more likely. We provide scenarios for use in preparedness for a possible widespread epidemic. The EU/EEA is moving towards the ‘limited sustained transmission’ phase. We propose actions to prepare for potential mitigation phases and coordinate efforts to protect the health of citizens.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000202

RECORD 186
TITLE
  First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 January to 21 February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Spiteri G.;  Fielding J.;  Diercke M.;  Campese C.;  Enouf V.;  Gaymard A.;  Bella A.;  Sognamiglio P.;  Sierra Moros M.J.;  Riutort A.N.;  Demina Y.V.;  Mahieu R.;  Broas M.;  Bengnér M.;  Buda S.;  Schilling J.;  Filleul L.;  Lepoutre A.;  Saura C.;  Mailles A.;  Levy-Bruhl D.;  Coignard B.;  Bernard-Stoecklin S.;  Behillil S.;  van der Werf S.;  Valette M.;  Lina B.;  Riccardo F.;  Nicastri E.;  Casas I.;  Larrauri A.;  Salom Castell M.;  Pozo F.;  Maksyutov R.A.;  Martin C.;  Van Ranst M.;  Bossuyt N.;  Siira L.;  Sane J.;  Tegmark-Wisell K.;  Palmérus M.;  Broberg E.K.;  Beauté J.;  Jorgensen P.;  Bundle N.;  Pereyaslov D.;  Adlhoch C.;  Pukkila J.;  Pebody R.;  Olsen S.;  Ciancio B.C.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In the WHO European Region, COVID-19 surveillance was implemented 27 January 2020. We detail the first European cases. As at 21 February, nine European countries reported 47 cases. Among 38 cases studied, 21 were linked to two clusters in Germany and France, 14 were infected in China. Median case age was 42 years; 25 were male. Late detection of the clusters’ index cases delayed isolation of further local cases. As at 5 March, there were 4,250 cases.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2000178

RECORD 187
TITLE
  Updated rapid risk assessment from ECDC on the outbreak of COVID-19: increased transmission globally
AUTHOR NAMES
  Eurosurveillance Editorial Team
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:9. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.9.2003051

RECORD 188
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 6 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 7 March 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the sixth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 7 March 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.21

RECORD 189
TITLE
  COVID-19: Not a Simple Public Health Emergency
AUTHOR NAMES
  Stratton S.J.
SOURCE
  Prehospital and disaster medicine (2020) 35:2 (119). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X2000031X

RECORD 190
TITLE
  Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kamel Boulos M.N.;  Geraghty E.M.
SOURCE
  International journal of health geographics (2020) 19:1 (8). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, a new virus (initially called ‘Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV’ and later renamed to SARS-CoV-2) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (coronavirus disease COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread to other parts of China and other countries around the world, despite China’s massive efforts to contain the disease within Hubei. As with the original SARS-CoV epidemic of 2002/2003 and with seasonal influenza, geographic information systems and methods, including, among other application possibilities, online real-or near-real-time mapping of disease cases and of social media reactions to disease spread, predictive risk mapping using population travel data, and tracing and mapping super-spreader trajectories and contacts across space and time, are proving indispensable for timely and effective epidemic monitoring and response. This paper offers pointers to, and describes, a range of practical online/mobile GIS and mapping dashboards and applications for tracking the 2019/2020 coronavirus epidemic and associated events as they unfold around the world. Some of these dashboards and applications are receiving data updates in near-real-time (at the time of writing), and one of them is meant for individual users (in China) to check if the app user has had any close contact with a person confirmed or suspected to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the recent past. We also discuss additional ways GIS can support the fight against infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-020-00202-8

RECORD 191
TITLE
  Politicians: please work together to minimise the spread of COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Murdoch D.;  Addidle M.;  Andersson H.-S.;  Arnold B.;  Balm M.;  Benschop J.;  Betty B.;  Birch M.;  Bloomfield M.;  Brunton C.;  Burns A.;  Chambers S.;  Cook L.;  Dalton S.;  Duncan H.;  Elvy J.;  Everts R.;  Freeman J.;  French N.;  Grimwade K.;  Hammer D.;  Hayman D.;  Holland D.;  Hudson B.;  Huggan P.;  Ikram R.;  Jack S.;  Kelly M.;  Lamont I.;  Maze M.;  McAuliffe G.;  McBride S.;  Metcalf S.;  Morpeth S.;  Morris A.;  Murton S.;  Pink R.;  Pithie A.;  Pitout M.;  Priest P.;  Raymond N.;  Read K.;  Ritchie S.;  Rogers M.;  Schroeder P.;  Taylor S.;  Taylor J.;  Thomas M.;  Upton A.;  Ussher J.;  Werno A.;  Wiles S.
SOURCE
  The New Zealand medical journal (2020) 133:1511 (7-8). Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020

RECORD 192
TITLE
  The outbreak of COVID-19: An overview
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu Y.-C.;  Chen C.-S.;  Chan Y.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA (2020) 83:3 (217-220). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In late December 2019, a previous unidentified coronavirus, currently named as the 2019 novel coronavirus#, emerged from Wuhan, China, and resulted in a formidable outbreak in many cities in China and expanded globally, including Thailand, Republic of Korea, Japan, United States, Philippines, Viet Nam, and our country (as of 2/6/2020 at least 25 countries). The disease is officially named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Ministry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category. COVID-19 is a potential zoonotic disease with low to moderate (estimated 2%-5%) mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission may occur through droplet or contact transmission and if there is a lack of stringent infection control or if no proper personal protective equipment available, it may jeopardize the first-line healthcare workers. Currently, there is no definite treatment for COVID-19 although some drugs are under investigation. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of the travel or contact history of the patient with compatible symptoms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000270

RECORD 193
TITLE
  COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
AUTHOR NAMES
  Barry M.;  Al Amri M.;  Memish Z.A.
SOURCE
  Journal of epidemiology and global health (2020) 10:1 (1-3). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified as the etiologic agent currently named SARS-CoV-2. Most cases are in Mainland China with international spread to 25 countries. The novelty of the virus, the rapid national and international spread, and the lack of therapeutic and preventative strategies have led the WHO International Health Regulation emergency committee to declare the disease as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. As it relates to countries with the ongoing MERS-CoV community cases and hospital acquired infections, there will be a huge challenge for HCWs to deal with both coronaviruses, especially with the lack of standardized and approved point of care testing. This challenge will now be faced by the whole global health community dealing with COVID-19 since both coronaviruses have similar presentation. Those patients should now be tested for both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 simultaneously, and with the continuing wide international spread of SARS-CoV-2, the travel history to China in the last 14 days will be of less significance.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200218.003

RECORD 194
TITLE
  Applications of google search trends for risk communication in infectious disease management: A case study of COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan
AUTHOR NAMES
  Husnayain A.;  Fuad A.;  Su E.C.-Y.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE: An emerging outbreak of COVID-19 has been detected in at least 26 countries worldwide. Given this pandemic situation, robust risk communication is urgently needed particularly in affected countries. Therefore, this study explored the potential use of Google Trends (GT) to monitor public restlessness toward COVID-19 epidemic infection in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrieved GT data for the specific locations of Taiwan nationwide and subregions using defined search terms related to coronavirus, handwashing, and face masks. RESULTS: Searches related to COVID-19 and face masks in Taiwan increased rapidly, following the announcements of Taiwan’ first imported case and reached its peak as local cases were reported. However, searches for handwashing were gradually increased in period of face masks shortage. Moreover, high to moderate correlations between Google relative search volume (RSV) and COVID-19 cases were found in Taipei (lag-3), New Taipei (lag-2), Taoyuan (lag-2), Tainan (lag-1), Taichung (lag0), and Kaohsiung (lag0). CONCLUSION: In response to the ongoing outbreak, our results demonstrated that GT could potentially define the proper timing and location for practicing appropriate risk communication strategies to the affected population.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.021

RECORD 195
TITLE
  The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: what we know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu D.;  Wu T.;  Liu Q.;  Yang Z.
SOURCE
  International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a current worldwide outbreak of the novel coronavirus Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019; the pathogen called SARS-CoV-2; previously 2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 6 continents including 66 countries, as of 24:00 on March 2, 2020. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak site and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatments and preventions of this new type of coronavirus.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.004

RECORD 196
TITLE
  Skin damage and the risk of infection among healthcare workers managing coronavirus disease-2019
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lan J.;  Song Z.;  Miao X.;  Li H.;  Li Y.;  Dong L.;  Yang J.;  An X.;  Zhang Y.;  Yang L.;  Zhou N.;  Yang L.;  Li J.;  Cao J.;  Wang J.;  Tao J.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.014

RECORD 197
TITLE
  Coronavirus disease 2019: the harms of exaggerated information and non-evidence-based measures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ioannidis J.P.A.
SOURCE
  European journal of clinical investigation (2020) (e13222). Date of Publication: 19 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic1 is certainly cause for concern. Proper communication and optimal decision-making is an ongoing challenge, as data evolve. The challenge is compounded, however, by exaggerated information. This can lead to inappropriate actions. It is important to differentiate promptly the true epidemic from an epidemic of false claims and potentially harmful actions.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13222

RECORD 198
TITLE
  The Cholera Epidemics in Hamburg and What to Learn for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tárnok A.
SOURCE
  Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology (2020). Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
    © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.23999

RECORD 199
TITLE
  Identifying and Interrupting Superspreading Events-Implications for Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
AUTHOR NAMES
  Frieden T.R.;  Lee C.T.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 18 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  It appears inevitable that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 will continue to spread. Although we still have limited information on the epidemiology of this virus, there have been multiple reports of superspreading events (SSEs), which are associated with both explosive growth early in an outbreak and sustained transmission in later stages. Although SSEs appear to be difficult to predict and therefore difficult to prevent, core public health actions can prevent and reduce the number and impact of SSEs. To prevent and control of SSEs, speed is essential. Prevention and mitigation of SSEs depends, first and foremost, on quickly recognizing and understanding these events, particularly within healthcare settings. Better understanding transmission dynamics associated with SSEs, identifying and mitigating high-risk settings, strict adherence to healthcare infection prevention and control measures, and timely implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions can help prevent and control severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, as well as future infectious disease outbreaks.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200495

RECORD 200
TITLE
  Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: A statistical analysis of publicly available case data
AUTHOR NAMES
  Linton N.M.;  Kobayashi T.;  Yang Y.;  Hayashi K.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Jung S.-M.;  Yuan B.;  Kinoshita R.;  Nishiura H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 538. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The geographic spread of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections from the epicenter of Wuhan, China, has provided an opportunity to study the natural history of the recently emerged virus. Using publicly available event-date data from the ongoing epidemic, the present study investigated the incubation period and other time intervals that govern the epidemiological dynamics of COVID-19 infections. Our results show that the incubation period falls within the range of 2–14 days with 95% confidence and has a mean of around 5 days when approximated using the best-fit lognormal distribution. The mean time from illness onset to hospital admission (for treatment and/or isolation) was estimated at 3–4 days without truncation and at 5–9 days when right truncated. Based on the 95th percentile estimate of the incubation period, we recommend that the length of quarantine should be at least 14 days. The median time delay of 13 days from illness onset to death (17 days with right truncation) should be considered when estimating the COVID-19 case fatality risk.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020538

RECORD 201
TITLE
  How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Asmundson G.J.G.;  Taylor S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Anxiety Disorders (2020) 71 Article Number: 102211. Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102211

RECORD 202
TITLE
  A commentary on “World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel Coronavirus (COVID-19)”
AUTHOR NAMES
  Shah S.G.S.;  Farrow A.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Surgery (2020) 76 (128-129). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.03.001

RECORD 203
TITLE
  Potential association between COVID-19 mortality and health-care resource availability
AUTHOR NAMES
  Ji Y.;  Ma Z.;  Peppelenbosch M.P.;  Pan Q.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Global Health (2020) 8:4 (e480). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30068-1

RECORD 204
TITLE
  Similarity in Case Fatality Rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Porcheddu R.;  Serra C.;  Kelvin D.;  Kelvin N.;  Rubino S.
SOURCE
  Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (2020) 14:2 (125-128). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  As of 28 February 2020, Italy had 888 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with most cases in Northern Italy in the Lombardia and Veneto regions. Travel-related cases were the main source of COVID-19 cases during the early stages of the current epidemic in Italy. The month of February, however, has been dominated by two large clusters of outbreaks in Northern Italy, south of Milan, with mainly local transmission the source of infections. Contact tracing has failed to identify patient zero in one of the outbreaks. As of 28 February 2020, twenty-one cases of COVID-19 have died. Comparison between case fatality rates in China and Italy are identical at 2.3. Additionally, deaths are similar in both countries with fatalities in mostly the elderly with known comorbidities. It will be important to develop point-of-care devices to aid clinicians in stratifying elderly patients as early as possible to determine the potential level of care they will require to improve their chances of survival from COVID-19 disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12600

RECORD 205
TITLE
  Interrupting COVID-19 transmission by implementing enhanced traffic control bundling: Implications for global prevention and control efforts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yen M.-Y.;  Schwartz J.;  Chen S.-Y.;  King C.-C.;  Yang G.-Y.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We argue that enhanced Traffic Control Bundling (eTCB) can interrupt the community-hospital-community transmission cycle, thereby limiting COVID-19’s impact. Enhanced TCB is an expansion of the traditional TCB that proved highly effective during Taiwan’s 2003 SARS outbreak. TCB’s success derived from ensuring that Health Care Workers (HCWs) and patients were protected from fomite, contact and droplet transmission within hospitals. Although TCB proved successful during SARS, achieving a similar level of success with the COVID-19 outbreak requires adapting TCB to the unique manifestations of this new disease. These manifestations include asymptomatic infection, a hyper-affinity to ACE2 receptors resulting in high transmissibility, false negatives, and an incubation period of up to 22 days. Enhanced TCB incorporates the necessary adaptations. In particular, eTCB includes expanding the TCB transition zone to incorporate a new sector – the quarantine ward. This ward houses patients exhibiting atypical manifestations or awaiting definitive diagnosis. A second adaptation involves enhancing the checkpoint hand disinfection and gowning up with Personal Protective Equipment deployed in traditional TCB. Under eTCB, checkpoint hand disinfection and donning of face masks are now required of all visitors who seek to enter hospitals. These enhancements ensure that transmissions by droplets, fomites and contact are disrupted both within hospitals and between hospitals and the broader community. Evidencing eTCB effectiveness is Taiwan’s success to date in containing and controlling the community-hospital-community transmission cycle.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.011

RECORD 206
TITLE
  The Fight against the 2019-nCoV Outbreak: an Arduous March Has Just Begun
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yoo J.H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:4 (e56). Date of Publication: 3 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e56

RECORD 207
TITLE
  The Outbreak Cases with the Novel Coronavirus Suggest Upgraded Quarantine and Isolation in Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yoo J.H.;  Hong S.T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Korean medical science (2020) 35:5 (e62). Date of Publication: 10 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e62

RECORD 208
TITLE
  Clinical Management of Lung Cancer Patients during the Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu Y.;  Liu H.;  Hu K.;  Wang M.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer (2020) 23. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since late December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. With the spread of COVID-19, the routine clinical diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer patients has been disturbed. Due to the systemic immunosuppressive of lung cancer patients caused by the malignancy and anticancer treatments, lung cancer patients are more susceptible to infection than healthy individuals. Furthermore, patients with cancer had poorer prognosis from infection. Lung cancer patients should be the priority group for COVID-19 prevention. The protection provisions and control measures aiming to protect lung cancer patients from COVID-19 have been increasingly concerned. During the COVID-19 outbreak period, it should be carefully differentiated for fever and respiratory symptoms for lung cancer patients receiving anti-tumor treatment, in order to evaluate the risk of COVID-19. Moreover, it is necessary to carry out meticulous and individualized clinical management for lung cancer patients to effectively protect the patients from COVID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.03.02

RECORD 209
TITLE
  Preliminary Recommendations for Lung Surgery during 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic Period
AUTHOR NAMES
  Li X.;  Liu M.;  Zhao Q.;  Liu R.;  Zhang H.;  Dong M.;  Xu S.;  Zhao H.;  Wei S.;  Song Z.;  Chen G.;  Chen J.
SOURCE
  Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer (2020) 23. Date of Publication: 20 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, China diagnosed the first patient with 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and the following development of the epidemic had a huge impact on China and the whole world. For patients with lung occupying lesions, the whole process of diagnosis and treatment can not be carried out as usual due to the epidemic. For thoracic surgeons, the timing of surgical intervention should be very carefully considered. All thoracic surgeons in China should work together to develop the proper procedures for the diagnosis and treatment in this special situation, and continuously update the recommendations based on epidemic changes and further understanding of COVID-19. Here, we only offer some preliminary suggestions based on our own knowledge for further reference and discussion.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.03.01

RECORD 210
TITLE
  Management of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19): the Zhejiang experience
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu K.;  Cai H.;  Shen Y.;  Ni Q.;  Chen Y.;  Hu S.;  Li J.;  Wang H.;  Yu L.;  Huang H.;  Qiu Y.;  Wei G.;  Fang Q.;  Zhou J.;  Sheng J.;  Liang T.;  Li L.
SOURCE
  Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences (2020) 49:1 (0). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The current epidemic situation of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 inZhejiang Province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on “Four-Anti and Two-Balance” for clinical practice. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinarypersonalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in10% patients’blood samples at acute periodand 50% of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifyingcytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The “Four-Anti and Two-Balance”strategyeffectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviraleffects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favoredthe balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short periods of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be prescribed rationally and was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbialdysbiosis with decreasedprobiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, two weeks’ quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience above and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.

RECORD 211
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus COVID-19: an overview for emergency clinicians
AUTHOR NAMES
  Giwa A.;  Desai A.
SOURCE
  Emergency medicine practice (2020) 22:2 Supplement 2 (1-21). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Prior to the global outbreak of SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 were the only coronaviruses known to infect humans. Following the SARS outbreak, 5 additional coronaviruses have been discovered in humans, most recently the novel coronavirus COVID-19, believed to have originated in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. SARS-CoV and MERSCoV are particularly pathogenic in humans and are associated with high mortality. In this review, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the recently discovered COVID-19 are reviewed, with a focus on best practices and the public health implications.

RECORD 212
TITLE
  Facing the pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus infections: the pediatric perspectives
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fang F.;  Luo X.P.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:2 (81-85). Date of Publication: 2 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.02.001

RECORD 213
TITLE
  COVID-19. The only certainty is the uncertainty
AUTHOR NAMES
  Briem H.
SOURCE
  Laeknabladid (2020) 106:3 (119). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.17992/lbl.2020.03.469

RECORD 214
TITLE
  COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 5 (Reporting week ending 19:00 AEDT 29 February 2020)
SOURCE
  Communicable diseases intelligence (2018) (2020) 44. Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  This is the fifth epidemiological report for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), reported in Australia as at 19:00 Australian Eastern Daylight Time [AEDT] 29 February 2020. It includes data on COVID-19 cases diagnosed in Australia, the international situation and a review of current evidence.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.33321/cdi.2020.44.20

RECORD 215
TITLE
  Three Emerging Coronaviruses in Two Decades: The Story of SARS, MERS, and Now COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Guarner J.
SOURCE
  American Journal of Clinical Pathology (2020) 153:4 (420-421). Date of Publication: 9 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqaa029

RECORD 216
TITLE
  First case of severe childhood novel coronavirus pneumonia in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen F.;  Liu Z.S.;  Zhang F.R.;  Xiong R.H.;  Chen Y.;  Cheng X.F.;  Wang W.Y.;  Ren J.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics (2020) 58:3 (179-182). Date of Publication: 2 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.03.003

RECORD 217
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak: Now is the time to refresh pandemic plans
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koonin L.M.
SOURCE
  Journal of business continuity & emergency planning (2020) 13:4 (1-15). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  This article outlines practical steps that businesses can take now to prepare for a pandemic. Given the current growing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) around the world, it is imperative that businesses review their pandemic plans and be prepared in case this epidemic expands and affects more people and communities. Preparing for a potential infectious disease pandemic from influenza or a novel corona virus is an essential component of a business continuity plan, especially for businesses that provide critical healthcare and infrastructure services. Although many businesses and organisations have a pandemic plan or address pandemic preparedness in their business continuity plans, few have recently tested and updated their plans. Pandemics can not only interrupt an organisation’s operations and compromise long-term viability of an enterprise, but also disrupt the provision of critical functions. Businesses that regularly test and update their pandemic plan can significantly reduce harmful impacts to the business, play a key role in protecting employees’ and customers’ health and safety, and limit the negative impact of a pandemic on the community and economy.

RECORD 218
TITLE
  Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Chen J.;  Qi T.;  Liu L.;  Ling Y.;  Qian Z.;  Li T.;  Li F.;  Xu Q.;  Zhang Y.;  Xu S.;  Song Z.;  Zeng Y.;  Shen Y.;  Shi Y.;  Zhu T.;  Lu H.
SOURCE
  The Journal of infection (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Studies on the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have generally been limited to the description of the epidemiology and initial clinical characteristics. We investigated the temporal progression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, we included confirmed cases of COVID-19 from Jan 20 to Feb 6, 2020 in Shanghai. Final date of follow-up was February 25, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 249 patients enrolled, the median age was 51 years old, and 126 (50.6%) were male. The duration from onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 4(2-7) days in symptomatic patients. Fever was occurred in 235(94.3%) patients. A total of 215 (86.3%) patients had been discharged after 16(12-20) days hospitalization. The estimated median duration of fever in all the patients with fever was 10 days (95 confidential intervals [CIs]: 8-11 days) after onset of symptoms. Patients who were transferred to intensive care units (ICU) had significantly longer duration of fever as compared to those not in ICU (31 days v.s. 9 days after onset of symptoms, respectively, P<0.0001). Radiological aggravation of initial image was observed in 163 (65.7%) patients on day 7 after onset of symptoms. 154(94.5%) of these patients showed radiological improvement on day 14. The median duration to negative reverse-transcriptase PCR tests of upper respiratory tract samples was 11 days (95 CIs: 10-12 days). Viral clearance was more likely to be delayed in patients in ICU than those not in ICU (P<0.0001). In multivariate logistical analysis, age (Odds ratio [OR]=1.06) and CD4 T cell count (OR=0.55 per 100 cells/ul increase) were independently associated with ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of COVID-19 cases are mild. The clinical progression pattern suggests that early control of viral replication and application of host-directed therapy in later stage is essential to improve the prognosis of CVOID-19.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.004

RECORD 219
TITLE
  Real-time estimation of the risk of death from novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: Inference using exported cases
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jung S.-M.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Hayashi K.;  Linton N.M.;  Yang Y.;  Yuan B.;  Kobayashi T.;  Kinoshita R.;  Nishiura H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 523. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The exported cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection that were confirmed outside China provide an opportunity to estimate the cumulative incidence and confirmed case fatality risk (cCFR) in mainland China. Knowledge of the cCFR is critical to characterize the severity and understand the pandemic potential of COVID-19 in the early stage of the epidemic. Using the exponential growth rate of the incidence, the present study statistically estimated the cCFR and the basic reproduction number—the average number of secondary cases generated by a single primary case in a naïve population. We modeled epidemic growth either from a single index case with illness onset on 8 December, 2019 (Scenario 1), or using the growth rate fitted along with the other parameters (Scenario 2) based on data from 20 exported cases reported by 24 January 2020. The cumulative incidence in China by 24 January was estimated at 6924 cases (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4885, 9211) and 19,289 cases (95% CI: 10,901, 30,158), respectively. The latest estimated values of the cCFR were 5.3% (95% CI: 3.5%, 7.5%) for Scenario 1 and 8.4% (95% CI: 5.3%, 12.3%) for Scenario 2. The basic reproduction number was estimated to be 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.2) and 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7, 3.7) for Scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. Based on these results, we argued that the current COVID-19 epidemic has a substantial potential for causing a pandemic. The proposed approach provides insights in early risk assessment using publicly available data.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020523

RECORD 220
TITLE
  Prediction of the epidemic peak of coronavirus disease in Japan, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kuniya T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:3 Article Number: 789. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan was reported on 15 January 2020 and the number of reported cases has increased day by day. The purpose of this study is to give a prediction of the epidemic peak for COVID-19 in Japan by using the real-time data from 15 January to 29 February 2020. Taking into account the uncertainty due to the incomplete identification of infective population, we apply the well-known SEIR compartmental model for the prediction. By using a least-square-based method with Poisson noise, we estimate that the basic reproduction number for the epidemic in Japan is R0 = 2.6 (95%CI, 2.4–2.8) and the epidemic peak could possibly reach the early-middle summer. In addition, we obtain the following epidemiological insights: (1) the essential epidemic size is less likely to be affected by the rate of identification of the actual infective population; (2) the intervention has a positive effect on the delay of the epidemic peak; (3) intervention over a relatively long period is needed to effectively reduce the final epidemic size.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030789

RECORD 221
TITLE
  Real-time forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic in China from February 5th to February 24th, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Roosa K.;  Lee Y.;  Luo R.;  Kirpich A.;  Rothenberg R.;  Hyman J.M.;  Yan P.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (256-263). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  The initial cluster of severe pneumonia cases that triggered the COVID-19 epidemic was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. While early cases of the disease were linked to a wet market, human-to-human transmission has driven the rapid spread of the virus throughout China. The Chinese government has implemented containment strategies of city-wide lockdowns, screening at airports and train stations, and isolation of suspected patients; however, the cumulative case count keeps growing every day. The ongoing outbreak presents a challenge for modelers, as limited data are available on the early growth trajectory, and the epidemiological characteristics of the novel coronavirus are yet to be fully elucidated. We use phenomenological models that have been validated during previous outbreaks to generate and assess short-term forecasts of the cumulative number of confirmed reported cases in Hubei province, the epicenter of the epidemic, and for the overall trajectory in China, excluding the province of Hubei. We collect daily reported cumulative confirmed cases for the 2019-nCoV outbreak for each Chinese province from the National Health Commission of China. Here, we provide 5, 10, and 15 day forecasts for five consecutive days, February 5th through February 9th, with quantified uncertainty based on a generalized logistic growth model, the Richards growth model, and a sub-epidemic wave model. Our most recent forecasts reported here, based on data up until February 9, 2020, largely agree across the three models presented and suggest an average range of 7409–7496 additional confirmed cases in Hubei and 1128–1929 additional cases in other provinces within the next five days. Models also predict an average total cumulative case count between 37,415 and 38,028 in Hubei and 11,588–13,499 in other provinces by February 24, 2020. Mean estimates and uncertainty bounds for both Hubei and other provinces have remained relatively stable in the last three reporting dates (February 7th – 9th). We also observe that each of the models predicts that the epidemic has reached saturation in both Hubei and other provinces. Our findings suggest that the containment strategies implemented in China are successfully reducing transmission and that the epidemic growth has slowed in recent days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.002

RECORD 222
TITLE
  Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lai C.-C.;  Shih T.-P.;  Ko W.-C.;  Tang H.-J.;  Hsueh P.-R.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents (2020) 55:3 Article Number: 105924. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24–3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105924

RECORD 223
TITLE
  Systematic comparison of two animal-to-human transmitted human coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xu J.;  Zhao S.;  Teng T.;  Abdalla A.E.;  Zhu W.;  Xie L.;  Wang Y.;  Guo X.
SOURCE
  Viruses (2020) 12:2 Article Number: 244. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  After the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in the world in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been reported as pathogens that cause severe symptoms in respiratory tract infections. Recently, a new emerged HCoV isolated from the respiratory epithelium of unexplained pneumonia patients in theWuhan seafood market caused a major disease outbreak and has been named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus causes acute lung symptoms, leading to a condition that has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019” (COVID-19). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and of SARS-CoV caused widespread fear and concern and has threatened global health security. There are some similarities and differences in the epidemiology and clinical features between these two viruses and diseases that are caused by these viruses. The goal of this work is to systematically review and compare between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 in the context of their virus incubation, originations, diagnosis and treatment methods, genomic and proteomic sequences, and pathogenic mechanisms.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020244

RECORD 224
TITLE
  Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Legido-Quigley H.;  Asgari N.;  Teo Y.Y.;  Leung G.M.;  Oshitani H.;  Fukuda K.;  Cook A.R.;  Hsu L.Y.;  Shibuya K.;  Heymann D.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (848-850). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30551-1

RECORD 225
TITLE
  COVID-19 and the anti-lessons of history
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peckham R.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (850-852). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30468-2

RECORD 226
TITLE
  The coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and patient safety
AUTHOR NAMES
  Elston D.M.
SOURCE
  Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2020) 82:4 (819-820). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.02.031

RECORD 227
TITLE
  Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hellewell J.;  Abbott S.;  Gimma A.;  Bosse N.I.;  Jarvis C.I.;  Russell T.W.;  Munday J.D.;  Kucharski A.J.;  Edmunds W.J.;  Sun F.;  Flasche S.;  Quilty B.J.;  Davies N.;  Liu Y.;  Clifford S.;  Klepac P.;  Jit M.;  Diamond C.;  Gibbs H.;  van Zandvoort K.;  Funk S.;  Eggo R.M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet Global Health (2020) 8:4 (e488-e496). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: Isolation of cases and contact tracing is used to control outbreaks of infectious diseases, and has been used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether this strategy will achieve control depends on characteristics of both the pathogen and the response. Here we use a mathematical model to assess if isolation and contact tracing are able to control onwards transmission from imported cases of COVID-19. Methods: We developed a stochastic transmission model, parameterised to the COVID-19 outbreak. We used the model to quantify the potential effectiveness of contact tracing and isolation of cases at controlling a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-like pathogen. We considered scenarios that varied in the number of initial cases, the basic reproduction number (R0), the delay from symptom onset to isolation, the probability that contacts were traced, the proportion of transmission that occurred before symptom onset, and the proportion of subclinical infections. We assumed isolation prevented all further transmission in the model. Outbreaks were deemed controlled if transmission ended within 12 weeks or before 5000 cases in total. We measured the success of controlling outbreaks using isolation and contact tracing, and quantified the weekly maximum number of cases traced to measure feasibility of public health effort. Findings: Simulated outbreaks starting with five initial cases, an R0 of 1·5, and 0% transmission before symptom onset could be controlled even with low contact tracing probability; however, the probability of controlling an outbreak decreased with the number of initial cases, when R0 was 2·5 or 3·5 and with more transmission before symptom onset. Across different initial numbers of cases, the majority of scenarios with an R0 of 1·5 were controllable with less than 50% of contacts successfully traced. To control the majority of outbreaks, for R0 of 2·5 more than 70% of contacts had to be traced, and for an R0 of 3·5 more than 90% of contacts had to be traced. The delay between symptom onset and isolation had the largest role in determining whether an outbreak was controllable when R0 was 1·5. For R0 values of 2·5 or 3·5, if there were 40 initial cases, contact tracing and isolation were only potentially feasible when less than 1% of transmission occurred before symptom onset. Interpretation: In most scenarios, highly effective contact tracing and case isolation is enough to control a new outbreak of COVID-19 within 3 months. The probability of control decreases with long delays from symptom onset to isolation, fewer cases ascertained by contact tracing, and increasing transmission before symptoms. This model can be modified to reflect updated transmission characteristics and more specific definitions of outbreak control to assess the potential success of local response efforts. Funding: Wellcome Trust, Global Challenges Research Fund, and Health Data Research UK.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30074-7

RECORD 228
TITLE
  COVID-19: delay, mitigate, and communicate
AUTHOR NAMES
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
SOURCE
  The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (2020) 8:4 (321). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30128-4

RECORD 229
TITLE
  COVID-19: towards controlling of a pandemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bedford J.;  Enria D.;  Giesecke J.;  Heymann D.L.;  Ihekweazu C.;  Kobinger G.;  Lane H.C.;  Memish Z.;  Oh M.-D.;  Sall A.A.;  Schuchat A.;  Ungchusak K.;  Wieler L.H.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10229 (1015-1018). Date of Publication: 28 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30673-5

RECORD 230
TITLE
  Africa prepares for coronavirus
AUTHOR NAMES
  Makoni M.
SOURCE
  Lancet (London, England) (2020) 395:10223 (483). Date of Publication: 15 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30355-X

RECORD 231
TITLE
  Covid-19: Preparedness, decentralisation, and the hunt for patient zero
AUTHOR NAMES
  Carinci F.
SOURCE
  The BMJ (2020) 368 Article Number: 368m799. Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m799

RECORD 232
TITLE
  Analysis on epidemic situation and spatiotemporal changes of COVID-19 in Anhui
AUTHOR NAMES
  Liu M.;  Xu H.L.;  Yuan M.;  Liu Z.R.;  Wu X.Y.;  Zhang Y.;  Ma L.Y.;  Gong L.;  Gan H.;  Zong W.W.;  Tao S.M.;  Liu Q.;  Du Y.N.;  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E019). Date of Publication: 27 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We used the epidemic data of COVID-19 published on the official website of the municipal health commission in Anhui province. We mapped the spatiotemporal changes of confirmed cases, fitted the epidemic situation by the population growth curve at different stages and took statistical description and analysis of the epidemic situation in Anhui province. It was found that the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 156/100 000 by February 18, 2020 and the trend of COVID-19 epidemic declined after February 7, changing from J curve to S curve. The actual number of new cases began to decrease from February 2 to February 4 due to the time of case report and actual onset delayed by 3 to 5 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200221-00150

RECORD 233
TITLE
  Protecting Health Care Workers during the COVID-19 Coronavirus Outbreak -Lessons from Taiwan’s SARS response
AUTHOR NAMES
  Schwartz J.;  King C.-C.;  Yen M.-Y.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  During major epidemic outbreaks, demand for health care workers grows even as the extreme pressures they face cause declining availability. We draw on Taiwan’s SARS experience to argue that a modified form of Traffic Control Bundling protects health care worker safety and by extension strengthens overall COVID-19 epidemic control.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa255

RECORD 234
TITLE
  A Novel Approach for a Novel Pathogen: using a home assessment team to evaluate patients for 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bryson-Cahn C.;  Duchin J.;  Makarewicz V.A.;  Kay M.;  Rietberg K.;  Napolitano N.;  Kamangu C.;  Dellit T.H.;  Lynch J.B.
SOURCE
  Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2020). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Thousands of people in the United States have required testing for SARS-CoV-2. Evaluation for a special pathogen is resource intensive. We report an innovative approach to home assessment that, in collaboration with public health, enables safe evaluation and specimen collection outside the healthcare setting, avoiding unnecessary exposures and resource utilization.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa256

RECORD 235
TITLE
  Estimating the reproductive number and the outbreak size of Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) using mathematical model in Republic of Korea
AUTHOR NAMES
  Choi S.C.;  Ki M.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and health (2020) (e2020011). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objectives: Since the first novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19) patient was diagnosed on 20-Jan, about 30 patients were diagnosed in Korea until 17-Feb. However, 5,298 more patient were confirmed until 4-Mar. The purpose is to estimate and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive measures using mathematical modeling. Methods: Deterministic mathematical model(SEIHR) has been established to suit the Korean outbreak. The number of confirmed patients in Daegu and North Gyeongsang Province(Daegu/NGP), the main area of outbreak, were used. The first patient’s symptom onset date was assumed on 22-Jan. We estimate the reproduction number(R), and the effect of preventive measures, assuming that the effect has been shown from 29-Feb. or 5-Mar. Results: The estimated R in Hubei Province was 4.2655, while the estimated initial R in Korea was 0.5555, but later in Daegu/NGP, the value was between 3.4721 and 3.5428. When the transmission period decreases from 4 days to 2 days, the outbreak finished early, but the peak of the epidemic has increased, and the total number of patients has not changed much. If transmission rate decreases about 90% or 99%, the outbreak finished early, and the size of the peak and the total number of patients also decreased. Conclusion: To early end of the COVID-19 epidemic, efforts to reduce the spread of the virus such as social distancing and mask wearing are absolutely crucial with the participation of the public, along with the policy of reducing the transmission period by finding and isolating patients as quickly as possible through efforts by the quarantine authorities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020011

RECORD 236
TITLE
  Identification of COVID-19 Can be Quicker through Artificial Intelligence framework using a Mobile Phone-Based Survey in the Populations when Cities/Towns Are under Quarantine
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rao A.S.R.S.;  Vazquez J.A.
SOURCE
  Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  We are proposing to use machine learning algorithms to be able to improve possible case identifications of COVID-19 more quicker when we use a mobile phone-based web survey. This will also reduce the spread in the susceptible populations.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.61

RECORD 237
TITLE
  Epidemiology of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease-19 in Gansu Province, China, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Fan J.;  Liu X.;  Pan W.;  Douglas M.W.;  Bao S.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:6. Date of Publication: 13 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  To determine the epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a remote region of China, far from Wuhan, we analyzed the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Gansu Province. From January 23 through February 3, 2020, a total of 35 (64.8%) of 54 reported cases were imported from COVID-19-epidemic areas. Characteristics that differed significantly during the first and second waves of illness in Gansu Province were mean patient age, occupation, having visited epidemic areas, and mode of transportation. Time from infection to illness onset for family clusters was shorter in Gansu Province than in Wuhan, consistent with shortened durations from onset to first medical visit or hospitalization. Spatial distribution pattern analysis indicated hot spots and spatial outliers in Gansu Province. As a result of adequate interventions, transmission of the COVID-19 virus in Gansu Province is decreasing.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200251

RECORD 238
TITLE
  Diabetes and COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Bloomgarden Z.T.
SOURCE
  Journal of Diabetes (2020) 12:4 (347-348). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13027

RECORD 239
TITLE
  From SARS to COVID-19: A previously unknown SARS- related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of pandemic potential infecting humans – Call for a One Health approach
AUTHOR NAMES
  El Zowalaty M.E.;  Järhult J.D.
SOURCE
  One Health (2020) 9 Article Number: 100124. Date of Publication: 1 Jun 2020
ABSTRACT
  Human coronaviruses continue to pose a threat to human health. The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019 which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. This recent emergence of a previously unknown coronavirus in China leads to huge impacts on humans globally. Covid-19 is a challenge to global public health. Here, we discuss the COVID-19 outbreak in a one health context, highlighting the need for the implementation of one health measures and practices to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemic viruses.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2020.100124

RECORD 240
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Pregnancy: What obstetricians need to know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rasmussen S.A.;  Smulian J.C.;  Lednicky J.A.;  Wen T.S.;  Jamieson D.J.
SOURCE
  American journal of obstetrics and gynecology (2020). Date of Publication: 24 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging disease with a rapid increase in cases and deaths since its first identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Limited data are available about COVID-19 during pregnancy; however, information on illnesses associated with other highly pathogenic coronaviruses (i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)) might provide insights into COVID-19’s effects during pregnancy.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2020.02.017

RECORD 241
TITLE
  Occupational risks for COVID-19 infection
AUTHOR NAMES
  Koh D.
SOURCE
  Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) (2020) 70:1 (3-5). Date of Publication: 12 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqaa036

RECORD 242
TITLE
  The 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak – A Global Threat
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khot W.Y.;  Nadkar M.Y.
SOURCE
  The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (2020) 68:3 (67-71). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019 Novel Corona virus infection (COVID 19) is an ongoing public health emergency of international significance. There are significant knowledge gaps in the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, investigation tools and management. In this article, we review the available evidence about this disease. Every decade has witnessed the evolution of a new coronavirus epidemic since the last three decades. The varying transmission patterns, namely, nosocomial transmission and spread through mildly symptomatic cases is an area of concern. There is a spectrum of clinical features from mild to severe life threatening disease with major complications like severe pneumonia, ARDS, acute cardiac injury and septic shock. Presence of bilateral ground glass opacity and consolidation on imaging in appropriate clinical background should raise a suspicion about COVID 19. Poor prognostic factors include Multilobular infiltration on chest imaging, Lymphopenia, Bacterial co-infection, Smoking history, Chronic medical conditions like Hypertension and age >60 years (MuLBSTA score). Diagnosis is confirmed with PCR based testing of appropriate respiratory samples. Management is primarily supportive, with newer antivirals (lopinavir ritonavir and Remdesivir) under investigation. Role of steroids is still inconclusive. Standard infection control and prevention techniques should be followed. Vigilant screening of suspected cases and their contacts is important. Isolation of symptomatic cases and home quarantine of asymptomatic contacts is recommended. To conclude, controlling this highly transmissible disease requires international co-ordination.

RECORD 243
TITLE
  Healing the schism between public health and medicine, promoting the integration of prevention and treatment
AUTHOR NAMES
  Tao F.B.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E024). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The ‘Healing the Schism: Epidemiology, Medicine, and the Public’s Health’ by professor Kerr L. White’s be published has a history of nearly 30 years. Since then, although scholars have appealed to incorporating public health and clinical medicine education, and breaking down separations between public health and clinical workforce in China, the effect is yet not so obvious. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has opened a public class on the treatment, prevention and control of infectious diseases for the Chinese citizens. Consequently, the Chinese people have higher expectations on the modernization of public health governance, and the social atmosphere of incorporating preventive medicine and clinical medical education is establishing. In future, when combating with novel infectious diseases and public health emergencies, the response capacity of public health system and treatment capacity of clinical system will be significantly improved, while the situation on insufficient integration of prevention and treatment is bound to be reversed.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200304-00246

RECORD 244
TITLE
  Clinical characteristics of 24 asymptomatic infections with COVID-19 screened among close contacts in Nanjing, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu Z.;  Song C.;  Xu C.;  Jin G.;  Chen Y.;  Xu X.;  Ma H.;  Chen W.;  Lin Y.;  Zheng Y.;  Wang J.;  Hu Z.;  Yi Y.;  Shen H.
SOURCE
  Science China. Life sciences (2020). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Previous studies have showed clinical characteristics of patients with the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the evidence of person-to-person transmission. Limited data are available for asymptomatic infections. This study aims to present the clinical characteristics of 24 cases with asymptomatic infection screened from close contacts and to show the transmission potential of asymptomatic COVID-19 virus carriers. Epidemiological investigations were conducted among all close contacts of COVID-19 patients (or suspected patients) in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, from Jan 28 to Feb 9, 2020, both in clinic and in community. Asymptomatic carriers were laboratory-confirmed positive for the COVID-19 virus by testing the nucleic acid of the pharyngeal swab samples. Their clinical records, laboratory assessments, and chest CT scans were reviewed. As a result, none of the 24 asymptomatic cases presented any obvious symptoms while nucleic acid screening. Five cases (20.8%) developed symptoms (fever, cough, fatigue, etc.) during hospitalization. Twelve (50.0%) cases showed typical CT images of ground-glass chest and 5 (20.8%) presented stripe shadowing in the lungs. The remaining 7 (29.2%) cases showed normal CT image and had no symptoms during hospitalization. These 7 cases were younger (median age: 14.0 years; P=0.012) than the rest. None of the 24 cases developed severe COVID-19 pneumonia or died. The median communicable period, defined as the interval from the first day of positive nucleic acid tests to the first day of continuous negative tests, was 9.5 days (up to 21 days among the 24 asymptomatic cases). Through epidemiological investigation, we observed a typical asymptomatic transmission to the cohabiting family members, which even caused severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Overall, the asymptomatic carriers identified from close contacts were prone to be mildly ill during hospitalization. However, the communicable period could be up to three weeks and the communicated patients could develop severe illness. These results highlighted the importance of close contact tracing and longitudinally surveillance via virus nucleic acid tests. Further isolation recommendation and continuous nucleic acid tests may also be recommended to the patients discharged.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1661-4

RECORD 245
TITLE
  The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options
AUTHOR NAMES
  Khan S.;  Siddique R.;  Shereen M.A.;  Ali A.;  Liu J.;  Bai Q.;  Bashir N.;  Xue M.
SOURCE
  Journal of clinical microbiology (2020). Date of Publication: 11 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not clear yet, however, its resemblance with SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infected people. In this Review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00187-20

RECORD 246
TITLE
  Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wang H.;  Wang Z.;  Dong Y.;  Chang R.;  Xu C.;  Yu X.;  Zhang S.;  Tsamlag L.;  Shang M.;  Huang J.;  Wang Y.;  Xu G.;  Shen T.;  Zhang X.;  Cai Y.
SOURCE
  Cell Discovery (2020) 6:1 Article Number: 10. Date of Publication: 1 Dec 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated R0 of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. An infectious disease dynamics SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, and Removed) model was applied to estimate the epidemic trend in Wuhan, China under two assumptions of Rt. In the first assumption, Rt was assumed to maintain over 1. The estimated number of infections would continue to increase throughout February without any indication of dropping with Rt = 1.9, 2.6, or 3.1. The number of infections would reach 11,044, 70,258, and 227,989, respectively, by 29 February 2020. In the second assumption, Rt was assumed to gradually decrease at different phases from high level of transmission (Rt = 3.1, 2.6, and 1.9) to below 1 (Rt = 0.9 or 0.5) owing to increasingly implemented public health intervention. Several phases were divided by the dates when various levels of prevention and control measures were taken in effect in Wuhan. The estimated number of infections would reach the peak in late February, which is 58,077–84,520 or 55,869–81,393. Whether or not the peak of the number of infections would occur in February 2020 may be an important index for evaluating the sufficiency of the current measures taken in China. Regardless of the occurrence of the peak, the currently strict measures in Wuhan should be continuously implemented and necessary strict public health measures should be applied in other locations in China with high number of COVID-19 cases, in order to reduce Rt to an ideal level and control the infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0148-0

RECORD 247
TITLE
  Potential factors influencing repeated SARS outbreaks in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun Z.;  Thilakavathy K.;  Kumar S.S.;  He G.;  Liu S.V.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020) 17:5 Article Number: 1633. Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or-released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051633

RECORD 248
TITLE
  An outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a new coronavirus: what we know so far
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng A.C.;  Williamson D.A.
SOURCE
  Medical Journal of Australia (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.5694/mja2.50530

RECORD 249
TITLE
  Preprints bring ‘firehose’ of outbreak data: COVID-19 has upended the ways researchers share findings and collaborate
AUTHOR NAMES
  Kupferschmidt K.
SOURCE
  Science (2020) 367:6481 (963-964). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6481.963

RECORD 250
TITLE
  Passengers’ destinations from China: Low risk of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) transmission into Africa and South America
AUTHOR NAMES
  Haider N.;  Yavlinsky A.;  Simons D.;  Osman A.Y.;  Ntoumi F.;  Zumla A.;  Kock R.
SOURCE
  Epidemiology and Infection (2020) Article Number: e41. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV [SARS-COV-2]) was detected in humans during the last week of December 2019 at Wuhan city in China, and caused 24 554 cases in 27 countries and territories as of 5 February 2020. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of transmission of 2019-nCoV through human passenger air flight from four major cities of China (Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou) to the passengers’ destination countries. We extracted the weekly simulated passengers’ end destination data for the period of 1-31 January 2020 from FLIRT, an online air travel dataset that uses information from 800 airlines to show the direct flight and passengers’ end destination. We estimated a risk index of 2019-nCoV transmission based on the number of travellers to destination countries, weighted by the number of confirmed cases of the departed city reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). We ranked each country based on the risk index in four quantiles (4th quantile being the highest risk and 1st quantile being the lowest risk). During the period, 388 287 passengers were destined for 1297 airports in 168 countries or territories across the world. The risk index of 2019-nCoV among the countries had a very high correlation with the WHO-reported confirmed cases (0.97). According to our risk score classification, of the countries that reported at least one Coronavirus-infected pneumonia (COVID-19) case as of 5 February 2020, 24 countries were in the 4th quantile of the risk index, two in the 3rd quantile, one in the 2nd quantile and none in the 1st quantile. Outside China, countries with a higher risk of 2019-nCoV transmission are Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Canada and the USA, all of which reported at least one case. In pan-Europe, UK, France, Russia, Germany and Italy; in North America, USA and Canada; in Oceania, Australia had high risk, all of them reported at least one case. In Africa and South America, the risk of transmission is very low with Ethiopia, South Africa, Egypt, Mauritius and Brazil showing a similar risk of transmission compared to the risk of any of the countries where at least one case is detected. The risk of transmission on 31 January 2020 was very high in neighbouring Asian countries, followed by Europe (UK, France, Russia and Germany), Oceania (Australia) and North America (USA and Canada). Increased public health response including early case recognition, isolation of identified case, contract tracing and targeted airport screening, public awareness and vigilance of health workers will help mitigate the force of further spread to naïve countries.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000424

RECORD 251
TITLE
  Active Monitoring of Persons Exposed to Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 – United States, January-February 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Burke R.M.;  Midgley C.M.;  Dratch A.;  Fenstersheib M.;  Haupt T.;  Holshue M.;  Ghinai I.;  Jarashow M.C.;  Lo J.;  McPherson T.D.;  Rudman S.;  Scott S.;  Hall A.J.;  Fry A.M.;  Rolfes M.A.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:9 (245-246). Date of Publication: 6 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, began in Wuhan, China (1). The disease spread widely in China, and, as of February 26, 2020, COVID-19 cases had been identified in 36 other countries and territories, including the United States. Person-to-person transmission has been widely documented, and a limited number of countries have reported sustained person-to-person spread.* On January 20, state and local health departments in the United States, in collaboration with teams deployed from CDC, began identifying and monitoring all persons considered to have had close contact† with patients with confirmed COVID-19 (2). The aims of these efforts were to ensure rapid evaluation and care of patients, limit further transmission, and better understand risk factors for transmission.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6909e1

RECORD 252
TITLE
  The preliminary analysis on the characteristics of the cluster for the Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang H.Y.;  Xu J.;  Li Y.;  Liang X.;  Jin Y.F.;  Chen S.Y.;  Zhang R.G.;  Zhang W.D.;  Duan G.C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41 (623-628). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a new emerging infection disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread in 27 countries and regions. The clusters of many cases were reported with the epidemic progresses. We collected currently available information for 377 COVID-19 clusters (1 719 cases), excluded the hospital clusters and Hubei cases, during the period from January 1, 2020 to February 20, 2020. There were 297 family clusters (79%), case median 4; 39 clusters of dining (10%), case median 5; 23 clusters of shopping malls or supermarkets (6%), case median 13; 12 clusters of work units (3%), case median 6, and 6 clusters of transportation. We selected 325 cases to estimate the incubation period and found its range is 1 to 20 days, median was 7 days, and mode was 4 days. The analysis of the epidemic situation in a department store in China indicates that there is a possibility of patients as the source of infection during the incubation period of the epidemic. From February 5, 2020 to February 21, 2020, 634 persons were infected in the Diamond Princess Liner. All persons are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. The older, patients during the incubation period and the worse environment may be the cause of the cases rising. The progress of the two typical outbreaks clearly demonstrates the spread of the early cases in Wuhan. Whatever happens, screening and isolating close contacts remains essential except for clinical treatment during the epidemic. Especially for the healthy people in the epidemic area, isolation is the key.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200223-00153

RECORD 253
TITLE
  Screening and management of asymptomatic infection of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Hu Z.B.;  Ci C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E025). Date of Publication: 8 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  To date, the controlling of outbreak of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered into a critical period in China. Recently, work resumption and public place is planning to open outside of Hubei, suggesting an uncertain and complex development of the epidemic in the next stage. Few days ago, we conducted a study on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of asymptomatic infections of COVID-19, and found them might be the infection source. We believe that the findings are critical for developing public health intervention strategies for controlling COVID-19 infection in the future. Screening among the high-risk population and improving the sensitivity of measurement may contribute to the detection and management of asymptomatic infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200229-00220

RECORD 254
TITLE
  Statement in support of the scientists, public health professionals, and medical professionals of China combatting COVID-19
AUTHOR NAMES
  Calisher C.;  Carroll D.;  Colwell R.;  Corley R.B.;  Daszak P.;  Drosten C.;  Enjuanes L.;  Farrar J.;  Field H.;  Golding J.;  Gorbalenya A.;  Haagmans B.;  Hughes J.M.;  Karesh W.B.;  Keusch G.T.;  Lam S.K.;  Lubroth J.;  Mackenzie J.S.;  Madoff L.;  Mazet J.;  Palese P.;  Perlman S.;  Poon L.;  Roizman B.;  Saif L.;  Subbarao K.;  Turner M.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10226 (e42-e43). Date of Publication: 7 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30418-9

RECORD 255
TITLE
  Transmission potential of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) onboard the diamond Princess Cruises Ship, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Mizumoto K.;  Chowell G.
SOURCE
  Infectious Disease Modelling (2020) 5 (264-270). Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of COVID-19 developed aboard the Princess Cruises Ship during January–February 2020. Using mathematical modeling and time-series incidence data describing the trajectory of the outbreak among passengers and crew members, we characterize how the transmission potential varied over the course of the outbreak. Our estimate of the mean reproduction number in the confined setting reached values as high as ~11, which is higher than mean estimates reported from community-level transmission dynamics in China and Singapore (approximate range: 1.1–7). Our findings suggest that Rt decreased substantially compared to values during the early phase after the Japanese government implemented an enhanced quarantine control. Most recent estimates of Rt reached values largely below the epidemic threshold, indicating that a secondary outbreak of the novel coronavirus was unlikely to occur aboard the Diamond Princess Ship.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.02.003

RECORD 256
TITLE
  Estimation of the reproductive number of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and the probable outbreak size on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: A data-driven analysis
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhang S.;  Diao M.;  Yu W.;  Pei L.;  Lin Z.;  Chen D.
SOURCE
  International Journal of Infectious Diseases (2020) 93 (201-204). Date of Publication: 1 Apr 2020
ABSTRACT
  Backgrounds: Up to February 16, 2020, 355 cases have been confirmed as having COVID-19 infection on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. It is of crucial importance to estimate the reproductive number (R0) of the novel virus in the early stage of outbreak and make a prediction of daily new cases on the ship. Method: We fitted the reported serial interval (mean and standard deviation) with a gamma distribution and applied “earlyR” package in R to estimate the R0 in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak. We applied “projections” package in R to simulate the plausible cumulative epidemic trajectories and future daily incidence by fitting the data of existing daily incidence, a serial interval distribution, and the estimated R0 into a model based on the assumption that daily incidence obeys approximately Poisson distribution determined by daily infectiousness. Results: The Maximum-Likelihood (ML) value of R0 was 2.28 for COVID-19 outbreak at the early stage on the ship. The median with 95% confidence interval (CI) of R0 values was 2.28 (2.06–2.52) estimated by the bootstrap resampling method. The probable number of new cases for the next ten days would gradually increase, and the estimated cumulative cases would reach 1514 (1384–1656) at the tenth day in the future. However, if R0 value was reduced by 25% and 50%, the estimated total number of cumulative cases would be reduced to 1081 (981–1177) and 758 (697–817), respectively. Conclusion: The median with 95% CI of R0 of COVID-19 was about 2.28 (2.06–2.52) during the early stage experienced on the Diamond Princess cruise ship. The future daily incidence and probable outbreak size is largely dependent on the change of R0. Unless strict infection management and control are taken, our findings indicate the potential of COVID-19 to cause greater outbreak on the ship.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.02.033

RECORD 257
TITLE
  COVID-19 in Latin America: The implications of the first confirmed case in Brazil
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rodriguez-Morales A.J.;  Gallego V.;  Escalera-Antezana J.P.;  Méndez C.A.;  Zambrano L.I.;  Franco-Paredes C.;  Suárez J.A.;  Rodriguez-Enciso H.D.;  Balbin-Ramon G.J.;  Savio-Larriera E.;  Risquez A.;  Cimerman S.
SOURCE
  Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease (2020) Article Number: 101613. Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101613

RECORD 258
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A critical care perspective beyond China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rello J.;  Tejada S.;  Userovici C.;  Arvaniti K.;  Pugin J.;  Waterer G.
SOURCE
  Anaesthesia Critical Care and Pain Medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2020.03.001

RECORD 259
TITLE
  Epidemic trend of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mainland China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu Z.B.;  Zhong C.K.;  Zhang K.X.;  Dong C.;  Peng H.;  Xu T.;  Wang A.L.;  Guo Z.R.;  Zhang Y.H.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E022). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: In order to master the epidemic trend of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluate the effect of prevention and control, we evaluate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 in mainland China, Hubei province, Wuhan city and other provinces outside Hubei from January 16 to February 14, 2020. Methods: We collected the daily number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases by nucleic acid detection reported by the National Health Commission from January 16, 2020 to February 14, 2020. The analysis includes the epidemic curve of the new confirmed cases, multiple of the new confirmed cases for period-over-period, multiple of the new confirmed cases for fixed-base, and the period-over-period growth rate of the new confirmed cases. Results: From January 16 to February 14, 2020, the cumulative number of new confirmed cases of COVID-19 in mainland China was 50 031, including 37 930 in Hubei province, 22 883 in Wuhan city and 12 101 in other provinces outside Hubei. The peak of the number of new confirmed cases in other provinces outside Hubei was from January 31 to February 4, 2020, and the peak of new confirmed cases in Wuhan city and Hubei province was from February 5 to February 9, 2020. The number of new confirmed cases in other provinces outside Hubei showed a significant decline (23% compared with the peak) from February 5 to February 9, 2020, while the number of new confirmed cases in Wuhan city (30% compared with the peak) and Hubei Province (37% compared with the peak) decreased significantly from February 10 to February 14, 2020. Conclusion: The epidemic prevention and control measures taken by the state and governments at all levels have shown very significant effects, effectively curbing the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic in China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200222-00163

RECORD 260
TITLE
  Déjà Vu or Jamais Vu? How the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Experience Influenced a Singapore Radiology Department’s Response to the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng L.T.-E.;  Chan L.P.;  Tan B.H.;  Chen R.C.;  Tay K.H.;  Ling M.L.;  Tan B.S.
SOURCE
  AJR. American journal of roentgenology (2020) (1-5). Date of Publication: 4 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVE. This article shares the ground operational perspective of how a tertiary hospital radiology department in Singapore is responding to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic. This same department was also deeply impacted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. CONCLUSION. Though similar to SARS, the COVID-19 outbreak has several differences. We share how lessons from 2003 are applied and modified in our ongoing operational response to this evolving novel pathogen.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.22927

RECORD 261
TITLE
  The differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhu W.J.;  Wang J.;  He X.H.;  Qin Y.;  Yang S.;  Hu X.S.;  Wang H.Y.;  Huang J.;  Zhou A.P.;  Ma F.;  Shi Y.K.;  Zhou S.Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology] (2020) 42 (E008). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized as GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man diagnosed as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection and without fever and other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed as viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applicated in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112152-20200303-00166

RECORD 262
TITLE
  Investigation and analysis on characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 associated with exposure in a department store in Tianjin
AUTHOR NAMES
  Wu W.S.;  Li Y.G.;  Wei Z.F.;  Zhou P.H.;  Lyu L.K.;  Zhang G.P.;  Zhao Y.;  He H.Y.;  Li X.Y.;  Gao L.;  Zhang X.M.;  Liu H.;  Zhou N.;  Guo Y.;  Zhang X.M.;  Zhang D.;  Liu J.;  Zhang Y.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (489-493). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of a cluster of COVID-19 cases reported in Baodi district of Tianjin as of 18 February, 2020, which might be associated with the exposure in a local department store, and provide suggestions for prevention and control strategy development. Methods: The basic characteristics, time and area distributions, clinical manifestations, epidemiological history and transmission mode of the COVID-19 cases associated with the department store exposure were analyzed. Results: A total of 40 COVID-19 cases were associated with the department store exposure, accounting for 75.47% of the total confirmed cases (53 cases) reported in Baodi district. The cases were mainly at the age of 60 years or older (35.00%) and farmers (40.00%). The main clinical manifestations included fever (95.00%), cough (35.00%), and diarrhea (15.00%). The proportion of confirmed severe cases was 32.50%. The incidence curve showed that the incidence peak occurred on 31 January, 2020. Among the 40 cases, 6(15.00%) were department store employees, 19(47.50%) were customers and 15(37.50%) were close contacts (secondary cases). The first case occurred on 21 January, 2020, this case was a department store employee who had a purchasing history at whole sale markets in other provinces and cities before the onset, and 3 employees were still on duty after symptom onsets. The median of the incubation period of customer cases was 6 days, and the median of the interval between onset and medical treatment of customer cases was 7 days. Conclusion: This was a cluster epidemic of COVID-19, which might be associated with the exposure in the department store. By now, the current prevention and control measures have achieved satisfied effects.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200221-00139

RECORD 263
TITLE
  Potential false-positive rate among the ‘asymptomatic infected individuals’ in close contacts of COVID-19 patients
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zhuang G.H.;  Shen M.W.;  Zeng L.X.;  Mi B.B.;  Chen F.Y.;  Liu W.J.;  Pei L.L.;  Qi X.;  Li C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:4 (485-488). Date of Publication: 5 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: As the prevention and control of COVID-19continues to advance, the active nucleic acid test screening in the close contacts of the patients has been carrying out in many parts of China. However, the false-positive rate of positive results in the screening has not been reported up to now. But to clearify the false-positive rate during screening is important in COVID-19 control and prevention. Methods: Point values and reasonable ranges of the indicators which impact the false-positive rate of positive results were estimated based on the information available to us at present. The false-positive rate of positive results in the active screening was deduced, and univariate and multivariate-probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to understand the robustness of the findings. Results: When the infection rate of the close contacts and the sensitivity and specificity of reported results were taken as the point estimates, the positive predictive value of the active screening was only 19.67%, in contrast, the false-positive rate of positive results was 80.33%. The multivariate-probabilistic sensitivity analysis results supported the base-case findings, with a 75% probability for the false-positive rate of positive results over 47%. Conclusions: In the close contacts of COVID-19 patients, nearly half or even more of the ‘asymptomatic infected individuals’ reported in the active nucleic acid test screening might be false positives.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200221-00144

RECORD 264
TITLE
  Understanding of COVID-19 based on current evidence
AUTHOR NAMES
  Sun P.;  Lu X.;  Xu C.;  Sun W.;  Pan B.
SOURCE
  Journal of Medical Virology (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, a series of unexplained pneumonia cases have been reported in Wuhan, China. On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) temporarily named this new virus as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). On 11 February 2020, the WHO officially named the disease caused by the 2019-nCoV as coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The COVID-19 epidemic is spreading all over the world, especially in China. Based on the published evidence, we systematically discuss the characteristics of COVID-19 in the hope of providing a reference for future studies and help for the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25722

RECORD 265
TITLE
  The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang Y.;  Peng F.;  Wang R.;  Guan K.;  Jiang T.;  Xu G.;  Sun J.;  Chang C.
SOURCE
  Journal of Autoimmunity (2020) Article Number: 102434. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and is the cause of the disease named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002–2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434

RECORD 266
TITLE
  The pandemic of social media panic travels faster than the COVID-19 outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Depoux A.;  Martin S.;  Karafillakis E.;  Bsd R.P.;  Wilder-Smith A.;  Larson H.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa031

RECORD 267
TITLE
  Analysis on the epidemic factors for the Corona Virus Disease
AUTHOR NAMES
  Yang H.Y.;  Duan G.C.
SOURCE
  Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] (2020) 54 (E021). Date of Publication: 3 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Since December 2019, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , an emerging infection disease occurred in Wuhan, has spread in the mainland China. The epidemic factors on the basis of knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 were discussed in this paper. This puts a lot of pressure on clinical resources and care. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel corona virus, the onset of COVID-19 is slow, and the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 remains unclear and may lead to multiple organ damage. These put a lot of pressure on clinical resources and care. Source of infection including the patients, asymptomatic carrier and patients in the incubation period are contagious. It is difficult to control source of infection. Routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission are diversified and the main routes of transmission for COVID-19 are droplet transmission and close contact transmission. All population have susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2. Social factors such population movements and aggregation accelerated the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The Chinese government’s adopted measures are positive and effective, and are accepted by the expert group from the World Health Organization. However, it will be a long-term hard work in the future to seriously summarize and think deeply to achieve public health security in China.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200227-00196

RECORD 268
TITLE
  The COVID-19 epidemic
AUTHOR NAMES
  Velavan T.P.;  Meyer C.G.
SOURCE
  Tropical Medicine and International Health (2020) 25:3 (278-280). Date of Publication: 1 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13383

RECORD 269
TITLE
  Update: Public Health Response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak – United States, February 24, 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Jernigan D.B.
SOURCE
  MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (2020) 69:8 (216-219). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December 2019, and has spread throughout China and to 31 other countries and territories, including the United States (1). As of February 23, 2020, there were 76,936 reported cases in mainland China and 1,875 cases in locations outside mainland China (1). There have been 2,462 associated deaths worldwide; no deaths have been reported in the United States. Fourteen cases have been diagnosed in the United States, and an additional 39 cases have occurred among repatriated persons from high-risk settings, for a current total of 53 cases within the United States. This report summarizes the aggressive measures (2,3) that CDC, state and local health departments, multiple other federal agencies, and other partners are implementing to slow and try to contain transmission of COVID-19 in the United States. These measures require the identification of cases and contacts of persons with COVID-19 in the United States and the recommended assessment, monitoring, and care of travelers arriving from areas with substantial COVID-19 transmission. Although these measures might not prevent widespread transmission of the virus in the United States, they are being implemented to 1) slow the spread of illness; 2) provide time to better prepare state and local health departments, health care systems, businesses, educational organizations, and the general public in the event that widespread transmission occurs; and 3) better characterize COVID-19 to guide public health recommendations and the development and deployment of medical countermeasures, including diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. U.S. public health authorities are monitoring the situation closely, and CDC is coordinating efforts with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other global partners. Interim guidance is available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/index.html. As more is learned about this novel virus and this outbreak, CDC will rapidly incorporate new knowledge into guidance for action by CDC, state and local health departments, health care providers, and communities.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6908e1

RECORD 270
TITLE
  COVID-19 outbreak on the Diamond Princess cruise ship: estimating the epidemic potential and effectiveness of public health countermeasures
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rocklöv J.;  Sjödin H.;  Wilder-Smith A.
SOURCE
  Journal of travel medicine (2020). Date of Publication: 28 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  BACKGROUND: Cruise ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces with relative homogeneous mixing. On 3 February, 2020, an outbreak of COVID-19 on cruise ship Diamond Princess was reported with 10 initial cases, following an index case on board around 21-25 January. By 4 February, public health measures such as removal and isolation of ill passengers and quarantine of non-ill passengers were implemented. By 20 February, 619 of 3,700 passengers and crew (17%) were tested positive. METHODS: We estimated the basic reproduction number from the initial period of the outbreak using (SEIR) models. We calibrated the models with transient functions of countermeasures to incidence data. We additionally estimated a counterfactual scenario in absence of countermeasures, and established a model stratified by crew and guests to study the impact of differential contact rates among the groups. We also compared scenarios of an earlier versus later evacuation of the ship. RESULTS: The basic reproduction rate was initially 4 times higher on-board compared to the ${R}_0$ in the epicentre in Wuhan, but the countermeasures lowered it substantially. Based on the modeled initial ${R}_0$ of 14.8, we estimated that without any interventions within the time period of 21 January to 19 February, 2920 out of the 3700 (79%) would have been infected. Isolation and quarantine therefore prevented 2307 cases, and lowered the ${R}_0$ to 1.78. We showed that an early evacuation of all passengers on 3 February would have been associated with 76 infected persons in their incubation time. CONCLUSIONS: The cruise ship conditions clearly amplified an already highly transmissible disease. The public health measures prevented more than 2000 additional cases compared to no interventions. However, evacuating all passengers and crew early on in the outbreak would have prevented many more passengers and crew from infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa030

RECORD 271
TITLE
  A novel approach of consultation on 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19)-related psychological and mental problems: Structured letter therapy
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiao C.
SOURCE
  Psychiatry Investigation (2020) 17:2 (175-176). Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0047

RECORD 272
TITLE
  Timely research papers about COVID-19 in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Xiang Y.-T.;  Li W.;  Zhang Q.;  Jin Y.;  Rao W.-W.;  Zeng L.-N.;  Lok G.K.I.;  Chow I.H.I.;  Cheung T.;  Hall B.J.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10225 (684-685). Date of Publication: 29 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30375-5

RECORD 273
TITLE
  The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak
AUTHOR NAMES
  Rothan H.A.;  Byrareddy S.N.
SOURCE
  Journal of Autoimmunity (2020) Article Number: 102433. Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433

RECORD 274
TITLE
  Assessing the impact of reduced travel on exportation dynamics of novel coronavirus infection (Covid-19)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Anzai A.;  Kobayashi T.;  Linton N.M.;  Kinoshita R.;  Hayashi K.;  Suzuki A.;  Yang Y.;  Jung S.-M.;  Miyama T.;  Akhmetzhanov A.R.;  Nishiura H.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 601. Date of Publication: 2 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  The impact of the drastic reduction in travel volume within mainland China in January and February 2020 was quantified with respect to reports of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections outside China. Data on confirmed cases diagnosed outside China were analyzed using statistical models to estimate the impact of travel reduction on three epidemiological outcome measures: (i) the number of exported cases, (ii) the probability of a major epidemic, and (iii) the time delay to a major epidemic. From 28 January to 7 February 2020, we estimated that 226 exported cases (95% confidence interval: 86,449) were prevented, corresponding to a 70.4% reduction in incidence compared to the counterfactual scenario. The reduced probability of a major epidemic ranged from 7% to 20% in Japan, which resulted in a median time delay to a major epidemic of two days. Depending on the scenario, the estimated delay may be less than one day. As the delay is small, the decision to control travel volume through restrictions on freedom of movement should be balanced between the resulting estimated epidemiological impact and predicted economic fallout.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020601

RECORD 275
TITLE
  COVID-19: what is next for public health?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Heymann D.L.;  Shindo N.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10224 (542-545). Date of Publication: 22 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30374-3

RECORD 276
TITLE
  The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned?
AUTHOR NAMES
  Peeri N.C.;  Shrestha N.;  Rahman M.S.;  Zaki R.;  Tan Z.;  Bibi S.;  Baghbanzadeh M.;  Aghamohammadi N.;  Zhang W.;  Haque U.
SOURCE
  International journal of epidemiology (2020). Date of Publication: 22 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the three major deadly coronaviruses and identify areas for improvement of future preparedness plans, as well as provide a critical assessment of the risk factors and actionable items for stopping their spread, utilizing lessons learned from the first two deadly coronavirus outbreaks, as well as initial reports from the current novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China. METHODS: Utilizing the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, USA) website, and a comprehensive review of PubMed literature, we obtained information regarding clinical signs and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis, transmission methods, protection methods and risk factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. Comparisons between the viruses were made. RESULTS: Inadequate risk assessment regarding the urgency of the situation, and limited reporting on the virus within China has, in part, led to the rapid spread of COVID-19 throughout mainland China and into proximal and distant countries. Compared with SARS and MERS, COVID-19 has spread more rapidly, due in part to increased globalization and the focus of the epidemic. Wuhan, China is a large hub connecting the North, South, East and West of China via railways and a major international airport. The availability of connecting flights, the timing of the outbreak during the Chinese (Lunar) New Year, and the massive rail transit hub located in Wuhan has enabled the virus to perforate throughout China, and eventually, globally. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we did not learn from the two prior epidemics of coronavirus and were ill-prepared to deal with the challenges the COVID-19 epidemic has posed. Future research should attempt to address the uses and implications of internet of things (IoT) technologies for mapping the spread of infection.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa033

RECORD 277
TITLE
  Characteristics of and public health responses to the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Deng S.-Q.;  Peng H.-J.
SOURCE
  Journal of Clinical Medicine (2020) 9:2 Article Number: 575. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, cases of unidentified pneumonia with a history of exposure in the Huanan Seafood Market were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province. A novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified to be accountable for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is confirmed, and this disease (named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO)) spread rapidly around the country and the world. As of 18 February 2020, the number of confirmed cases had reached 75,199 with 2009 fatalities. The COVID-19 resulted in a much lower case-fatality rate (about 2.67%) among the confirmed cases, compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Among the symptom composition of the 45 fatality cases collected from the released official reports, the top four are fever, cough, short of breath, and chest tightness/pain. The major comorbidities of the fatality cases include hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, and chronic bronchitis. The source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease are still unconfirmed. No specific therapeutic drug has been found. The Chinese Government has initiated a level-1 public health response to prevent the spread of the disease. Meanwhile, it is also crucial to speed up the development of vaccines and drugs for treatment, which will enable us to defeat COVID-19 as soon as possible.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020575

RECORD 278
TITLE
  Preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against importations of COVID-19: a modelling study
AUTHOR NAMES
  Gilbert M.;  Pullano G.;  Pinotti F.;  Valdano E.;  Poletto C.;  Boëlle P.-Y.;  D’Ortenzio E.;  Yazdanpanah Y.;  Eholie S.P.;  Altmann M.;  Gutierrez B.;  Kraemer M.U.G.;  Colizza V.
SOURCE
  The Lancet (2020) 395:10227 (871-877). Date of Publication: 14 Mar 2020
ABSTRACT
  Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has spread from China to 25 countries. Local cycles of transmission have already occurred in 12 countries after case importation. In Africa, Egypt has so far confirmed one case. The management and control of COVID-19 importations heavily rely on a country’s health capacity. Here we evaluate the preparedness and vulnerability of African countries against their risk of importation of COVID-19. Methods: We used data on the volume of air travel departing from airports in the infected provinces in China and directed to Africa to estimate the risk of importation per country. We determined the country’s capacity to detect and respond to cases with two indicators: preparedness, using the WHO International Health Regulations Monitoring and Evaluation Framework; and vulnerability, using the Infectious Disease Vulnerability Index. Countries were clustered according to the Chinese regions contributing most to their risk. Findings: Countries with the highest importation risk (ie, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa) have moderate to high capacity to respond to outbreaks. Countries at moderate risk (ie, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Sudan, Angola, Tanzania, Ghana, and Kenya) have variable capacity and high vulnerability. We identified three clusters of countries that share the same exposure to the risk originating from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and the city of Beijing, respectively. Interpretation: Many countries in Africa are stepping up their preparedness to detect and cope with COVID-19 importations. Resources, intensified surveillance, and capacity building should be urgently prioritised in countries with moderate risk that might be ill-prepared to detect imported cases and to limit onward transmission. Funding: EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020, Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30411-6

RECORD 279
TITLE
  Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Zu Z.Y.;  Jiang M.D.;  Xu P.P.;  Chen W.;  Ni Q.Q.;  Lu G.M.;  Zhang L.J.
SOURCE
  Radiology (2020) (200490). Date of Publication: 21 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China and spread across China and beyond. On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since most COVID-19 infected patients were diagnosed with pneumonia and characteristic CT imaging patterns, radiological examinations have become vital in early diagnosis and assessment of disease course. To date, CT findings have been recommended as major evidence for clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 in Hubei, China. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms of COVID-19, while highlighting the role of chest CT in prevention and disease control. A full translation of this article in Chinese is available.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200490

RECORD 280
TITLE
  2019 Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know
AUTHOR NAMES
  Cheng Z.J.;  Shan J.
SOURCE
  Infection (2020). Date of Publication: 2020
ABSTRACT
  There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y

RECORD 281
TITLE
  Cluster investigation Technical Guidelines for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19), China (1st Trial Version)
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:3 (293-295). Date of Publication: 16 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.03.001

RECORD 282
TITLE
  The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:2 (145-151). Date of Publication: 17 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Objective: An outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China has spread quickly nationwide. Here, we report results of a descriptive, exploratory analysis of all cases diagnosed as of February 11, 2020. Methods: All COVID-19 cases reported through February 11, 2020 were extracted from China’s Infectious Disease Information System. Analyses included: 1) summary of patient characteristics; 2) examination of age distributions and sex ratios; 3) calculation of case fatality and mortality rates; 4) geo-temporal analysis of viral spread; 5) epidemiological curve construction; and 6) subgroup analysis. Results: A total of 72 314 patient records-44 672 (61.8%) confirmed cases, 16 186 (22.4%) suspected cases, 10567 (14.6%) clinical diagnosed cases (Hubei only), and 889 asymptomatic cases (1.2%)-contributed data for the analysis. Among confirmed cases, most were aged 30-79 years (86.6%), diagnosed in Hubei (74.7%), and considered mild (80.9%). A total of 1 023 deaths occurred among confirmed cases for an overall case-fatality rate of 2.3%. The COVID-19 spread outward from Hubei sometime after December 2019 and by February 11, 2020, 1 386 counties across all 31 provinces were affected. The epidemic curve of onset of symptoms peaked in January 23-26, then began to decline leading up to February 11. A total of 1 716 health workers have become infected and 5 have died (0.3%). Conclusions: The COVID-19 epidemic has spread very quickly. It only took 30 days to expand from Hubei to the rest of Mainland China. With many people returning from a long holiday, China needs to prepare for the possible rebound of the epidemic.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003

RECORD 283
TITLE
  Cluster investigation Technical Guidelines for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19), China (1st Trial Version)
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:3 (293-295). Date of Publication: 19 Feb 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.0006

RECORD 284
TITLE
  Defining the Epidemiology of Covid-19 – Studies Needed
AUTHOR NAMES
  Lipsitch M.;  Swerdlow D.L.;  Finelli L.
SOURCE
  The New England journal of medicine (2020) 382:13 (1194-1196). Date of Publication: 26 Mar 2020
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2002125

RECORD 285
TITLE
  An update on the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumoniaCOVID-19
SOURCE
  Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi (2020) 41:2 (139-144). Date of Publication: 14 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  Through literature review and group discussion, Special Expert Group for Control of the Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia of the Chinese Preventive Medicine Association formulated an update on the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). The initial source of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, with pangolins as a potential animal host. Currently the main source of infection is NCP patients, and asymptomatic carriers may also be infectious. The virus is believed transmitted mostly via droplets or contact. People are all generally susceptible to the virus. The average incubation period was 5.2 days, and the basic reproductive number R(0) was 2.2 at the onset of the outbreak. Most NCP patients were clinically mild cases. The case fatality rate was 2.38%, and elderly men with underlying diseases were at a higher risk of death. Strategies for prevention and control of NCP include improving epidemic surveillance, quarantining the source of infection, speeding up the diagnosis of suspected cases, optimizing the management of close contacts, tightening prevention and control of cluster outbreaks and hospital infection, preventing possible rebound of the epidemic after people return to work from the Chinese Spring Festival holiday, and strengthening community prevention and control.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.002

RECORD 286
TITLE
  Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
AUTHOR NAMES
  Quilty B.J.;  Clifford S.;  Flasche S.;  Eggo R.M.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:5. Date of Publication: 1 Feb 2020
ABSTRACT
  We evaluated effectiveness of thermal passenger screening for 2019-nCoV infection at airport exit and entry to inform public health decision-making. In our baseline scenario, we estimated that 46% (95% confidence interval: 36 to 58) of infected travellers would not be detected, depending on incubation period, sensitivity of exit and entry screening, and proportion of asymptomatic cases. Airport screening is unlikely to detect a sufficient proportion of 2019-nCoV infected travellers to avoid entry of infected travellers.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000080

RECORD 287
TITLE
  Risk for Transportation of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Disease from Wuhan to Other Cities in China
AUTHOR NAMES
  Du Z.;  Wang L.;  Cauchemez S.;  Xu X.;  Wang X.;  Cowling B.J.;  Meyers L.A.
SOURCE
  Emerging infectious diseases (2020) 26:5. Date of Publication: 17 May 2020
ABSTRACT
  On January 23, 2020, China quarantined Wuhan to contain 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We estimated the probability of transportation of COVID-19 from Wuhan to 369 other cities in China before the quarantine. Expected COVID-19 risk is >50% in 130 (95% CI 89-190) cities and >99% in the 4 largest metropolitan areas.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2605.200146

RECORD 288
TITLE
  Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) early-stage importation risk to Europe, January 2020
AUTHOR NAMES
  Pullano G.;  Pinotti F.;  Valdano E.;  Boëlle P.-Y.;  Poletto C.;  Colizza V.
SOURCE
  Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2020) 25:4. Date of Publication: 1 Jan 2020
ABSTRACT
  As at 27 January 2020, 42 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) cases were confirmed outside China. We estimate the risk of case importation to Europe from affected areas in China via air travel. We consider travel restrictions in place, three reported cases in France, one in Germany. Estimated risk in Europe remains high. The United Kingdom, Germany and France are at highest risk. Importation from Beijing and Shanghai would lead to higher and widespread risk for Europe.
FULL TEXT LINK
http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000057